The Kingdom of Morocco is over 90 % dependent on energy imports, so a major challenge is to develop indigenous resources. Topography and climate are favourable to wind, solar and additional hydropower. By 2020 Morocco aims to derive more than 40 % of its electrical capacity from these sources, strengthening both energy security and sustainability. At the same time, Rabat aims to retain its attractive investment conditions for oil and gas exploration.
To reduce the burden of energy subsidies, transport fuels have progressively been brought up towards full market prices, and electricity tariffs are also being adjusted upward. Energy efficiency has been elevated to a national priority, with a range of measures on lighting, building standards, appliances and vehicles.
Morocco’s electricity grid now covers more than 98 % of households. The sector is being progressively liberalised, with foreign investment in both renewables and coal-fired power stations. The energy mix is diversified further by imports of gas from Algeria and electricity from Spain.
Morocco has established new national agencies to promote energy efficiency, renewable energy, and research and development. Co‑operation on climate change within the United Nations framework is widely perceived as exemplary. Persevering in this direction could help Morocco emerge as a regional leader in energy sector reform, as well as in the renewable energy technologies in which it has a natural advantage.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Morocco and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.