The Czech Republic has registered relatively regular growth and attracted a high level of Foreign Direct Investment over its first ten years but territorial disparities between the fast growing capital city Region of Prague and structurally affected regions are increasing. At the dawn of EU accession, how can each region fully exploit its assets and overcome its handicaps? The Territorial Review of the Czech Republic analyses growth factors and obstacles to territorial development in that country, with specific recommendations in different areas. Thus, overcoming high unemployment, particularly in structurally affected old industrial regions, is linked to infrastructure priorities facilitating access but also to innovation through development of human capital, support to entrepreneurship and adoption of new technologies and processes. Obstacles to labour-force mobility such as the lack of a liberalised housing market are examined, bearing in mind the requirement to safeguard and develop social housing. The review takes into account the unique geographic location of the Czech Republic, in the heart of the new Europe, and the promising signs of development of major urban centres but also of medium sized towns acting as economic and service hubs for surrounding rural areas.