Publications


  • 21-June-2018

    English

    The Full Costs of Electricity Provision

    Electricity provision touches upon every facet of life in OECD and non-OECD countries alike, and choosing how this electricity is generated – whether from fossil fuels, nuclear energy or renewables – affects not only economic outcomes but individual and social well-being in the broader sense. Research on the overall costs of electricity is an ongoing effort, as only certain costs of electricity provision are perceived directly by producers and consumers. Other costs, such as the health impacts of air pollution, damage from climate change or the effects on the electricity system of small-scale variable production are not reflected in market prices and thus diminish well-being in unaccounted for ways.Accounting for these social costs in order to establish the full costs of electricity provision is difficult, yet such costs are too important to be disregarded in the context of the energy transitions currently under way in OECD and NEA countries. This report draws on evidence from a large number of studies concerning the social costs of electricity and identifies proven instruments for internalising them so as to improve overall welfare.The results outlined in the report should lead to new and more comprehensive research on the full costs of electricity, which in turn would allow policy makers and the public to make better informed decisions along the path towards fully sustainable electricity systems.
  • 21-June-2018

    English

    Preparing for Decommissioning During Operation and After Final Shutdown

    The transition from an operating nuclear facility to the decommissioning phase is critical in the life cycle of every facility. A number of organisational and technical modifications are needed in order for the facility to meet new objectives and requirements, and a certain number of activities must be initiated to support the transition and preparation for the dismantling of the facility. Thorough preparation and planning is key for the success of global decommissioning and dismantling projects, both to minimise delays and undue costs and to ensure a safe and efficient decommissioning process.The aim of this report is to inform regulatory bodies, policy makers and planners about the relevant aspects and activities that should begin during the last years of operation and following the end of operation. Compiling lessons learnt from experiences and good practices in NEA member countries, the report supports the further optimisation of transition strategies, activities and measures that will ensure adequate preparation for decommissioning and dismantling.
  • 20-June-2018

    English

    Trade in Counterfeit Goods and the Italian Economy - Protecting Italy's intellectual property

    The Italian economy is innovative and rich in intellectual property (IP), with nearly every industry either producing or using IP. Italian IP-intensive industries are very well integrated in the global economy, through active participation in global value chains. At the same time, the threats of counterfeiting and piracy are growing – and Italy is vulnerable. This report measures the direct, economic effects of counterfeiting on Italian consumers, the Italian retail and manufacturing industry, and the Italian governments. It examines both the impact that the imports of fake products to Italy has on these three groups and the impact on the Italian intellectual property rights holders of the global trade in fake products that infringe their IP rights.
  • 20-June-2018

    English

    International Migration Outlook 2018

    The 2018 edition of International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and some non member countries, and looks at the evolution of the labour market outcomes of immigrants in OECD countries, with a focus on the migrants’ job quality and on the sections and occupations in which they are concentrated. It includes two special chapters on the contribution of recent refugee flows to the labour force and on the illegal employment of foreign workers. It also includes country notes and a statistical annex.
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  • 20-June-2018

    English

    How Immigrants Contribute to Ghana's Economy

    Immigrant workers contribute to the Ghanaian economy in several ways. They are well integrated in labour markets in terms of employment, although female immigrants often face greater challenges than male immigrants. Even though much of the employment of immigrant workers appears to be demand-driven, immigration may have some displacement effects in particular for native-born women. The contribution of immigrants to the government’s fiscal balance exceeds the contribution of the native-born population on a per capita basis. The overall contribution of immigrants to GDP is estimated at 1.5%. Ghana is aiming to mainstream migration into development policies, and this objective would benefit from stronger labour market information and analysis systems.How Immigrants Contribute to Ghana’s Economy is the result of a project carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization, with support from the European Union. The project aimed to analyse several economic impacts – on the labour market, economic growth, and public finance – of immigration in ten partner countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Rwanda, South Africa and Thailand. The empirical evidence stems from a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis of secondary, and in some cases primary data sources.
  • 15-June-2018

    English

    A Broken Social Elevator? How to Promote Social Mobility

    This report provides new evidence on social mobility in the context of increased inequalities of income and opportunities in OECD and selected emerging economies. It covers the aspects of both social mobility between parents and children and of personal income mobility over the life course, and their drivers. The report shows that social mobility from parents to offspring is low across the different dimensions of earnings, education, occupation and health, and that the same prevails for personal income mobility over the life course. There is in particular a lack of mobility at the bottom and at the top of the social ladder – with 'sticky floors' preventing upward mobility for many and 'sticky ceilings' associated with opportunity hoarding at the top. The lack of social mobility has economic, societal and political consequences. This report shows that there is space for policies to make societies more mobile and protect households from adverse income shocks. It discusses the options and measures that policy makers can consider how to improve social mobility across and within generations.
  • 15-June-2018

    English

    OECD Reviews of Digital Transformation: Going Digital in Sweden

    OECD Reviews of Digital Transformation: Going Digital in Sweden analyses recent developments of the digital economy in the country, reviews policies related to digitalisation and makes recommendations to increase policy coherence in this area. The report examines recent developments in infrastructures for the digital economy, telecom markets and related regulations and policies in Sweden. It reviews trends in the use of digital technologies by individuals, businesses and the government, and examines policies to foster diffusion. Digital security policies are discussed with a view to assess its strengths and limitations. The report also examines opportunities and challenges raised by digitalisation in key areas and analyses policy responses to these changes. The areas covered range from global value chains and innovation to jobs, skills and work in the digital economy.The report reconsiders these policies in relation to their coherence among different domains and in order to foster synergies across government ministries, levels and institutions, based on the policy framework of the OECD-wide 'Going Digital: Making the Transformation Work for Growth and Well-being' project.
  • 15-June-2018

    English

    Maintaining the Momentum of Decentralisation in Ukraine

    This Multi-level Governance Series study focuses on Ukraine’s advances in regional development, territorial reform and decentralisation since 2014. The Government launched a reform to merge local governments and strengthen the decentralisation process, giving additional power and resources to sub-national authorities. In a short period, successful steps have been taken toward achieving municipal mergers and greater fiscal, administrative and political decentralisation, complemented by the State Strategy for Regional Development 2015-2020. The first local elections have been held and more public services are being delivered by certain local authorities. Yet, important challenges remain, ranging from a need to address rising disparities and adjusting multi-level governance practices and territorial structures, to better structuring fiscal decentralisation. This report addresses regional performance and disparities in Ukraine, provides insight into Ukraine’s current territorial reform and approach to decentralisation, explores the impact of fiscal decentralisation measures, and includes a case study of the transport sector. It also provides a set of recommendations for action to support Ukraine in meeting the conditions for successful decentralisation.
  • 14-June-2018

    English

    Rethinking Urban Sprawl - Moving Towards Sustainable Cities

    This report provides a new perspective to the nature of urban sprawl and its causes and environmental, social and economic consequences. This perspective, which is based on the multi-dimensionality of urban sprawl, sets the foundations for the construction of new indicators to measure the various facets of urban sprawl. The report uses new datasets to compute these indicators for more than 1100 urban areas in 29 OECD countries over the period 1990-2014. It then relies on cross-city, country-level and cross-country analyses of these indicators to provide insights into the current situation and evolution of urban sprawl in OECD cities. In addition, the report offers a critical assessment of the causes and consequences of urban sprawl and discusses policy options to steer urban development to more environmentally sustainable forms.
  • 14-June-2018

    English

    Apprenticeship and Vocational Education and Training in Israel

    One of a series of studies on vocational education and training, this review assesses the apprenticeship system and vocational education and training in Israel and provides policy recommendations.Israel has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade, and labour shortages are observed in many sectors and occupations. At the same time, inequity and disadvantage in some population groups are rising. This report suggests several ways in which Israel might reform its vocational and apprenticeship programmes so that they effectively support the Israeli economy by providing the skills in demand on the labour market, and improve life chances and social mobility of individuals.The report argues for an expansion and integration of apprenticeship programmes into the mainstream upper secondary system, and development of systematic work-based learning placements in selected school-based vocational programmes. Currently vocational education and training in Israel is fragmented and students and employers often find it difficult to navigate. To address this challenge, the report recommends creating a single strategic body that will plan and guide policy development on vocational education and training, and champion it within government. A relatively large share of adults in Israel has low basic skills, particularly among Arab Israelis and Haredi Jews. Addressing basic skills weaknesses in these populations should be a priority.
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