Tourism Trends and Policies, published biennially, analyses tourism performance and major policy trends, initiatives and reforms across 50 OECD countries and partner economies, providing up-to-date tourism data and analysis. The report is an international reference and benchmark on how effectively countries are supporting competitiveness, innovation and growth in tourism.
Tourism has successfully weathered the effects of the global economic crisis, and active tourism policies have played an essential role in supporting a competitive and sustainable tourism economy. The 2016 edition captures these ongoing trends - presenting standardised data covering domestic, inbound and outbound tourism, enterprises and employment, and internal tourism consumption - and reports on how seamless transport can enhance the tourism experience, as well as the opportunities, challenges and implications of the sharing economy for tourism.
The 2015 OECD Recommendation of the Council on Gender Equality in Public Life promotes a government-wide strategy for gender equality reform, sound mechanisms to ensure accountability and sustainability of gender initiatives, and tools and evidence to inform inclusive policy decisions. It also promotes a “whole-of-society” approach to reducing gender stereotypes, encouraging women to participate in politics and removing implicit and explicit barriers to gender equality. This Recommendation is unique, as it provides not only governments, but also parliaments and judiciaries, with clear, timely and actionable guidelines for effectively implementing gender equality and gender mainstreaming initiatives, and for improving equal access to public leadership for women and men from diverse backgrounds.
Canada has continued to harvest its vast natural resources and witnessed a shale revolution alongside rising oil sands production and investment in the energy sector over the past five years. The medium-term outlook for gas/oil production and exports, however, is challenging amid uncertainties around pipeline developments and an era of low prices, abundant global supplies and surging production in the United States, Canada’s main export market.
Canada maintains the highest energy supply per capita among IEA member countries. Emissions from the oil and gas sectors increased by 14% in 2005-13, despite Canada’s low-carbon electricity mix (largely hydro and nuclear). The federal government, with the provinces, has put forward stringent energy efficiency and emission standards in the buildings, power and transport sectors, but not in industry. To strengthen its position as responsible energy supplier and user, Canada must take action to mitigate emissions and energy intensity. It can continue to develop its resources in a sustainable and cost-effective manner while balancing its economic and sustainability goals.
Canada remains at the forefront of technological and regulatory innovation in unconventional oil and gas production and carbon capture and storage (CCS) with four large-scale CCS projects under way in 2015. The country has adopted ambitious climate targets at provincial and federal levels, but the federation is far from meeting its targets for 2020 and 2030. In July 2015, the Premiers of the provinces and territories agreed a Canadian Energy Strategy. The IEA urges the federal government to seize this opportunity for collective action to meet its 2030 goals and bring certainty to investment in clean-energy technologies and renewables.
This in-depth review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Canada and provides recommendations for each energy sector, including advice for the implementation of the Canadian Energy Strategy.
This series helps countries to identify and overcome binding constraints to achieving higher levels of well-being and more equitable and sustainable growth. The Development Pathways are based on Multi-dimensional Country Reviews, which take into account policy interactions and the country-specific policy environment through three phases. The first phase comprises an initial assessment of the constraints to development. The second phase involves an in-depth analysis of the main issues resulting in detailed policy recommendations. The third phase is designed to move from paper to action and to support government efforts in developing strategies and implementing policy recommendations.
The OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. The policies and programmes of each member are critically examined approximately once every five years. DAC peer reviews assess the performance of a given member, not just that of its development co-operation agency, and examine both policy and implementation. They take an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian assistance activities of the member under review.
Since the discovery of radiation at the end of the 19th century, the health effects of exposure to radiation have been studied more than almost any other factor with potential effects on human health. The NEA has long been involved in discussions on the effects of radiation exposure, releasing two reports in 1994 and 2007 on radiological protection science.
This report is the third in this state-of-the-art series, examining recent advances in the understanding of radiation risks and effects, particularly at low doses. It focuses on radiobiology and epidemiology, and also addresses the social science aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. The report summarises the status of, and issues arising from, the application of the International System of Radiological Protection to different types of prevailing circumstances.
Public investment, and particularly infrastructure investment, is important for sustainable economic growth and development as well as public service provision. However, it is also vulnerable to capture and corruption. This publication examines the direct and indirect benefits of public investment if carried out in a clean and efficient manner. It provides a Framework for Integrity in Public Investment, mapping out risks of corruption at each phase of the investment cycle. It also identifies tools and mechanisms to promote integrity in the public investment cycle and provides examples of their successful implementation in both the public and private sectors.
Future economic development and the wellbeing of citizens in South East Europe (SEE) depend more than ever on greater economic competitiveness. To underpin the drive to improve competitiveness and foster private investment, an integrated policy approach is needed. This first edition of Competitiveness in South East Europe: A Policy Outlook seeks to help policy makers in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, and Serbia assess their progress towards their growth goals and benchmark them against the good practices adopted by OECD countries and the performance of their regional peers.
This report addresses 15 policy dimensions critical to competitive economies that draw on the South East Europe 2020 Strategy (SEE 2020), a regional growth strategy drawn up by the Regional Cooperation Council and adopted by SEE governments in 2013. The qualitative assessments presented herein use scoring frameworks to enable regional comparisons. A participatory assessment process – that brings together regional policy networks and organisations, policy makers, independent experts and the private sector – ensures a balanced view of performance.
The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new series on "Investing in Youth" which builds on the expertise of the OECD on youth employment, social support and skills. This series covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth labour market and VET system in Lithuania from an international comparative perspective, and offers tailored recommendations to help improve school-to-work transitions. It also provides an opportunity for Lithuania to learn from the innovative measures that other countries have taken to strengthen the skills of youth and their employment outcomes, notably through the implementation of a Youth Guarantee.
This report looks at farm management practices with green growth potential, from farmer-led innovations (such as those directly linked to soil and water, Integrated Pest Management, organic farming) to science-led technologies (such as biotechnology and precision agriculture). Global food demand can only be met in a sustainable way if new forms of agricultural production and innovative technologies can be unlocked to increase the productivity, stability, and resilience of production systems with goals beyond just raising yields, including saving water and energy, reducing risk, improving product quality, protecting the environment and climate change mitigation.