The OECD supports countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) to reconcile their environment and economic goals thus addressing the heavy environmental legacy of the Soviet model of development. This support is provided within the framework of the GReen Economy and ENvironment Action Programme (the GREEN Action Ptogramme).
A major challenge facing the Republic of Buryatia, subject of the Russian Federation, is how to balance the task of protecting Lake Baikal – a unique water object and ecological system included in the UNESCO list of World Natural Heritage Areas – with the need for dynamic and sustainable socio-economic development of the republic. This requires streamlining and improving water policy jointly with economic, administrative, information and other policy instruments. The recommendations in this report aim to help achieve this objective. They include the introduction of abstraction charges for irrigation water as a natural resource; enhancement of state support to the water sector; and improvement of economic instruments for managing risks of water-related hazards (such as compulsory insurance and differentiated land tax rates in flood prone areas). A few innovative instruments are also recommended for pilot testing such as establishing limits for discharges of certain hazardous substances in a pilot area (e.g. Selenga river basin) and progressive development of market for tradable quotas for discharges of the “capped” pollutants; and introducing a charge (tax) on toxic agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, etc.) and synthetic detergents so that to create incentives for the reduction of diffuse water pollution.
In Russia 47 million people are exposed to high concentrations of nitrous dioxide. Half the population in rural Tajikistan, and one-third in Moldova, lack access to clean water. Leaded petrol is sold legally in Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
This book presents a method to develop financing strategies for investment-heavy environmental infrastructure, such as urban water supply, wastewater collection and treatment, and municipal solid waste. The strategies, supported by the FEASIBLE computer model, were developed in several countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA), in EU accession countries and China.