GHG emissions refer to the sum of gross direct emissions of six major GHG (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, HFCs, PFCs, SF6), expressed in CO2 equivalents. Emissions and removals from land use change and forestry are not included.
CO2 emissions refer to gross direct emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, i.e. from burning oil, coal and natural gas for energy use. Human-caused emissions from other sources are not included. Intensities are expressed as tonnes of CO2 emitted per unit of GDP.
Total emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from human activities, given as quantities of SO2 and NO2. The indicators show emission trends compared to GDP trends as well as emission intensities per unit of GDP.
Municipal waste is waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities. It includes household waste originating from households (i.e. waste generated by the domestic activity of households) and similar waste from small commercial activities, office buildings, institutions, and small businesses that treat or dispose of waste at the same facilities used for municipally collected waste.
"Threatened species" refers to the "endangered", "critically endangered" and "vulnerable" species, i.e. species in danger of extinction and species soon likely to be in danger of extinction. The number of threatened species is compared to the number of known or assessed species.
Vascular plants (also known as tracheophytes or higher plants) are those plants that have lignified tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. Vascular plants include the ferns, clubmosses, flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms.
The indicator presented here refers to sewage treatment connection rates, i.e. the percentage of the national population connected to a waste water treatment plant.
The intensity of use of freshwater resources (or water stress) refers to gross abstractions of freshwater taken from ground or surface waters per capita expressed in % of total available renewable freshwater resources (including water inflows from neighboring countries)
Freshwater abstractions for public supply are expressed as cubic meters per capita per year.
Energy intensity refers to total primary energy supply (TPES) per unit of GDP.
The share of fossil fuels in total primary energy supply.
Environmentally related taxes include taxes on energy products, motor vehicles and transport, waste management, ozone-depleting substances and others. They are expressed as environmentally related tax revenues in % of GDP and as % of total tax revenues.