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Publications


  • 25-April-2019

    English

    OECD Employment Outlook 2019 - The Future of Work

    The 2019 edition of the OECD Employment Outlook presents new evidence on changes in job stability, underemployment and the share of well-paid jobs, and discusses the policy implications of these changes with respect to how technology, globalisation, population ageing, and other megatrends are transforming the labour market in OECD countries. The report discusses how labour market regulation might be used to extend rights and protections beyond standard employees, as well as to rebalance bargaining power between employers and workers. It analyses how collective bargaining and social dialogue can be mobilised to address emerging challenges in the labour market, looking at the role of government, social partners and new forms of collective organisation. The role of adult learning is also addressed, with a particular focus on the most vulnerable groups. And finally the report also assesses challenges for social protection policies, presenting evidence on the support gaps affecting different types of worker, and discussing reform avenues for preserving and strengthening the key stabilising role of social protection systems.
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  • 25-April-2019

    English

    Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital 2017 (Full Version)

    This publication is the tenth edition of the full version of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital. This full version contains the full text of the Model Tax Convention as it read on 21 November 2017, including the Articles, Commentaries, non-member economies’ positions, the Recommendation of the OECD Council, the historical notes and the background reports.The full version of the OECD Model Tax Convention is published regularly to reflect updates.
  • 24-April-2019

    English

    Latin America and the Caribbean 2019 - Policies for Competitive SMEs in the Pacific Alliance and Participating South American countries

    The SME Policy Index is a benchmarking tool that assists emerging economies in monitoring and evaluating progress in policies that support small and medium-sized enterprises. This first application of the Index methodology in the Latin American and Caribbean region covers the four Pacific Alliance member countries (Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru) and three participating South American countries (Argentina, Ecuador, Uruguay). Divided into seven policy dimensions, this report assesses the strengths and weaknesses that exist in different areas of SME policy design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation, and provides guidance to policy makers in identifying policy areas for future reform according to international good practices. This report is a joint effort between the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF) and the OECD through its Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Programme (LACRP), in co-operation with the Latin American and Caribbean Economic System (SELA) and the 'Foundation for the Strategic Analysis and Development of the SME' (FAEDPYME).
  • 24-April-2019

    English

    Can Social Protection Be an Engine for Inclusive Growth?

    The potential role of social protection in the development process has received heightened recognition in recent years, yet making a strong investment case for social protection remains particularly challenging in many emerging and developing countries. This report challenges us to think deeply about the economic rationale for social protection investments through an inclusive development lens. It helps us understand the links between social protection, growth and inequality; how to measure those links empirically; social protection’s impact on inclusive growth; and how to build a more solid economic case for greater social protection investments.The report adds to the debate on social protection in three ways. First, it proposes a methodological framework to conceptualise and measure the impact of social protection on what the OECD defines as inclusive growth. Second, it provides new empirical evidence on the impact of different social protection programmes on inclusive growth. Third, it helps strengthen the case for greater investments in social protection while also calling for better data to measure impacts.
  • 23-April-2019

    English

    OECD Sovereign Borrowing Outlook 2019

    The OECD Sovereign Borrowing Outlook provides regular updates on trends and developments associated with sovereign borrowing requirements, funding strategies, market infrastructure and debt levels from the perspective of public debt managers. The Outlook makes a policy distinction between funding strategy and borrowing requirements. The central government marketable gross borrowing needs, or requirements, are calculated on the basis of budget deficits and redemptions. The funding strategy entails decisions on how borrowing needs are going to be financed using different instruments and which distribution channels are being used.This edition provides data, information and background on sovereign borrowing needs and discusses funding strategies and debt management policies for the OECD area and country groupings. In particular, it examines: gross borrowing requirements; net borrowing requirements; central government marketable debt; interactions between fiscal policy, public debt management and monetary policy; funding strategies, procedures and instruments; liquidity in secondary markets; and changes in the investor base.
  • 19-April-2019

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Sweden 2019

    Sweden is leading the way towards a low-carbon society. In recent years, the country has adopted an energy and climate framework with ambitious long‑term and interim goals, including a target of 100% renewable energy in electricity generation by 2040. In this review of Sweden’s energy policies, the International Energy Agency (IEA) looks at how the country is managing its energy transition, as well as how this transition affects energy security.Sweden’s electricity system – based on nuclear, hydro and a growing share of wind power – is nearly fossil‑free. The country, which is well interconnected with its neighbours, has become a large net exporter of electricity. However, the power sector faces uncertainty from the likely phase‑out of nuclear within the next few decades. The challenge will be to maintain stability while more variable forms of renewable energy enter the system to replace nuclear power.Sweden’s energy policies give preference to technology‑neutral measures and market mechanisms, with the aim to reduce emissions in a cost‑effective way. Carbon taxation in particular has been an effective driver of decarbonisation, and Sweden has showed that high environmental taxes can be combined with sustained economic growth. As the electricity and heat supply is largely decarbonised, the main challenge for Sweden is to reduce emissions in the transport sector, which gets special attention in the review.In this report, the IEA provides recommendations for further improvements of Sweden’s energy policy to help the country continue to transform its energy sectors in a secure, affordable and environmentally sustainable manner.
  • 19-April-2019

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Ireland 2019

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) has conducted in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries since 1976. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences. This report on Ireland discusses the challenges faced as well as possible solutions to help the country’s energy sector continue towards a secure and sustainable future.Despite making substantial advances to transform its energy sector, Ireland is not on course to meet its 2020 greenhouse gas emissions reduction target. The decarbonisation of heating in buildings, one focus of this report, is a particular challenge.In a more positive development, wind power accounted for around one-quarter of total generation in 2017 – the third-highest share of all IEA member countries. Additionally, this report suggests that Ireland has considerable scope to further advance alternative means of transport and public transport infrastructure, especially in urban areas.In this report, the IEA provides recommendations for further improvements of Ireland’s energy policy to help the country continue to transform its energy sectors in order to meet the emissions reduction target for 2030.
  • 19-April-2019

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean 2019

    This report compiles comparable tax revenue statistics over the period 1990-2017 for 25 Latin American and Caribbean economies. Based on the OECD Revenue Statistics database, it applies the OECD methodology to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to enable comparison of tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among the economies of the region and with other economies. This publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development Centre, the Inter-American Center of Tax Administrations, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Inter-American Development Bank. The 2019 edition is the first to be produced with the support of the EU Regional Facility for Development in Transition for Latin America and the Caribbean, which results from joint work led by the European Union, the OECD and its Development Centre, and ECLAC.
  • 18-April-2019

    English

    Beyond Proficiency - Using Log Files to Understand Respondent Behaviour in the Survey of Adult Skills

    Computer-based administration of large-scale assessments makes it possible to collect a rich set of information on test takers, through analysis of the log files recording interactions between the computer interface and the server. This report examines timing and engagement indicators from the Survey of Adult Skills, a product of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), both of which indicate large differences across countries and socio-demographic groups, in the amount of time spent by respondents and their levels of disengagement, which reduce the probability of giving a correct answer and consequently reduces measured performance. Such insights can help policy makers, researchers and educators to better understand respondents’ cognitive strategies and the underlying causes of low and high performance. This, in turn, can help improve the design of assessments and lead to more effective training and learning programmes.
  • 17-April-2019

    English

    Fast Forward to Gender Equality - Mainstreaming, Implementation and Leadership

    This report maps strategies, governance tools, institutional settings and innovative approaches used by governments across the OECD to drive and support society-wide gender equality goals. It covers all state institutions, including legislatures and judiciaries, and discusses the challenges faced by OECD countries in achieving long-lasting impact. Finally, the report provides policy guidance for state institutions, supported by examples of what works across the OECD. This report establishes a baseline for monitoring progress, based on the 2015 OECD Recommendation of the Council on Gender Equality in Public Life.
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