This report draws on three detailed case studies in Eastern Europe, the Caucases and Central Asia (EECCA), and on the experience of OECD countries to provide guidance on how transfers from central budgets to local authorities could be designed to finance environmental infrastructures in transition economies. Ideally, the costs of water supply and sanitation should be covered by user charges. However, the high investment costs and
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Обзор инвестиционной политики 2006 года рассматривает изменения, которые произошли в условиях регулирования инвестиций со времени последнего обзора ОЭСР в 2004 году. Он также включает анализ реформы системы контроля за капиталом и российского подхода к международным инвестиционным соглашениям. При оценке этих изменений и подготовке предложений по дальнейшему улучшению в фокусе настоящего Обзора находилась прозрачность инвестиционной
This report aims to improve corporate governance in Russia, which is recognised as essential for the creation of sound companies, financial market integrity and an attractive business climate. Corporate transparency is a particularly important component of good governance through the protection of individual and institutional shareholders. Shareholders and potential investors require accurate and timely information in order to make
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The Russian Railway system is in the process of rapid legal, organisational and regulatory reform. This paper is based on a series of discussions with the Government on the reform plans and the progress in implementing reform. The conclusions are not intended to be interpreted as requirements or instructions on the next steps in the process. They instead aim to raise questions where, from observing difficult reform issues in other
The Russia review follows a multidisciplinary approach and covers the overall economic context for regulatory reform, the government’s capacity to manage regulatory reform, competition policy and enforcement, and market openness.
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Competition policy is central to regulatory reform, because its principles and analysis provide a benchmark for assessing the quality of economic and social regulations, as well as motivate the application of the laws that protect competition. As regulatory reform stimulates structural change, vigorous enforcement of competition policy is needed to prevent private market abuses from reversing the benefits of reform. A complement to
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This report is part of the OECD regulatory reform programme which assesses the regulatory framework of countries examined and suggests possible improvements to enhance economic growth, competition, innovation and market openness.
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The Russian government has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. Russian policymakers have recognised that attracting timely and appropriate investment will remain a substantial and ongoing challenge, which can most effectively be addressed through the creation of efficient electricity markets operating in response to genuine price signals, within a robust and predictable legal and regulatory framework.
Despite a wealth of investment opportunities, the Russian Federation has attracted relatively little foreign direct investment (FDI) and has experienced large-scale capital flight. This phenomenon results from sectoral restrictions on foreign investment and from important institutional factors which also affect domestic businesses. Russia has made significant improvements in its business environment since the last decade, adopting