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Reports


  • 30-September-2020

    English

    Broadening Innovation Policy - New Insights for Cities and Regions

    This publication summarises the main findings of a series of high-level expert workshops, organised with support by the European Commission, to deepen the understanding how OECD countries can move towards a broad‑based form of innovation policy for regions and cities. Weaknesses in technology and knowledge diffusion are weighing on productivity growth and innovation in OECD countries, particularly in firms that are distant from the technological frontier (global or national). This in turn weakens their capacity to meet future challenges and undermines inclusive growth. This report examines where current tools for innovation policy are too narrowly focused, targeting mainly research and development as well as science and technology-based interventions. It seeks to help empower firms to benefit from global trends and technological change, in order to better adapt to the different capacity and innovation eco‑systems across regions and cities.
  • 16-June-2020

    English

    Cities in the World - A New Perspective on Urbanisation

    Cities are not only home to around half of the global population but also major centers of economic activity and innovation. Yet, so far there has been no consensus of what a city really is. Substantial differences in the way cities, metropolitan, urban, and rural areas are defined across countries hinder robust international comparisons and an accurate monitoring of SDGs. The report Cities in the World: A New Perspective on Urbanisation addresses this void and provides new insights on urbanisation by applying for the first time two new definitions of human settlements to the entire globe: the Degree of Urbanisation and the Functional Urban Area. Based on the definitions, the report presents new evidence of recent and future urbanisation trends and sheds light on the evolution of metropolitan areas around the globe. It examines whether and why quality of life differs between cities and other types of settlements. It analyses the relationship between economic development and the metropolitan system in countries around the world. Finally, it presents new evidence on the changing shape of cities and its impact on sustainability. The report demonstrates how globally consistent definitions of cities and metropolitan areas can contribute to more effective policy design.
  • 16-June-2020

    English

    Decarbonising Urban Mobility with Land Use and Transport Policies - The Case of Auckland, New Zealand

    The report presents an in-depth analysis of various policies that aim to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of urban transport. Decarbonising transport lies at the core of efforts to mitigate climate change and has close links to urban sustainability and housing affordability. The report identifies the drivers of rising emissions in the urban transport sector and offers pathways to reduce them through a combination of transport and land use policies. The analysis yields a holistic welfare evaluation of these policies, assessing them according to their environmental effectiveness, their economic efficiency and their impact on fiscal balance and housing affordability. The report concludes that significant reductions in emissions from urban transport can be achieved through a careful alignment of transport policies designed to promote the use of public transit and electric vehicles, and land use policies, which foster a more compact urban form. The study is based on the case of Auckland, New Zealand but the lessons drawn are relevant for institutions and governments working on issues relating to urban sustainability, transport, housing and climate change mitigation.
  • 8-June-2020

    English

    Agglomeration economies in Great Britain

    This paper estimates agglomeration economies in Great Britain. The analysis employs a definition of urban areas as functional economic units developed by the OECD in collaboration with the European Union to investigate the size and sources of productivity disparities across urban areas. It uses data from the UK Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings and the UK Labour Force Survey between 2000 and 2018 and a two-step estimation procedure that accounts for bias in the extent of agglomeration economies arising from individual sorting. The results suggest that a 10% increase in employment density of a city in Great Britain, would, on average, increase city productivity by 0.9-1 percent. The analysis also shows the estimated elasticity for employment density remains the same before and after the 2007–08 global financial crisis, not showing any clear structural break between city size and productivity relationship.
  • 26-May-2020

    English

    Local ability to rewire and socioeconomic performance - Evidence from US counties before and after the Great Recession

    The paper examines the effects of three groups of factors (county economic structure, social/demographic attributes and geography) on employment growth and poverty change in US counties before and after the Great Recession. It finds that the industrial structure that facilitates inter-industry employee flows ('rewiring') is of increasing importance post-Recession. In particular, this measure is associated with employment growth in under-performing counties suggesting that removing barriers to the flow of resources within lagging economies and increasing their adaptability potential might be a viable policy option.
  • 25-May-2020

    English

    Decentralisation and inter-governmental relations in the housing sector

    Based on a survey, this paper presents new data on the decentralisation of the housing system and co-ordination mechanisms across levels of government, focusing on the provision of social housing. Decision-making in social housing tends to be more devolved to sub-national actors, as compared to other key public services. Policy decision making tends to be more centralised, while sub-national governments and housing providers have more control over decisions regarding the inputs, outputs and monitoring of social housing. Governments globally have implemented a mix of housing policy interventions. Demand side interventions include tax allowances and subsidies to facilitate the purchase of a home or the provision of social housing in the rental market to those in need. Interventions to influence the supply of housing are generally aimed at housing developers or sub-national governments, to stimulate housing construction. There are a number of policy tools readily available to sub-national governments to improve housing outcomes, including the implementation and reform of taxes on immovable property and the relaxation of restrictive land use regulations.
  • 19-May-2020

    English

    Regional Strategies for the Social Economy - Examples from France, Spain, Sweden and Poland

    This paper explores the linkages between regional strategies for the social economy and regional development in four EU countries: France, Spain, Sweden and Poland. It provides a comparative perspective of regional strategies for the social economy (Section 1), based on i) the level of recognition of the social economy itself, ii) multi-level governance arrangements, iii) the regional strategic priority given to the social economy and iv) financial resources available for regional strategies. It gives examples of strategies for the social economy in selected regions in the four countries to document the diversity of practice (Section 2). It outlines conclusions and policy orientations (Section 3) to help reinforce the positive impact of regional strategies for the social economy on regional development.
  • 22-April-2020

    Italian, PDF, 1,624kb

    Coronavirus (COVID-19): Risposte di policy delle Regioni italiane per le PMI

    Questa nota è stata realizzata dal Centro OCSE di Trento per lo Sviluppo Locale, parte del Centro per l'Imprenditorialità, le PMI, le Regioni e le Città (CFE) dell'OCSE. La nota offre una raccolta preliminare delle risposte di policy adottate dalle regioni italiane a sostegno delle piccole e medie imprese (PMI) nel contesto della pandemia COVID-19.

    Related Documents
  • 16-April-2020

    English

    Rural Development Strategy Review of Ethiopia - Reaping the Benefits of Urbanisation

    Addressing rural development is key for Ethiopia’s growth process. A series of government-led structural reforms have contributed to sustained growth in the country over the last two decades as well as to considerable poverty reduction in rural areas. However, Ethiopia faces critical challenges it will need to overcome to meet the needs of a growing rural population. In practice, this will require updating the existing rural development strategy in order to better integrate the interaction of rural and urban areas. Policy approaches that account for the fast urbanisation process experienced in the country will therefore be key to improving the well-being of rural populations and promoting national growth. This report takes a spatial approach to study Ethiopia’s rural development strategies. It highlights the need to develop stronger and more functional linkages between rural and urban areas. As such, the development of intermediary cities and small urban centres provides large scope for inclusive rural transformation. The report is the result of rigorous analysis, and extensive consultations with national and international stakeholders. It identifies some of the key challenges faced by rural areas and provides a series of recommendations to enhance Ethiopia’s rural development strategies.
  • 15-April-2020

    English

    Housing policies for sustainable and inclusive cities - How national governments can deliver affordable housing and compact urban development

    In a context marked by rapid urbanisation, growing housing demand and the worsening impacts of climate change, national governments play a vital role in delivering environmentally sustainable cities with adequate and affordable housing. This paper reviews national housing policy instruments from around the world, analysing their impacts on compact urban development and housing affordability. First, the paper proposes a framework to better understand the housing market in cities by outlining drivers of housing supply and demand as well as the constitution of the housing market and its segments: homeowners and renters, single- and multi-family homes, market and below-market price segments. Next, the paper analyses a range of policy options available to national governments, which are summarised and evaluated according to their impacts on compactness and affordability. Last, the paper provides short-, medium- and long-term policy recommendations to align national housing policies with the goal of delivering more sustainable and inclusive cities. The paper is one of the first attempts to consider the intersection of physical urban form and housing affordability from a national policy perspective.
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