Publications


  • 24-December-2014

    English

    The Economics of Investment in High-Speed Rail

    High-speed trains can compete successfully with road, air and conventional rail services on densely trafficked routes where willingness to pay is sufficient at the relatively elevated fare levels needed to cover costs. High-speed rail investments can also relieve congestion on the conventional rail network, and the capacity for high-speed rail to provide fast city centre to city centre services creates new possibilities for day-return business trips and short-stay leisure trips.

    The long cost recovery periods for high-speed lines imply government involvement in the financing of most investments. The high costs mean that governments can be exposed to accumulation of large debts, particularly if demand develops more slowly than expected. Where high-speed rail investments are designed to promote regional integration rather than meet commercial demand, significant subsidy from central and regional governments will be needed for the construction of infrastructure and possibly also for train operations.

    This report examines the key factors that drive the costs of high-speed rail investment and reviews the economic benefits delivered by high-speed rail services on the basis of experience in countries that have developed large high-speed rail networks.

  • 24-December-2014

    English

    Major Transport Infrastructure Projects and Economic Development

    This report discusses the state of the art in understanding the economic effects of major transport infrastructure projects. It examines the limits of socio-economic cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and reviews the development of complementary and alternative approaches to assessing the benefits of investment in large, transformative projects. In particular, his report focuses on practical appraisal tools developed for assessment of the Grand Paris super-metro and London’s Crossrail project.

     

     

  • 24-December-2014

    English

    Valuing Convenience in Public Transport

    The experience of transport systems users, in terms of comfort, reliability, safety and above all convenience, is critical in determining demand for transport services, at least when there is a choice of alternative ways to travel. Convenience is one of the strongest attractions of the private car for passenger transport. For users of public transport, convenience is also clearly important but not always clearly defined and not often measured in designing transport systems or monitoring their operating performance. In many situations, an increase in public transport convenience reduces the unit costs of travel (euros/dollars per hour or cents per minute) and so provides benefits equivalent to an increase in travel speed.

    This report focuses on convenience and its importance to the user experience. It reviews operational definitions of convenience, evidence for the willingness of users to pay for convenience and the use of indicators to assess and improve the convenience of public transport, with a view to making it more effective and more competitive.
     

  • 22-December-2014

    English

    Kazakhstan: Review of the Central Administration

    This review examines the functioning, structure and organisation of the central government and line ministries in Kazakhstan, as well as their capacities to implement national objectives and priorities, outlined in the Kazakhstan’s Vision 2050. It also focuses on tools, strategic management and accountability frameworks in the Government of Kazakhstan, in line with the strategic management principles outlined in the General Approaches to Modernization of Public Administration of Kazakhstan by 2020.

  • 19-December-2014

    English

    An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel - Geography, Economics and Security

    The Sahara-Sahel has seen recurrent episodes of instability. However, the recent Libyan and Malian crises have intensified the level of violence. These episodes have restructured the geopolitical and geographical dynamics of the region. Cross-border or regional, these contemporary crises require new institutional responses. How can countries sharing this space -  Algeria, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Chad and Tunisia and all related states such as Nigeria - stabilize and develop?

    Historically, the Sahara plays an intermediary role between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. Commercial and human exchanges are intense and based on social networks that now include trafficking. Understanding their structure, geographical and organizational mobility of criminal groups and migratory movements represents a strategic challenge. This book hopes to address this challenge and stimulate strategies for the Sahel of the European Union, the United Nations, the African Union or ECOWAS (Economic Community of the States of West Africa) in order to foster lasting peace.

    The Atlas is based on an analysis of mapped regional security issues and development objectives to open the necessary dialogue between regional and international organizations, governments, researchers and local stakeholders tracks.

  • 19-December-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: France 2014

    This report compares the performance of the French innnovation systems with that of other countries and presents the conclusions of interviews with 30 key actors in the French research and innovation system.  During the past ten years, this system has undergone profound changes, and the report highlights the governments plan to dynamise and reform the system.

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The United States 2014

    Since the last IEA review of the United States was published in 2008, the country’s energy policy landscape has fundamentally changed. In many aspects there have been significant improvements, and the country is in a strong position to deliver a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable energy system.

    The most obvious change has been the renaissance of oil and gas production: the growth in unconventional gas production, alongside increased output of light tight oil, is making a substantial contribution to economic activity and competitiveness. Conversely, the expansion in energy production is also raising unease on environmental and safety grounds, concerns which must be addressed appropriately.

    The U.S. natural gas boom has resulted in stable wholesale electricity prices, lower greenhouse gas emissions and greater system flexibility. The electricity system, however, is in need of significant investment if the country is to meet demand growth forecasts and strengthen its resilience to climate change. Renewable energy production is growing but the durability of federal tax incentives remains a persistent uncertainty.

    At policy level, a number of strategic initiatives have created a new policy framework over the past six years. Among them, the Climate Action Plan has the potential to guide the U.S. economy away from its reliance on fossil fuels and towards a more sustainable energy system.

    This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing the United States and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Annual Report on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 2014 - Responsible Business Conduct by Sector

    This 14th annual report on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises describes the activities undertaken to promote the observance of the Guidelines during the implementation cycle of June 2013-June 2014. This includes work on due diligence in the financial and extractive sectors, as well as along agricultural supply chains, strengthened co-operation with non-adhering countries, the outcomes of the 2nd Global Forum on Responsible Business Conduct, as well as the activities of National Contact Points who promote the observance of the Guidelines' principles and standards in the 46 adhering countries.

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Eurostat-OECD Methodological Guide for Developing Producer Price Indices for Services - Second Edition

    The International Producer Price Index Manual, Theory and Practice (PPI Manual) published by the IMF in 2004 consituted a landmark for international standards on price measurement and contains detailed, comprehensive information for the compilation of producer price indices as well as an extensive coverage of the conceptual and theoretical issues. This second edition of the Methodological Guide for Developing Producer Price Indices for Services (SPPI Guide) is a complement to the PPI Manual in two ways: it focuses on service-specific aspects in the PPI compilation by developing further the conceptual framework and it adds detailed descriptions of PPI measurement for a wide range of individual service industries.

    This second edition of the SPPI Guide has been jointly produced by the OECD, Eurostat, the members of a task Force with deleguates from 14 OECD/EU members countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States)and in synergy with the Voorburg Group. Several countries contributed to the Guide by providing descriptions of service PPIs for individual industries, other countries were represented by national experts in at least one meeting of the Task Force.

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Seine Basin, Île-de-France, 2014: Resilience to Major Floods

    This study examines flood risk prevention of the Seine in the Ile-de-France region. It highlights the impacts a major flood, like the one in 1910, could have on the well-being of citizens, city management and the economy.

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