This publication examines the opportunities and challenges, for business and government, associated with technologies bringing about the “next production revolution”. These include a variety of digital technologies (e.g. 3D printing, the Internet of Things and advanced robotics), industrial biotechnology, 3D printing, new material and nanotechnology. Some of these technologies are already used in production, while others will be available in the near future. All are developing rapidly. As these technologies transform the production and the distribution of goods and services, they will have far-reaching consequences for productivity, skills, income distribution, well-being and the environment. The more that governments and firms understand how production could develop in the near future, the better placed they will be to prepare for the risks and reap the benefits.
This report provides an independent and comparative assessment of the overall performance of Kazakhstan’s innovation system since independence, with recommendations on improving performance drawing on the experience of other OECD countries in innovation processes, systems and policies. While many key components of the research and innovation system have been implemented (legal infrastructure, policy implementation instruments, and new research institutions), spurring a full-blown innovation-based development in Kazakhstan means extending innovation across the system as a whole, connecting higher education institutions with research institutes, igniting “technology pull” from businesses (and modernising these), and linking up commercialisation processes between universities and firms. Policy implementation will also require independent external monitoring and evaluation, and better co-ordination and co-operation between different policy actors.
Costa Rica’s successful economic performance and social achievements realised over the last three decades are widely acknowledged. GDP per capita has steadily increased at higher rates than in most Latin American countries as the economy has evolved along its development path from a rural and agriculture-based to a more diversified economy integrated in global value chains. But Costa Rica faces challenges and must enhance and broaden the basis for productivity growth by strengthening its innovation system and enhancing the role of science, technology and innovation in addressing its national development goals.
Recent years have witnessed a constant rise in the spread of ICT (information and communication technologies) infrastructure and a growing demand for ICT goods. The production of these goods is knowledge intensive and the industry relies extensively on intellectual property (IP) rights. This strong and growing demand for ICT goods, and their IP dependence, makes them an attractive target for counterfeiters. This study looks at the trade in counterfeit ICT goods, including the size of the trade, the main sources of fake goods, and the countries whose companies are most affected.
These reviews offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD member and non-member countries, focusing on the role of government. They provide concrete recommendations on how to improve policies which impact on innovation performance.
A timely set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of the efforts undertaken by OECD member countries and selected non-member economies in the field of science and technology.
The purpose of this Series is to provide up-to-date information on the OECD activities related to human health and environmental safety. Read our latest report on "Strategy for using metal impurities as carbon nanotube tracers".
This report is the third and final output of a ten-year international research project studying the costs and viability of long-life road pavement surfacings. It describes the results of tests conducted with epoxy asphalt and high performance cementitious materials (HPCM) on real road sections in France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The project was initiated to address a growing problem for road administrations and road users: frequent closures of roadways for repairs and repaving as a result of surface pavements that have improved but still barely kept up with increased loads and traffic density.
English, PDF, 8,238kb
This report provides an assessment of G20 economies’ performance with respect to digitalisation and examines some of the most pressing policy challenges in areas spanning from access to digital infrastructures to digital security to legal frameworks. It includes a set of 11 core policy recommendations that could underpin a comprehensive G20 digital agenda.
This follow-up to the 2001 OECD Territorial Review of Bergamo monitors progress over the past 15 years and reassesses the main development challenges the region faces. Globalisation has intensified international competition in Bergamo’s traditional manufacturing sector, and the global financial crisis has exacerbated some of the structural weaknesses of Bergamo’s traditional industrial sectors. The region needs to upgrade production processes to generate more added value in economic activities to remain competitive. The review offers recommendations to help Bergamo transition to higher value-added and more technologically intensive activities. In particular, it calls for: a development plan supported by all local actors; a strategy for improving the skills of the adult population through education and training programmes; stimulating innovation systems; attracting foreign direct investment; and, finally, strategies for boosting the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises.