This paper investigates the factors that influence the international mobility of research scientists using a new measure of mobility derived from changes in affiliations reported by publishing scientists in a major global index of scholarly publications over the period 1996-2011.
Dementia is increasing in prevalence, and to date has no cure or treatment. One element in improving this situation is using and sharing data more widely to increase the power of research. Further, moving beyond established medical data into big data offers the potential to tap into routinely collected data from both within and outside the health system.
This working paper sums up the main findings of an OECD project aiming to provide an evidence basis for focusing efforts to improve the measurement of technological and non-technological forms of business innovation, with particular focus on the role of design. It reviews a broad range of novel design-related measures, indicating their advantages and limitations in terms of policy relevance and insights.
The Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) leads OECD research on the contribution of science, technology and industry to well-being and economic growth. STI Working Papers cover a broad range of topics including definition and measurement of S&T indicators, global value chains, and research on policies to promote innovation.
Risk finance is essential for new ventures to commercialise new ideas and grow, especially in emerging sectors. Yet very little is known about the drivers and characteristics of risk finance in the green sector. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a detailed description of risk finance in the green sector across 29 countries and identifying the role that policies might have in shaping high-growth investments.
This paper reviews demand-side innovation policies, their rationales and importance across countries, different approaches to their design, the challenges entailed in their implementation and evaluation, and good practices. Three main forms of demand-side policy are considered: innovation-oriented public procurement, innovation-oriented regulations, and standards, with emphasis on innovation-oriented public procurement.
This paper proposes an exploratory characterisation of firms’ patenting behaviours across 15 countries. The stylised facts proposed are meant to serve as a basis for broader policy relevant analyses, and as a starting point for a more informed discussion on the role of country-specific framework conditions in explaining the observed differences in firm behaviours and outcomes.
This document follows on from a report entitled Important Issues on Risk Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials [ENV/JM/MONO(2012)8]. This report identified a range of issues which the WPMN considered important in risk assessment and which should be addressed in the future. It summarised results of a survey which was circulated to delegations of the WPMN, methodologies used to analyze the survey, and the identified priorities.
This paper presents a new edition of the project's technical guidelines including methodological guidelines, a core model questionnaire and instruction manual, and the output tables used for reporting data at the international level and related definitions.
This study uses exploratory data analysis techniques to develop typologies of innovation modes or strategies for groups of firms. Analysing micro-level survey data from 18 countries we identify five innovation modes. The coherence and relevance of the innovation modes is tested by using them as explanatory factors in equations explaining economic performance.