Climate Change Click here for additional information
GHG emission trends
GHG emissions refer to the sum of gross direct emissions of six major GHG (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, HFCs, PFCs, SF6), expressed in CO2 equivalents. Emissions and removals from land use change and forestry are not included.
CO2 emission intensities per unit of GDP
CO2 emissions refer to gross direct emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, i.e. from burning oil, coal and natural gas for energy use. Human-caused emissions from other sources are not included. Intensities are expressed as tonnes of CO2 emitted per unit of GDP.
Air Quality Click here for additional information
SOx emission trends
Total emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from human activities, given as quantities of SO2 and NO2. The indicators show emission trends compared to GDP trends as well as emission intensities per unit of GDP.
NOx emission trends
SOx intensities per unit of GDP
NOx intensities per unit of GDP
Waste Generation Click here for additional information
Municipal waste generation trends
Municipal waste is waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities. It includes household waste originating from households (i.e. waste generated by the domestic activity of households) and similar waste from small commercial activities, office buildings, institutions, and small businesses that treat or dispose of waste at the same facilities used for municipally collected waste.
Municipal waste per capita
Municipal waste recovery rates
Biodiversity Click here for additional information
Threatened species: Mammals
"Threatened species" refers to the "endangered", "critically endangered" and "vulnerable" species, i.e. species in danger of extinction and species soon likely to be in danger of extinction. The number of threatened species is compared to the number of known or assessed species.
Threatened species: Birds
Threatened species: Vascular
Vascular plants (also known as tracheophytes or higher plants) are those plants that have lignified tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. Vascular plants include the ferns, clubmosses, flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms.
Water Quality Click here for additional information
Population connected to a sewage treatment plant
The indicator presented here refers to sewage treatment connection rates, i.e. the percentage of the national population connected to a waste water treatment plant.
Water Resource Click here for additional information
Freshwater abstractions compared to available freshwater resources
The intensity of use of freshwater resources (or water stress) refers to gross abstractions of freshwater taken from ground or surface waters per capita expressed in % of total available renewable freshwater resources (including water inflows from neighboring countries)
Freshwater abstractions for public supply per capita
Freshwater abstractions for public supply are expressed as cubic meters per capita per year.
Forest Resources Click here for additional information
Intensity of use of forest resources.
This indicator relates actual fellings to annual productive capacity (i.e. gross increment).
This indicator refers to forest area as percentage of land area
Energy Resources Click here for additional information
Energy intensity refers to total primary energy supply (TPES) per unit of GDP.
Share of fossil fuels
The share of fossil fuels in total primary energy supply.
Environmentally Related Taxes Click here for additional information
Share in GDP
Environmentally related taxes include taxes on energy products, motor vehicles and transport, waste management, ozone-depleting substances and others. They are expressed as environmentally related tax revenues in % of GDP and as % of total tax revenues.