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Gasoline retailing has changed dramatically over the last 25 years. While refiners often still have extensive networks of gasoline retailers, there is also a large independent sector in many countries. A study of the effects of entry by large general retailers finds benefits to consumers. There has been a vigorous debate about whether vertical separation between gasoline stations and upstream entities should be required. It appears
This Working Paper identifies some of the key policy issues related to multi-level regulatory governance, and contributes to a “Framework for Analysis of Multi-level Regulatory Governance”.
This page presents documentation on regulatory reform that is available both in English and in Chinese.
China has made enormous progress in developing the modern legal and regulatory foundation for the market economy. The private sector is now the main driver of growth, and new laws have gone a long way toward establishing private property rights, competition, and mechanisms for entry and exit comparable to those of many OECD countries. At the same time important challenges remain, including further clarification of the scope of state ownership, reform of relations among central and local governments, firmer establishment of the rule of law, and strengthening of regulatory institutions and processes.
This review of China's regulatory system focuses on the overall economic context for regulatory reform, the government’s capacity to manage regulatory reform, competition policy and enforcement, and market openness. The review also examines the regulatory framework in the electricity, water and health care sectors. As for OECD countries, the review follows a multidisciplinary and highly interactive approach. A number of OECD instruments and policies are used in this assessment, although the review also takes into account the specific challenges faced by the Chinese authorities. The review includes a comprehensive set of policy recommendations.
New Zealand’s living standards remain well below the OECD average. This is entirely attributable to persistently low labour productivity, which in turn is related to economic geography as well as structural policy factors.
This paper describes patterns and developments of regulation that potentially affect product market competition in OECD countries over the past decade. It uses the 2008 update and revision of the OECD indicators of product market regulation (PMR).
High expectations surrounded the two waves of eastward EU enlargement in 2004 and 2007, with the extension of the EU Internal Market being expected to deliver a substantial boost to economic growth in new and old member States alike.
This book provides answers to these questions, and more, based on a survey of governments in 25 countries, 14 in-depth country case studies and 18 opinion pieces from leading civil society and government practitioners.
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The OECD has been developing a response to the crisis that is holistic, looking atfinancial market issues, and the wide variety of factors that led to damaging incentive structures, as well as the requirements for broader macro and fiscal policies. The crisis has led to a variety of emergency financial measures such as loans, guarantees, and nationalisations. For financial markets, the focus is on exit strategies that are consistent
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The financial crisis that started in the summer of 2007 is shaking the world’s economic system. It started in the financial sector, but is now having an important impact on the real economy. This paper discusses the role of competition policy in times of systemic financial crises, focusing mainly on the financial sector but also looks at the applicability of competition policy to the real sector.