The gap between rich and poor keeps widening. Growth, if any, has disproportionally benefited higher income groups while lower income households have been left behind. This long-run increase in income inequality not only raises social and political concerns, but also economic ones. It tends to drag down GDP growth, due to the rising distance of the lower 40% from the rest of society. Lower income people have been prevented from realising their human capital potential, which is bad for the economy as a whole. This book highlights the key areas where inequalities are created and where new policies are required, including: the consequences of current consolidation policies; structural labour market changes with rising non-standard work and job polarization; persisting gender gaps; the challenge of high wealth concentration, and the role for redistribution policies.
Since the return to democracy in 1999, Nigeria has embarked upon an ambitious reform programme towards greater economic openness and liberalisation. As a result, gross domestic product growth picked up consistently, never going below 5% since 2003. Nigeria has become a top recipient of foreign direct investment in Africa, with inflows having surpassed those to South Africa since 2009. The federal government’s Transformation Agenda recognises private sector development as the main engine for economic growth and includes bold investment reforms. Growth has however not yet been translated into inclusive development and the investment climate still suffers from severe challenges.
This Investment Policy Review examines Nigeria’s investment policies in light of the OECD Policy Framework for Investment (PFI), a tool to mobilise investment in support of economic growth and sustainable development. It provides an assessment and policy recommendations on different areas of the PFI: investment policy; investment promotion and facilitation; trade policy; infrastructure investment; competition; corporate governance and financial sector development. It also includes a special chapter analysing the PFI in Lagos State. The Review follows on the request addressed by the Minister of Industry, Trade and Investment of Nigeria to the OECD Secretary-General in December 2011. It has been prepared in close co-operation with the Federal Government of Nigeria and Lagos State Government.
Government at a Glance: How Hungary Compares presents recent comparable data on key indicators of government activities and performance in Hungary, compared with its neighbouring countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Slovak Republic and Slovenia) as well as the OECD average. The main goal of this publication is to identify progress and persisting challenges in public sector reform in Hungary and to highlight some areas where public sector efficiency might be further improved in future years. It provides indicators on a wide range of government activities, including public finance management, public employment and pay, administrative burden for businesses, and the delivery of services in two key areas (health care and education).
The Road Map for a Country-led Data Revolution was produced by the Informing a Data Revolution (IDR) project, which was launched by PARIS21 in 2014 and financed by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The project aims to help ensure the data revolution serves the post-2015 development agenda. Its focus is on National Statistical Systems (NSS) in developing countries. These are crucial to generating the data needed to promote development and reduce poverty and to monitor international development goals.
As well as this report, the IDR project has a number of other components, including the following:
- Country studies: A study of statistical systems in 27 countries and in-depth studies of 7 countries.
- Innovations Inventory: Inventories of innovative solutions that can help fill data gaps, reduce costs and improve efficiency.
- IDR Metabase: A database on the organisation, management and performance of national statistical systems to provide a baseline and a means for monitoring progress over time
For more on the methodology used to create this report, see Annex - Methodology.
This publication highlights the main conclusions of the Fishing for Development joint meeting, held in Paris in April 2014. The meeting was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank (WB) to initiate a dialogue between the fisheries and development policy communities from member and partner countries and organizations of the OECD. It brought together delegates to the OECD Fisheries Committee and OECD Development Assistance Committee, representatives of partner developing countries invited by FAO, as well as experts and representatives from FAO, WB, non-governmental organizations and regional organizations. The meeting focused on issues central to promoting sustainable fisheries and aquaculture in developing, emerging and developed countries alike.
This publication also includes the background papers originally prepared to provide context for the issues addressed. It identifies questions for a future work agenda on policy coherence in fisheries and aquaculture, and makes evident the strong need for further dialogue between the fisheries and development communities at global and regional scales.
While access to schooling has expanded around the world, many countries have not realised the hoped-for improvements in economic and social well-being. Access to education by itself is an incomplete goal for development; many students leave the education system without basic proficiency in literacy and numeracy. As the world coalesces around new sustainable development targets towards 2030, the focus in education is shifting towards access and quality. Using projections based on data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and other international student assessments, this report offers a glimpse of the stunning economic and social benefits that all countries, regardless of their national wealth, stand to gain if they ensure that every child not only has access to education but, through that education, acquires at least the baseline level of skills needed to participate fully in society.
Alcoholic beverages, and their harmful use, have been familiar fixtures in human societies since the beginning of recorded history. Worldwide, alcohol is a leading cause of ill health and premature mortality. It accounts for 1 in 17 deaths, and for a significant proportion of disabilities, especially in men. In OECD countries, alcohol consumption is about twice the world average. Its social costs are estimated in excess of 1% of GDP in high- and middle-income countries. When it is not the result of addiction, alcohol use is an individual choice, driven by social norms, with strong cultural connotations. This is reflected in unique patterns of social disparity in drinking, showing the well-to-do in some cases more prone to hazardous use of alcohol, and a polarisation of problem-drinking at the two ends of the social spectrum. Certain patterns of drinking have social impacts, which provide a strong economic rationale for governments to influence the use of alcohol through policies aimed at curbing harms, including those occurring to people other than drinkers. Some policy approaches are more effective and efficient than others, depending on their ability to trigger changes in social norms, and on how well they can target the groups that are most at risk. This book provides a detailed examination of trends and social disparities in alcohol consumption. It offers a wide-ranging assessment of the health, social and economic impacts of key policy options for tackling alcohol-related harms in three OECD countries (Canada, the Czech Republic and Germany), extracting relevant policy messages for a broader set of countries.
Knowledge investment supporting the adoption of environmentally friendly farm practices is a key driver behind innovation processes in agriculture, yet impact evaluations and financial assessments of existing initiatives remain scarce despite dramatic changes in orientation, organisation and intervention. This report examines the role, performance and impact of farm advisory services, training and extension initiatives in the OECD area to foster green growth in agriculture. Based on a series of case studies, the report discusses a range of methodological issues and the merits of the different types of providers, and identifies best practices in sustainable agricultural management.
This book brings together a collection of papers prepared for the Global Forum on Agriculture that took place at the OECD in December 2014. It reviews current knowledge about agricultural policy and agricultural trade policy settings, and questions its pertinence in light of the profound market and structural changes that have been taking place in the global agro-food sector in recent decades. It aims to inform and assist policy-makers and negotiators as they seek to overcome the problems that have made the agricultural pillar of the Doha Agenda trade negotiations particularly difficult. The data and analysis presented cover OECD countries and major G20 and emerging economies that account for the great bulk of global food production, consumption and trade.
This book examines trends in ageing societies and urban development before assessing the impact of ageing populations on urban areas and strategies for policy and governance. It includes nine case studies covering Toyama, Japan; Yokohama, Japan; Lisbon, Portugal; Calgary, Canada; Cologne, Germany; Brno, Czech Republic; Manchester, United Kingdom; Philadelphia, United States and Helsinki, Finland.