Innovation in science, technology and industry

Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, 6th edition


A newer edition is available. The latest standards and guidance are provided in the Frascati Manual 2015 edition.


6th edition (2002)
Pages: 266
ISBN 978-92-64-19903-9




The Frascati Manual was originally written by and for the experts in OECD member countries who collect and issue national data on research and development (R&D). Over the years, it has become the standard of conduct for R&D surveys and data collection not only in the OECD and the European Union, but also in several non-member economies, for example, through the science and technology surveys of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).



Table of contents

Chapter 1. Aim and scope of the manual

Chapter 2. Basic definitions and conventions

Chapter 3. Institutional classification

Chapter 4. Functional distribution

Chapter 5. Measurement of R&D personnel

Chapter 6. Measurement of expenditures devoted to R&D

Chapter 7. Survey methodology and procedures

Chapter 8. Government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D by socio-economic objectives (GBAORD)

Annex 1. Brief history and origins of the Frascati Manual

Annex 2. Obtaining data on R&D in the higher education sector

Annex 3. The treatment of R&D in the United Nations System of National Accounts

Annex 4. R&D related to health, information and communication technology (ICT) and biotechnology

Annex 5. Methods of deriving regional R&D data

Annex 6. Work on science and technology (S&T) indicators in other international organisations

Annex 7. Other S&T indicators

Annex 8. Practical methods of providing up-to-date estimates and projections of resources devoted to R&D

Annex 9. R&D deflators and currency converters

Annex 10. Supplementary guidance on the classification of large R&D projects with special reference to the defence and aerospace industries

Annex 11. Correspondence between categories of R&D personnel by occupation in the Frascati Manual and ISCO-88 classes


Revised Field of Science and Technology (FOS) classification

The review of the FOS classification was discussed several times in the framework of the last revision of the Frascati Manual (2002). In particular, it was felt at the time that the FOS classification – the most appropriate classification for R&D in the public sector – needed to be reexamined in order to reflect the latest changes in the science and technology area, especially with regard to emerging technology fields such as ICT, biotechnology and nanotechnology. This revised classification (download here) was issued in 2007.


Annex on measuring R&D in developing countries

Despite the Frascati Manual's widespread use, significant usage gaps remain, especially in Africa, Central and South Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. There is widespread interest in the nature and role of R&D in developing countries, raising questions on how it should be measured within the guidelines set out in the Frascati Manual. A new annex released in 2012 (download here) provides an initial attempt to address some of the most salient issues.

The preparation of this annex on how to use OECD guidelines to measure R&D in developing economies was coordinated by the UIS in partnership with the OECD Secretariat under the auspices of the OECD Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators (NESTI). Building on the existing Oslo Manual annex on innovation surveys in developing countries, this work was a contribution to the OECD Strategy for Development.


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