Entrepreneurship for children from 3 to 12 years - School of Education of the Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo (ESE-IPVC)

This case study was prepared by Lina Fonseca, Teresa Gonçalves, Gabriela Barbosa, Ana Barbosa, Ana Peixoto, Francisco Trabulo, & Nelson Dias from IPVC, Carla Gomes from CIM-Alto Minho , Dionísia Gomes and Carlos Pepe from Centro Educativo Alice Nabeiro, Campo Maior, edited by Joseph TIXIER from the OECD LEED Programme 

Introduction

 The Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo (IPVC), in the north of Portugal (Alto Minho region), is a public institution of higher education which produces, distributes and transfers knowledge and culture, promoting the education and lifelong learning of citizens, through an attitude of continuous innovation, quality and entrepreneurial spirit, focused on the development of the region and the country, and on the institution internationalization and convergence with the European area. The IPVC values and promotes freedom, responsibility and citizenship, critical thinking and belonging, solidarity, inclusion, cooperation and multiculturalism.

The IPVC is proactive in the identification of potential regional, national or international partners and in the promotion of the partnership in coordination of all interested parties. Partnerships are considered a key element for effective and successful actions at IPVC. The institution focuses on the creation of synergies between the concerted action of both internal (students, staff and teachers) and external communities (graduates, municipalities, services, enterprises and, in particular, school clusters which are in this project our main partners).

The IPVC promotes the use of attractive and innovative methodologies in the processes of teaching/learning, supported by new technologies and in a stimulating academic environment. Training processes are implemented in a close proximity with the social and economic regional institutions aimed to get the students close to their future social role and the reality of labor (IPVC, 2014).

The IPVC is part of the network supporting entrepreneurship in the region of Alto Minho which, among other partners, includes the Inter-Municipal Community of Alto-Minho (CIM Alto Minho). One of the strands of this network is “Entrepreneurship Education” (EE) which aims to spread the entrepreneurial culture among schools of various levels of education in the region, from pre-school to higher education, with the aim of training young people with entrepreneurial skills.

The School of Education of the Polytechnic Institute (ESE-IPVC) is operating since 1984 and its mission is to train qualified professionals in the field of Education, both in pre-service/initial teacher training and in-service/continuous teacher training, as well as to produce research aiming to contribute to innovation and social development of the Alto-Minho region.

ESE-IPVC, in partnership with CIM-Alto-Minho, the Coração Delta Association and its Educational Centre Alice Nabeiro (CEAN), designed and developed a Project to foster the entrepreneurial education in children. The Project is directed to children from 3 to 12 years old (IPVC, 2013). It is intended to contribute for children to transform ideas into action, creating conditions for them to accomplish their dreams and create value.

The manual "Having ideas to change the world" was developed by Educational Centre Alice Nabeiro (CEAN, 2009) and was used as the main resource of the project. It has materials and proposals of activities designed for preschool children (ages 3-5), 1st cycle basic school children (ages 6-9) and 2nd cycle basic school children (ages 10-12).

The manual conciliates goals at different levels (knowledge, skills and attitudes) by promoting the active engagement of children in doing their own projects, based on their own ideas, while they explore the skills required in each of the following twelve steps (12SPrEE):

  1. Stimulating ideas
  2. Sharing ideas
  3. What do I want to do?
  4. Mind-sets
  5. Active Listening
  6. Talking about the project
  7. Working with collaborators
  8. Identification of needs
  9. Building prototypes to communicate the project
  10. Collaborators' network
  11. Task cycles
  12. Project leadership

Inside the project the connection to the schools was implemented by the CIM-Alto Minho due its privileged connection to the municipalities and school clusters. The teacher participation in this project was voluntary and teachers developed the 12SPrEE integrated in the national curriculum and included within their work in school.

Rationale

A recent study (Portuguese) conducted in several European countries points out that young job seekers, despite their wide-ranging, graduate and post-graduate education (Masters and PhD degrees) do not show skills considered essential by employers and are, thus, not being hired to job vacancies. The skills lacking in candidates relate to verbal and written communication, teamwork, problem solving, leadership, initiative, flexibility/adaptability, enthusiasm, planning, determination and assertiveness, among others. However, already in 2000 at the Lisbon Strategy, the European Union countries pointed out that in order to make Europe a knowledge-based economy, marked by active and competitive dynamics, but also paying attention to the social dimensions of sustainability and development, it should emphasize the training and qualification of its citizens towards lifelong learning. The competence of entrepreneurship was then included in the European framework of key competences for lifelong learning. These core competences should be present in the student profile when they complete their compulsory education and provide the basis for a process of continuous learning throughout life.

To achieve this goal, entrepreneurship is conceptualized in its broadest perspective: "the spirit of initiative and entrepreneurship refers to the ability of individuals to turn ideas into actions. It includes creativity, innovation and risk taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects to achieve objectives" (European Commission, 2006, p. 11). This skill is considered useful to individuals in general, in their daily lives, at home, in society and at work, because it makes them able to identify needs, to seize opportunities, to adapt to new challenges, to be confident and independent (McCoshan, 2010).

The development of children’s entrepreneurial skills has been receiving increasing attention and some European countries have already set global policies for its inclusion in curricula. Entrepreneurship Education consists in developing entrepreneurial abilities that relate to individuals’ attitudes and skills in their interaction with others, such as: the ability to communicate, persuade, negotiate and solve conflicts, solve problems creatively, work with others, be self-confident, flexible and able to adapt to new situations, manage time, accept criticism, analyse and learn from mistakes and generate "positive energy" in the working group among many other aspects (OCDE, 2005).

These concerns about the promotion of entrepreneurial skills go in line with today’s pedagogical thinking that advocates the transition from teacher-centred approaches to child-centred active approaches. To meet the challenges and demands of society in the twenty-first century it is necessary to change the restrictive orientation of a pedagogical practice limited to declarative and routine content towards a more flexible practice that requires effective teaching strategies which challenge and enable students to develop their transversal skills all the way from preschool to higher education, as well as to expand their knowledge of content. In “Education in a changing world: Flexibility, Skills and Employability”(2012), Wang suggests the use of games and projects that encourage teamwork, cooperation among peers, interpersonal relationships, entrepreneurship, leadership and communication between all involved.

Being an institution of teacher education, ESE-IPVC is committed to dynamic, innovative and creative methodologies in the teaching/learning processes and therefore decided to design and implement the project “Entrepreneurship for children from 3 to 12 years” whose main goal is to foster social appropriation of entrepreneurial culture by preschool children and pupils from grade 1 till grade 6 (primary education) of Alto Minho Region.

The school environment is the most privileged space to reach this goal for all children, but it implies action and project-based learning environments, giving teachers a crucial role. Support for the development of these teachers is needed as well support of the school leaders, groups and community.

A distinctive feature of this project is the intersection of children and teacher education. To achieve the entrepreneurial education of children from 3 to 12 years old it’s necessary to train teachers, both pre-service and in-service teachers. And, before this it is necessary to train teacher educators (Figure 1).

ESE IPVC project scheme
Figure 1: Project Scheme

The need for integrating the theme of entrepreneurship in the curricula of pre-service and in-service teachers is a challenge for teacher education institutions, as has been the case in many European countries.

The project “Entrepreneurship for children from 3 to 12 years” is divided into two sub-projects:

Training on entrepreneurship would be enriched within an approach that allows combining learning about entrepreneurship with training through entrepreneurship. Teachers received training on EE, during 33 contact hours plus 18 non-contact hours, that was implemented in the same format as the EE program for ages 3-12 (12SPrEE). EE training is designed to foster the development of entrepreneurial skills (knowledge, attitudes and values) for the teachers themselves and simultaneously they learn how to promote entrepreneurial skills for young children. This option follows closely the Budapest Report (European Commission, 2011), which argues that the development of entrepreneurial attitudes and skills among teachers requires the use of the same methodology that is expected they use with their students.

Description of the activity/project

 Next we briefly present the 12 steps of the program for entrepreneurial education (12SPrEE). We illustrate them with some examples of tasks or products from the manual and our experience, either with children or with adults (pre-service and in-service teachers).

Step1 – Stimulating ideas - Children are invited to elaborate their ideas, projects, interests or goals, within a context were they experience total freedom and confidence. Children’s initial statements are crucial to build communities based on common interests. It is also intention that children are introduced to a culture in which the public presentation of interests and the sharing with others with similar interests are opportunities for work development.

Example (task for children 3-6 years old) - A story about a child who loves drawing and how he/she took part in doing an exhibition of his/her drawings. Afterwards the teacher talks to the children about what they love to do. The teacher writes the children’s statements on the board and children are asked to draw their own ideas.

Step 2 - Sharing ideas - Children develop the basis for collaboration and cooperative work. Based on the records from step 1, children share their ideas with others trying to find similarities and/or complementary ideas among them. The orientation of this process by the teacher may be required. However, based on our experience, children are usually able to do it spontaneously. The teacher should observe carefully that no one is excluded in the project groups that are formed. Children should always be able to identify their own contribution to the group project. That is a critical aspect for their sustained engagement and motivation along the project.

Example - Group projects prepared by participants from different age ranges and with different scopes: Children from a preschool wanted to build a treehouse (Figure 2); a class of pre-service teachers design a project planting fruit trees in the school park within the scope of the 2014 International Year of Family Farming, aggregating diverse interests on ecology, sustainability, solidarity and open-air activities (Figure 3).

 

ESE IPVC treehouse ESE IPVC PLanting fruit tree
Figure 2: Treehouse Figure 3: Planting Fruit Tree

 

Step 3 – What do I want to do? – Children have the opportunity to think how they can be active in pursuing their goals. Also we want them to be able to recognize some of the characteristics of an entrepreneur and be aware that no one is born an entrepreneur, but can learn and become an entrepreneur. The words “entrepreneur” and “entrepreneurship” are introduced, but it is important to note that we are concerned with being entrepreneurial in different areas (not exclusively, nor foremost in the business world).

Example (task for children from 9-12 years old) - On a board, children write the name of one of their idols (someone who succeed improving his/her life and the life of others), describe what that person achieves, and what are their main characteristics and values. We found that children often choose their idols within their families or within the community. Using a stamp, each child highlights two characteristics he/she elects as the most important. Then a Top 10 table is drawn up with the most often nominated characteristics/values; the resulting table is displayed on a wall.

Example (task for teachers) - Teachers were given the opportunity to listen and discuss with two entrepreneurs (a working woman who has started a project of volunteer work with elderly in her community and a young man who has diabetes and is also an alpinist).

Step 4 – Mind-sets – Children have the opportunity to recognize the role of some positive mind-sets both in the individual as in the team work. Another challenge, perhaps more appropriate for older children and adults, is to discover how they can control or modify some negative mind-sets. This stage gives credit to research on emotional intelligence.

Example (task for children from 7-8 years old) - Using pictures of faces expressing different emotions, children are invited to name that emotion and to classify it as a positive or negative mind-set. Another activity is called the “collective laugh” and it is aimed for children to experience how emotions may be contagious within the group.

Step 5 - Active listening - Listening to others, considering their opinions, empathic communication, listening to the needs and aspirations of others in one’s environment are crucial skills to entrepreneurship.

Example (task for children from 9-12 years old) - Children are divided into groups. In each group some children will have the role of senders and others, turning their backs, will have the role of receivers. One child begins reading a text (it should have an interesting and meaningful content, or innovative information) while the receiver tries to listen. Meanwhile, other children begin making a noise using musical instruments. Then, the teacher motivates the children towards active listening, and a second trial is made under the same conditions. Children are invited to identify the obstacles to communication and how they overcame them.

Step 6 – Talking about the project - Children are challenged to master communication skills. A project is a story that hasn’t happened yet. When someone begins an entrepreneurial project, they have to build a narrative that may include a plan, a mental picture of the final product of the project, the planning and scheduling of actions, a list of possible collaborators and the prediction of future scenarios. Narratives are also needed to communicate information about the project to other collaborators.

During this stage children will learn that the script for creating a narrative about the project must integrate the answers to the what, why, for whom, how, with whom, when and where questions.

Example (task for children from 3-6 years old) - the teacher tells a story about a little girl who managed to achieve a specific project. The teacher initiates a dialogue about the story, asking the children “What was the girls’ project? Why did she want to achieve that? For whom? How? Using these items they all together build a narrative about their own project, writing and/or drawing the answer to each item.

Step 7 - Working with collaborators – emphasizes the need of working with others in today’s world. The word “collaborator” is introduced, meaning those that are members of the working team, those who can supply the resources (financial or other) for the project, those who can recommend the product of our project and those who are competing with our project. Children learn how to use the names “buyer”, “supplier”, “financier”, “advertiser” and “competitor”.

Example (task for children from 3-6 years old) - Using the same story as in step 6, children identify the various collaborators in the little girl’s project, and their specific role. Then, they try to list the collaborators for their own project.

Step 8 - Identification of needs in order to write our offers or proposals - Offering something is based on talks and thoughts about some dissatisfaction and on the creation of a proposal to meet this need.

Example (task for children from 9-12 years old) - Children read about a fictional situation in a school where there are several problems with pupils and discuss the ways to solve them. Then, they are asked to think about their real school, to identify the needs (problems) existing there, and to think what they could do to improve the situation. One interesting activity to conclude this task consists in using a scale to weigh volumes, where children put a ball for each need they have identified, on one side of the scale, and a ball for each proposal, on the other side. If the scale is balanced, it means that everyone is profiting, both those who receive and those who offer. Next they apply those concepts to their own project, to enrich their previous narratives. They make an oral presentation trying to stimulate the interest of others for their project.

Step 9Building prototypes to communicate the project – Introduces the idea that using images to explain a project facilitates communication. A prototype is a 2D or 3D model of the product. The difference between a product and a prototype is explored. Depending on the nature of the project, the prototype may be a 3D object, a draft, a plan, a model, an archetype. Building a prototype involves many steps and trials, creating, experimenting, incorporating suggestions, innovating. It is a good way of showing the link from the need we identified in the first place to the proposal we are presenting and to motivate others to our project. Then, project teams are encouraged to build prototypes to communicate their own projects.

Example - Prototypes presented by preschool children (Figure 4 and Figure 5) and by 6th grade students (Figure 6)

ESE IPVC greenhouse prototype ESE IPVC treehouse prototype ESE IPVC individual lockers prototype
Figure 4: Greenhouse prototype Figure 5: Treehouse prototype Figure 6: Individual lockers prototype

Step 10 – Collaborators’ networks – Is about the organization of individuals for achieving common purposes, about collaborators and partners that share the risks and the benefits in the project. An efficient network develops its own identity and working style. An important issue for teacher intervention is to highlight how diversity within a network may enrich it.

Example (task for children 7-9 years old) - Beginning with the question “Can you accomplish your project without any collaborators?” children are invited to think about a collaborators’ network for their own project. Talking about how these networks are built, the teacher may recall what they have learned about active listening, communication, positive mind-sets, etc. In Figure 7, Figure 8 and Figure 9 it´s possible to see the collaborators in action (children’s families and other members of the community) constructing the greenhouse and the treehouse in the kindergarten’s backyards and the employees of the municipal carpentry constructing the individual lockers, with the participation and surveillance of the students.

ESE IPVC greenhouse construction ESE IPVC treehouse construction ESE IPVC individual lockers construction
Figure 7: Greenhouse construction

Figure 8: Treehouse construction

Figure 9: Individual lockers construction

 

Step 11 – Task cycles – Is about the organization of the workflow. A task cycle is the path from the demand until its satisfaction. Projects integrate multiple task cycles, and it is crucial that every task cycle is successfully closed.

This step introduces the need for scheduling task cycles, establishing conditions and criteria and negotiating them, evaluating the collaborator’s performance, evaluating the satisfaction of the project’s public audience. Defining dates and writing a contract may help control the execution of task cycles and the accomplishment of the project.

For the project “Habemus individual lockers” 6th graders elaborated a work plan divided into different cycles (for example, to buy the wood material; the negotiation for having the collaboration of a municipal carpentry; the work planning with the carpenter). By the end of the project children realized that they forgot to plan the acquisition of locks and keys (Figure 10). This way they learned why a continuous revisiting and evaluation of the work plan is needed and also they experienced how to face failure and overcome it.

Example (task for children 7-9 years old) - Based on a story or on a real task from their daily life, children analyze the task using the following items in a diagram: demand; product, negotiation, contract, delivery, evaluation, new demand. Children are asked to divide their project into task cycles that are needed to be performed for a successful fulfilment of the project. They write it down using a similar diagram as many times as the number of task cycles they identified.

ESE IPVC individual lockers no locks
Figure 10: Individual lockers … still no locks

 

Step 12 – Project leadership – Deals with the role of the leader in an entrepreneurial project. It is intended for children to learn that leadership skills are not an innate gift, and that no one is able to be a leader by simply stating it or by evidencing authority. Those skills emerge from the communication with the team and from personal commitment with the team and its goals. Thus, leadership has to be recognized by the team and everyone can be a leader.

Example (task for children 7-9 and also 9-12 years old) - Is a dramatization of a story where a group of children is planning a summer camp, for example using a puppet show. The characters in the story represent diverse skills during the negotiation and planning of that project. Children discuss who they think is the leader, and why. The story also elicits the reviewing of skills previously mentioned: who in the story is evidencing skills of active listening, communication, sharing, positive mind-sets, and good narratives? To conclude they may collectively summarize the qualities of a good leader. 

Anchoring of the activity/project in the school

 The Entrepreneurship Education Project began on September 1, 2011.The project was developed in three stages.

In the first stage workshops and practical sessions were held for teacher trainers to raise the awareness towards the practice of entrepreneurship based on the manual "Having ideas to change the world" (CEAN, 2009), the base source used in the project.

The second stage involved the training of the preschool and primary teachers (grade1 to grade6), both in-service and pre-service teachers from the Alto Minho region. To in-service teachers this training was a certified one, because this is required to them.

A number of practical sessions aiming towards the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and values were carried out with the simultaneous presence of all those involved. The content of the training was focused on the 12SPrEE. As a result, trainees travelled a similar pedagogical path to what they would later set out to travel with children in an educational context and in doing so, better understood the dynamics of entrepreneurship. Activities in this phase of the project consisted of meetings for sharing ideas, producing narratives for communication projects, workshops for building prototypes and seminars to share the results of the training sessions.

The third stage was developed through teachers interventions in educational contexts that took place in 2012/2013. Participants, both trainees and teachers, began the work of entrepreneurship with their students. To do this, they followed the methodology from the manual presented in the first stage and experienced new dynamics to work the subject of entrepreneurial knowledge in children from 3 to 12 years of age. In face-to-face sessions, the prompting for ideas and the detection of upcoming ones was executed with sensitivity by several children who perceived the existence of contact points between the ideas presented among their colleagues. The development of the individual's ability to communicate, with increasing clarity and organization so that others understand the ideas and desires, enabled the building of narratives.

Links of the activity/project with the external world

The Entrepreneurship Education Project began on September 1, 2011.The project was developed in three stages.

In the first stage workshops and practical sessions were held for teacher trainers to raise the awareness towards the practice of entrepreneurship based on the manual "Having ideas to change the world" (CEAN, 2009), the base source used in the project.

The second stage involved the training of the preschool and primary teachers (grade1 to grade6), both in-service and pre-service teachers from the Alto Minho region. To in-service teachers this training was a certified one, because this is required to them.

A number of practical sessions aiming towards the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and values were carried out with the simultaneous presence of all those involved. The content of the training was focused on the 12SPrEE. As a result, trainees travelled a similar pedagogical path to what they would later set out to travel with children in an educational context and in doing so, better understood the dynamics of entrepreneurship. Activities in this phase of the project consisted of meetings for sharing ideas, producing narratives for communication projects, workshops for building prototypes and seminars to share the results of the training sessions.

The third stage was developed through teachers interventions in educational contexts that took place in 2012/2013. Participants, both trainees and teachers, began the work of entrepreneurship with their students. To do this, they followed the methodology from the manual presented in the first stage and experienced new dynamics to work the subject of entrepreneurial knowledge in children from 3 to 12 years of age. In face-to-face sessions, the prompting for ideas and the detection of upcoming ones was executed with sensitivity by several children who perceived the existence of contact points between the ideas presented among their colleagues. The development of the individual's ability to communicate, with increasing clarity and organization so that others understand the ideas and desires, enabled the building of narratives.

The school in the community

The demand for collaborators to complete the projects led to families being added as well as other teachers, community members, local authorities and entrepreneurs. Children had to explain their own projects through narratives and prototypes, 2D or 3D, to get collaborators.

Events showcasing the projects developed in the community motivated both the children and students involved.

The work undertaken in educational settings by the educational community and the partner institutions in the project was exhibited in a final workshop organized at ESE - IPVC in July 2013 (Figure 11).

Figure 11: Posters and Sample Material from the projects undertaken

 

This event featured national and foreign speakers who lectured on the topic of entrepreneurship; teachers who presented summaries of the project they developed, together with materials produced, highlighting the work done, the momentum achieved, the participation of everyone who contributed and the final product itself. This event was attended by a number of teachers from the schools involved, as well as parents and children.

Apart from bringing to the public eye the work undertaken in different contexts, there was also the intention to create a network of entrepreneurial schools that contribute to entrepreneurial skills training in the children in Alto Minho region since the early years.

In the academic year 2013/2014, the exhibition "Following dreams" (Figure 12) was organised to disseminate the projects developed by children and students, along the Alto Minho community.

Teachers involved in the project acted as “seed teachers” of entrepreneurial education in their educational contexts. They attracted other teachers for the project, so in the next teacher training, starting in late October, we will have engaged 33 new teachers, from throughout the Alto Minho region.

We rely on these “seed teachers” to achieve a multiplier effect in the region for the sustainable development of entrepreneurial education.

ESE IPVC visiting following dreams 1 ESE IPVC visiting following dreams 2 ESE IPVC visiting following dreams 3

 

Figure 12. Visiting the exhibition “Following Dreams”

 

Achievements and impact

The development of this project has implications for teacher education, both in-service and pre-service ones.

Firstly, from the point of view of the curriculum, it becomes necessary to think of the various alternatives for the integration of this theme. The advantage of integrating entrepreneurial education into the curriculum (and not as an optional subject), transversal to various components of training and in direct connection with teaching experiences in a real context has been argued in th Budapest Agenda.

Secondly, we emphasize the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills by the teachers themselves, as part of their personal and their professional training. Thus, teachers can be participating citizens in their community, with a strong social awareness and gearing up for ethical principles, either in their personal, social or professional activity.

Thirdly, as it has been argued, this project demonstrated the advantages of doing teacher training in this area using the same approaches to develop with children, particularly active methodologies, project work and collaborative work.

According to pre-service and in-service teachers’ feedback and teacher educators’ reflection we point out that:

Success factors

The project becomes reality, based on a close relationship between all the partners, ESE-IPVC, CIM-Alto Minho, CEAN, teachers in school contexts and the community. To upscale this impact in Alto Minho region we need to rely on “seed teachers”, to spread the main idea of the project. In the future we also intend to engage families in the project, to contribute to their capacity building and empowerment in those areas and to promote the collaboration school-family in order to foster entrepreneurial education of all children in our region. This was the first step towards this goal. The work developed revealed itself to be promising, so it will be continued. This is our dream!

Some conditions of success have been identified to replicate the project:

The final reflections are upon the development of work project in very early ages (with preschool and basic school children).  “To follow the dreams” was the expression of a 5 years child when she was communicating about her project. As the developmental psychologist Erik Erikson (1963) stated, preschool children seek to initiative. They are learning to master the world around them and they want to begin and complete their own actions for a purpose.  It is important for a healthy resolution of this developmental stage to give children ample opportunities to do things on their own, to encourage and support their efforts with guidance and also to allow experiencing their limits.

On the other hand, at the next stage, basic school children are learning to read and write, to do sums, to make things on their own and teachers and peer group become major sources of the child’s self-esteem. Following Erikson’s psychosocial developmental theory, the child at this age feels the need for being industrious, that is the need for demonstrating specific competencies that are valued by society. It becomes important that the child’s environment offers the opportunities for feeling competent, otherwise he/she begins to feel inferior, doubting his/her own abilities and risking not reach his/her potential.

Obstacles and ways to overcome them

In Portugal, Basic Education is organized by educational cycles (3-5 years old; 6-9 years old; 10-12 years old) and this means that teachers change from one educational cycle to the next. This change can be an obstacle to the maintenance and continuity of the development of soft skills methodology. In the higher levels of schooling, there is a greater focus on subject contents which may hinder the implementation of this methodology. Moreover, even during the same educational cycle there is no guarantee that teachers can keep up with the same group of children. These changes are an obstacle to the continuity of the development of an entrepreneurial education.

At the beginning of training in EE, some teachers revealed reluctance towards the possibility of involving children in the early years of schooling in EE. It is considered that behind this reluctance could be a less correct association of the concept of entrepreneurship related to economic issues. These expectations gradually changed along the Project.

Another obstacle was related to attracting teachers to the project and its permanence. To overcome this obstacle, the teacher education on EE provided to teachers was credited (a requirement for teachers in Portugal) and there was a follow-up of the projects’ development in educational contexts through and a final seminar was set up for sharing results.

Readings

CEAN (2009). Ter ideias para mudar o mundo. Manual para treinar o empreendedorismo em crianças dos 3 aos 12 anos. Campo Maior: Associação Coração Delta.

Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd edition). New York: Norton.

European Comission (2006). Promover o espírito empreendedor através do ensino e da aprendizagem. Bruxelas: Comissão Europeia.

European Comission (2007). Key competencies for lifelong learning. European reference framework. Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities.

European Commission (2011). Entrepreneurship Education: Enabling Teachers as a Critical Success Factor. A report on Teacher Education and Training to prepare teachers for the challenge of entrepreneurship education. Brussels: Entrepreneurship Unit Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry.

IEFP (2014). Guia do 1º Emprego. Fórum Estudante. ttp://issuu.com/forumestudante/docs/g1e2014_web

IPVC (2013). Entrepreneurial Programme for 3-12 year old children. In Entrepreneurship Education: A guide for educators, (pp. 38-39). Brussels: European Commission.

IPVC (2014). Quality Manual. Viana do Castelo: IPVC.teacher

McCoshan, A. (2010). Towards Greater Cooperation and Coherence in Entrepreneurship Education. Report and Evaluation of the Pilot Action High level Reflection Panels on Entrepreneurship Education. Birmingham: ECOTEC.

OCDE (2005). The definition and selection of key competences: Executive summary. Paris: OCDE.

Pereira, M., Ferreira, J. & Figueiredo, I. (2007). Guião “Promoção do Empreendedorismo na Escola”. Lisboa: ME-DGIDC.

Wang, Y. (2012). Education in a changing world: Flexibility, Skills and Employability. Washington: The World Bank.