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  • 20-June-2019

    English

    Nuclear Power in a Clean Energy System

    Nuclear power and hydropower form the backbone of low-carbon electricity generation. Together, they provide three-quarters of global low-carbon generation. Over the past 50 years, the use of nuclear power has reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by over 60 gigatonnes – nearly two years’ worth of global energy-related emissions. However, in advanced economies, nuclear power has begun to fade, with plants closing and little new investment made, just when the world requires more low-carbon electricity. This report, Nuclear Power in a Clean Energy System, focuses on the role of nuclear power in advanced economies and the factors that put nuclear power at risk of future decline. It is shown that without action, nuclear power in advanced economies could fall by two-thirds by 2040. The implications of such a 'Nuclear Fade Case' for costs, emissions and electricity security using two World Energy Outlook scenarios – the New Policies Scenario and the Sustainable Development Scenario are examined. Achieving the pace of CO2 emissions reductions in line with the Paris Agreement is already a huge challenge, as shown in the Sustainable Development Scenario. It requires large increases in efficiency and renewables investment, as well as an increase in nuclear power. This report identifies the even greater challenges of attempting to follow this path with much less nuclear power. It recommends several possible government actions that aim to: ensure existing nuclear power plants can operate as long as they are safe, support new nuclear construction and encourage new nuclear technologies to be developed.
  • 19-June-2019

    English

    TALIS 2018 Results (Volume I) - Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners

    Do teachers spend more time on actual teaching and learning in a typical lesson compared to previous years? Do they feel prepared to teach when they start teaching? What sort of continuous professional development programmes do they participate in and how does it impact their practice? This report looks first at how teachers apply their knowledge and skills in the classroom in the form of teaching practices, with an accompanying assessment of the demographic makeup of those classrooms and the school climate to provide context on learning environments. The volume then assesses the ways in which teachers acquired their knowledge and skills during their early education and training, as well as the steps they take to develop them through continuous professional development over the course of their career. Based on the voice of teachers and school leaders, the report offers a series of policy orientations to help strengthen the knowledge and skills of the teaching workforce to support its professionalism.The OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is the largest international survey asking teachers and school leaders about their working conditions and learning environments, and provides a barometer of the profession every five years. Results from the 2018 cycle explore and examine the various dimensions of teacher and school leader professionalism across education systems.
  • 19-June-2019

    English

    Technology Innovation to Accelerate Energy Transitions

    Japan’s G20 presidency 2019 asked the International Energy Agency to analyse progress in G20 countries towards technology innovation to accelerate energy transitions. The Japan presidency, which began on 1 December 2018 and runs through 30 November 2019, has placed a strong focus on innovation, business and finance.1 In the areas of energy and the environment, Japan wishes to create a 'virtuous cycle between the environment and growth', which is the core theme of the G20 Ministerial Meeting on Energy Transitions and Global Environment for Sustainable Growth in Karuizawa, Japan, 15-16 June 2019.A first draft report was presented to the 2nd meeting of the G20 Energy Transitions Working Group (ETWG), held through 18-19 April 2019. This final report incorporates feedback and comments submitted during April by the G20 membership and was shared with the ETWG members.This final report is cited in 'Proposed Documents for the Japanese Presidency of the G20' that was distributed to the G20 energy ministers, who convened in Karuizawa on 15-16 June 2019.This report, prepared as an input for the 2019 G20 ministerial meeting, is an IEA contribution; it is not submitted for formal approval by energy ministers, nor does it reflect the G20 membership’s national or collective views. The report sets out around 100 'innovation gaps', that is, key innovation needs in each energy technology area that require additional efforts, including through global collaboration.
  • 18-June-2019

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Croatia 2019

    This review was prepared in response to Croatia's 2015 request to adhere to the Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. It assesses the climate for domestic and foreign investment in Croatia, its ability to comply with the principles of openness, transparency and non-discrimination and its policy convergence with the OECD Declaration, including responsible business conduct practices, and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by the government of Croatia in its reform efforts. Capitalising on the OECD Policy Framework for Investment, this review includes chapters on foreign investment trends and performance, foreign investor entry and operations, the legal and institutional framework for investment protection, investment promotion and facilitation, public governance, and policies to promote and enable responsible business conduct.
  • 18-June-2019

    English

    Regulatory Policy in Croatia - Implementation is Key

    Croatia has made great strides in strengthening its regulatory policy framework. Improving the entire regulatory policy cycle will ensure that regulations are built on a foundation of solid evidence and public participation and are designed to improve the security, health and well-being of citizens at a reasonable cost. This report assesses the country’s regulatory management capacity by taking stock of regulatory policies, institutions and tools, including administrative simplification policies, ex ante and ex post evaluation of regulations, stakeholder engagement practices, multi-level regulatory governance arrangements and tax regimes for small businesses. The review describes trends and recent developments, identifies gaps in relation to good practices and offers policy recommendations based on best international practices to strengthen the government’s capacity to manage regulatory policy.
  • 18-June-2019

    English

    Cost Benchmarking for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning

    The nuclear sector has in recent years been placing increasing attention on the need to better understand variations between cost estimates for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as the relationship between estimated and actual costs, and the apparent escalation of these costs. Building on previous work by the Nuclear Energy Agency, Cost Benchmarking for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning examines approaches and methods for the benchmarking of nuclear power plant decommissioning costs. Particular focus is given to identifying key factors, drivers and constraints to implementing cost benchmarking. These factors are addressed from a broad range of perspectives in order to develop a roadmap for implementation that will garner sufficiently broad support from a wide base of interested stakeholders. The report also identifies a number of perceived barriers that may impede the implementation of benchmarking for decommissioning. Co-ordinated efforts and further analysis will be needed to help remove these barriers.
  • 18-June-2019

    English

    Tools and Ethics for Applied Behavioural Insights: The BASIC Toolkit

    Behavioural insights (BI) are lessons derived from the behavioural and social sciences, including decision making, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, organisational and group behaviour. Public bodies around the world are increasingly using BI to design and implement better public policies based on evidence of the actual behaviour and biases of citizens and businesses. This toolkit provides practitioners and policy makers with a step-by-step process for analysing a policy problem, building strategies, and developing behaviourally informed interventions.
  • 18-June-2019

    English

    The Future of Hydrogen - Seizing today’s opportunities

    Hydrogen and energy have a long shared history – powering the first internal combustion engines over 200 years ago to becoming an integral part of the modern refining industry. It is light, storable, energy-dense, and produces no direct emissions of pollutants or greenhouse gases. But for hydrogen to make a significant contribution to clean energy transitions, it needs to be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent, such as transport, buildings and power generation.The Future of Hydrogen provides an extensive and independent survey of hydrogen that lays out where things stand now; the ways in which hydrogen can help to achieve a clean, secure and affordable energy future; and how we can go about realising its potential.
  • 18-June-2019

    English

    Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK&M) Across Generations - Developing a Key Information File for a Radioactive Waste Repository

    Radioactive waste repositories are designed to be intrinsically safe in that they are not dependent on the presence or intervention of humans. In response to this challenge, the Nuclear Energy Agency initiated the Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK&M) Across Generations Initiative, calling on the international community to help create specific means to preserve RK&M.The concept of a key information file (KIF) emerged in response to the challenge presented by the large volumes of RK&M material generated by national disposal programmes. This concept has been developed into an important component of a RK&M preservation strategy. The KIF is designed to be a single, short document, produced in a standard format, with the aim of allowing society to understand the nature and intent of a repository, and thus to reduce the likelihood of unnecessary human intrusion. It should be made openly available and ultimately be widely distributed.This report describes the KIF concept in detail, in a manner that should enable those concerned with any particular repository to create their own versions. Three draft key information files, currently under development to support RK&M preservation in France, Sweden and the United States, are provided as examples.
  • 14-June-2019

    English

    Good Practice for Good Jobs in Early Childhood Education and Care

    Recruiting and retaining skilled staff is a long-standing challenge for the early childhood education and care (ECEC) sector. OECD countries are increasingly demanding that ECEC staff be highly skilled and highly qualified, but a combination of low wages, a lack of status and public recognition, poor working conditions, and limited opportunities for professional development mean that recruitment and retention are frequently difficult. What can countries do to build a highly qualified and well-trained ECEC workforce? What is the best route to increasing staff skills without exacerbating staff shortages? How can countries boost pay and working conditions in the context of limited resources? Building on past OECD work on early childhood education and care, and drawing on the experience of OECD countries, this report outlines good practice policy measures for improving jobs in ECEC and for constructing a high-quality workforce.
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