Climate Climate Change Click here for additional information

GHG emission trends

Definition

GHG emissions refer to the sum of gross direct emissions of six major GHG (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, HFCs, PFCs, SF6), expressed in CO2 equivalents. Emissions and removals from land use change and forestry are not included.

Data sources: OECD data on greenhouse gas emissions, OECD IEA, National Inventory Submissions to UNFCCC.

Read more on the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol

CO2 emission intensities per unit of GDP

Definition

Data refer to 2011. CO2 emissions refer to gross direct emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, i.e. from burning oil, coal and natural gas for energy use. Human-caused emissions from other sources are not included. Intensities are expressed as tonnes of CO2 emitted per unit of GDP.

Climate Air Quality Click here for additional information

SOx emission trends

Definition

Total emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from human activities, given as quantities of SO2 and NO2. The indicators show emission trends compared to GDP trends as well as emission intensities per unit of GDP.

Data sources: OECD data on emissions of air pollutants, National Inventory Submissions to the UNECE-EMEP LRTAP Convention and to UNFCCC.

NOx emission trends

SOx intensities per unit of GDP

Definition

Data refer to 2012 or latest year available. Data prior to 2008 were not taken into account.

NOx intensities per unit of GDP

Definition

Data refer to 2012 or latest year available. Data prior to 2008 were not taken into account.

Climate Waste Generation Click here for additional information

Municipal waste generation trends

Definition

Municipal waste is waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities. It includes household waste originating from households (i.e. waste generated by the domestic activity of households) and similar waste from small commercial activities, office buildings, institutions and small businesses treated or disposed at the same facilities used for municipally collected waste.

Data source: OECD data on municipal waste.

Municipal waste per capita

Definition

Data refer to 2012 or latest year available. Data prior to 2008 were not taken into account.

Municipal waste recovery rates

Definition

Data refer to 2012 or latest year available. Data prior to 2008 were not taken into account. Municipal waste recovery rate refers to the sum of recycling, composting and incineration with energy recovery operations as percentage of municipal waste treated.

Climate Biodiversity Click here for additional information

Threatened species: Mammals

Definition

Data refer to last year available.

Threatened species refers to the endangered, critically endangered and vulnerable species, i.e. species in danger of extinction and species soon likely to be in danger of extinction. The number of threatened species is compared to the number of known or assessed species.

The number of known or assessed species does not always accurately reflect the number of species in existence.

Threatened species: Vascular plants

Definition

Vascular plants include the ferns, clubmosses, flowering plants, conifers, etc.

Climate Water Quality Click here for additional information

Population connected to a sewage treatment plant

Definition

Data refer to 2012 or latest year available. Data prior to 2008 were not taken into account. The indicator presented here refers to sewage treatment connection rates, i.e. the percentage of the national population connected to a public wastewater treatment plant.

Data source: OECD data on wastewater treatment.

Climate Water Resource Click here for additional information

Freshwater abstraction compared to available freshwater resources

Definition

Data refer to 2012 or latest year available. Data prior to 2008 were not taken into account. The intensity of use of freshwater resources (or water stress) refers to gross abstractions of freshwater taken from ground or surface waters expressed in % of total available renewable freshwater resources (including water inflows from neighboring countries).

Data sources: OECD data on freshwater abstractions and freshwater resources.

Freshwater abstraction for public supply per capita

Definition

Data refer to 2012 or latest year available. Data prior to 2008 were not taken into account. Freshwater abstraction for public supply are expressed as cubic meters per capita per year.

Data source: OECD data on freshwater abstractions.

 

Climate Forest Resources Click here for additional information

Intensity of use of forest resources.

Definition

Data refer to 2012 or latest year available. Data prior to 2008 were not taken into account. This indicator relates actual fellings to annual productive capacity (i.e. gross increment).

Data sources: OECD data on forest resources, FAO.

Forest area

Definition

Data refer to 2011. This indicator refers to forest area as percentage of land area

Climate Energy Resources Click here for additional information

Energy intensity

Definition

Data refer to 2012. Energy intensity refers to total primary energy supply (TPES) per unit of GDP.

Data source: OECD IEA.

Share of fossil fuels

Definition

Data refer to 2012. The share of fossil fuels in total primary energy supply.

Climate Environmentally Related Taxes Click here for additional information

Share in GDP

Definition

Data refer to 2011. Environmentally related taxes include taxes on energy products, motor vehicles and transport, waste management, ozone-depleting substances and others. They are expressed as environmentally related tax revenues in % of GDP and as % of total tax revenues.

Data source: OECD data on instruments used for environmental policy.

Share in total tax revenues

Definition

Data refer to 2011.

State of the environment reporting

Sustainable development indicators

 

Australia’s energy intensity steadily decreased since 1990. However, this is not occurring uniformly across all sectors; the services, manufacturing, transport and residential sectors have been most successful. The energy mix is dominated by fossil fuels. Renewables account for 6% of the energy supply and 9.5% of the electricity generation.