Transport infrastructure opens new routes and creates connections. It increases prosperity by generating economic opportunities, reducing transport costs and supporting agglomeration economies. However, the increased traffic flows also generate environmental and social costs. In Korea, the amount of paved roads increased dramatically between 1951 and 2014, from 580 kilometres to over 87 000 kilometres. This expansion of Korea’s expressway, highway and major road network has created benefits for cities and rural areas across the country, contributing to both economic growth and inclusiveness. This rapid development of road infrastructure and motorisation has also resulted in relatively high traffic fatality rates. This report combines empirical research on the relationship between road infrastructure, inclusive economic development and traffic safety with an assessment of policies and governance structures to help governments find ways to create effective, safe and inclusive transport infrastructures.
How can Colombia improve both the quality and equity of its education system while also addressing efficiency challenges? Despite a fundamental transformation of its education system over the past two decades, Colombia faces two critical challenges: high levels of inequality from the earliest years and low levels of quality across its education system. This report assesses Colombia’s policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills from across the OECD. It analyses its education system’s major strengths and the challenges it faces, from early childhood education and care to tertiary education. With insights drawn from international research, it offers recommendations on how Colombia can improve quality and equity to reach its goal of being the “most educated” country in Latin America by 2025. This report will be of interest in Colombia as well as other countries looking to raise the quality, equity and efficiency of their education systems.
This publication provides an overview of the recent trends and developments in financial education policies and programmes in Europe. It describes the status of national strategies for financial education and various financial education programmes targeting a variety of audiences and through a variety of delivery channels. Based on the analysis of these initiatives, the report offers policy and practical suggestions for European policy makers and other stakeholders.
“What is important for citizens to know and be able to do?” The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) seeks to answer that question through the most comprehensive and rigorous international assessment of student knowledge and skills. The PISA 2015 Assessment and Analytical Framework presents the conceptual foundations of the sixth cycle of the triennial assessment. Similar to the previous cycles, the 2015 assessment covers science, reading and mathematics, with the major focus on scientific literacy this cycle. Financial literacy is also evaluated as an optional assessment, as it was in 2012.A questionnaire about students’ background is distributed to all participating students. Students may also choose to complete additional questionnaires: one about their future studies and career, a second about their familiarity with information and communication technologies. School principals complete a questionnaire about the learning environment in their schools, and parents of students who sit the PISA test can choose to complete a questionnaire about the home environment. Seventy-one countries and economies, including all 34 OECD countries, participated in the PISA 2015 assessment.
Public procurement is a critical element of good governance, as it is a crucial nexus of interaction between the public and private sectors. This report examines ongoing public procurement reforms in Colombia, focusing on issues such as the availability of data on public procurement, preventing conflicts of interest, competition and contracting award methods, and legal control and remedy systems.
Counterfeit and pirated products come from many economies, with China appearing as the single largest producing market. These illegal products are frequently found in a range of industries, from luxury items (e.g. fashion apparel or deluxe watches), via intermediary products (such as machines, spare parts or chemicals) to consumer goods that have an impact on personal health and safety (such as pharmaceuticals, food and drink, medical equipment, or toys). This report assess the quantitative value, scope and trends of this illegal trade.
This report assesses the magnitude, flows and drivers of illicit trade and the illegal economy including: narcotics, human trafficking, wildlife, sports betting, counterfeit medicines, alcohol and tobacco. The negative socio-economic impacts that these markets have in consumer countries are as worrisome as the goverance gaps that are exploited in source countries. This report examines each illicit sector in terms of the geographic sources, destinations and key trade routes, the current trend of infiltration by organized crime networks, and good practices or future policy solutions with which to combat illicit trade within the various sectors.
Thailand’s remarkable social and economic development since the 1970s has resulted in a steep and steady
increase in energy consumption and, as a consequence, a rising dependency on imported fuels and associated
exposure to international commodity prices. Electricity demand is currently concentrated in the Bangkok
metropolitan area and driven by a large industrial and manufacturing base and significant amounts of tourism.
But Thailand is a growing country with a large middle class, and a structural transition may change the nature
and shape of electricity demand.
Thai energy policy is driven by three pillars: security, affordability and environmental sustainability. Concerns
about fuel diversity underlie all three pillars and as a result are major factors in long-term plans for power
generation. Thailand’s electricity sector is at a turning point similar to that of many International Energy Agency
(IEA) member countries, as it transitions to low-carbon power sources. Thailand must decide how to finance
massive investments in new generation assets, transmission and distribution networks, as well as the steps to
improve system operations and scale up energy efficiency.
Partner Country Series – Thailand Electricity Security Assessment 2016 analyses the challenges the country faces,
including how regulatory and market arrangements can adapt to best realise the opportunities from potentially
disruptive distributed resources like wind and solar photovoltaics. This study draws on IEA member countries’
experiences as well as Agency analysis to recommend policy improvements for a more secure and sustainable
electricity sector in Thailand.
The world’s largest energy consumer and producer as well as the top oil importer and carbon dioxide emitter,
the People’s Republic of China is in the centre of the global energy landscape – and at a turning point towards a
low-carbon future. There is an increasingly clear congruence of China’s domestic interests and the world’s
collective interests in terms of energy security, economic development and sustainable growth. In global energy
governance, the country is gradually transforming from outsider to insider and from follower to influencer, with
instrumental implications for the country and the world. This book provides a historical perspective on China’s
approach to global energy governance and highlights how greater positive and constructive Chinese
engagement can be a step towards a better energy future for all.
This report assesses the Republic of Kazakhstan’s significant efforts to improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services over the past 15 years, notably in terms of ambitious target-setting, implementation of a sound water tariff policy, and significant investment in the rehabilitation and development of relevant infrastructure. Generally speaking, the absence of updated data on WSS institutional development is a limiting factor for further policy and programme development in the field, including in Kazakhstan. The monitoring and evaluation system proposed in this report aims to help assess progress in the WSS sector and serve as a basis for any necessary corrective measures.