There is now strong evidence that microbiomes play an important role in human health, as there are clear linkages to many major non-communicable diseases. This report assesses the key policy challenges for innovation in the microbiome. It argues that if such a promising scientific field is to lead to innovative applications, policies on science and innovation must be improved in five areas.
Every day brings news of technological breakthroughs. We are entering a world of “digital manufacturing” and “the next production revolution” where traditional factory floors are being transformed with new and more efficient processes.
Norway has long used technology to streamline processes within the public sector and bring the government closer to citizens and businesses. Now the country is going further, seeking to transform its public sector through the full assimilation of digital technologies. The goal is to make it more efficient, collaborative, user- and data-driven, and better able to respond to the changing needs and expectations of citizens and businesses. This review analyses the efforts under way and provides policy advice to support the Norwegian government in implementing digital government.
The OECD Review of Telecommunication Policy and Regulation in Mexico, released in 2012, provided a comprehensive examination of the sector at the time, highlighting potential areas for regulatory and policy reform. Since then, the Mexican telecommunication sector has experienced substantial progress both from a legal and regulatory perspective, but also with respect to current market dynamics. The changes derive, to an important extent, from the reform that has taken place in Mexico since 2013, which closely reflect the 2012 OECD recommendations.
This report assesses subsequent market developments in the telecommunication and broadcasting sectors in Mexico, evaluates the implementation of the 2012 OECD recommendations, and puts forward a number of recommendations for the future. It records the remarkable progress made in implementing policy and regulatory changes and identifies areas where more can be done to continue the momentum that has brought tangible benefits to the people of Mexico.
A timely set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of the efforts undertaken by OECD member countries and selected non-member economies in the field of science and technology.
These reviews offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD member and non-member countries, focusing on the role of government. They provide concrete recommendations on how to improve policies which impact on innovation performance.
Kazakhstan is aware of the importance of innovation for its socio-economic development, including the diversification of its resource-based economy. Since the start of the millennium, Kazakhstan has put in place key components of a modern research and innovation system. This has helped improve scientific output and resulted in some successes in technology commercialisation. Further commitment and effort will be needed to strengthen innovation capabilities and make the most of Kazakhstan‘s advantages. This requires further reforms in order, notably, to strengthen the funding model of universities, intensify and broaden knowledge transfer, improve the governance of the research and innovation system, and increase the effectiveness of innovation incentives and policies, with a focus on implementation and evaluation.
Greater access and use of data creates a wide array of policy issues, such as privacy and consumer protection, open data access, skills and employment, and measurement to name a few. The OECD is undertaking extensive analysis on the role of data in promoting innovation, growth and well-being.
The OECD developed the BioTrack Product Database which accommodates Unique Identifiers to each transgenic (or genetically engineered) plant that is approved for commercial use, including planting and food/feed use. These Unique Identifiers are intended to be used as "keys" to access information of each transgenic product in this database and to ensure the safety of modern biotechnology products
Following a remarkable transformation in the past century in research and innovation, in particular through the development of new technologies and processes in sectors such as oil and gas, shipbuilding and also fisheries and aquaculture, Norway is today increasingly facing a “triple transition imperative” in which it needs, first, to shift toward a more diversified and robust economy; second, to move to a more competitive, effective and efficient innovation system; and third, to support research and innovation activities that can confront an array of societal challenges (climate change, food security, aging, health and so on). The Long-Term Plan for Research and Higher Education 2015-2024 (LTP) launched by the Norwegian government has set the base to enhance the capacity of the research and higher education system to cope with these transition challenges. This report proposes recommendations to take advantage of the revision of this comprehensive strategic plan in 2018 to improve the horizontal coordination and add more concrete structural policy initiatives, without changing the plan’s general orientation nor giving up the sectorial and the consensus principles that form the basis of Norwegian policy making.