Publications


  • 30-September-2016

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Japan 2016

    One of the largest economies in the world, Japan has long been a major consumer and importer of energy and a recognised leader in energy technology development. Japan’s energy policy has been dominated in recent years by its efforts to overcome the fallout from the 2011 earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident. One consequence of the accident was a gradual shutdown of all nuclear power plants, which has led to a significant rise in fossil fuels use, increased fuel imports and rising carbon dioxide emissions. It has also brought electricity prices to unsustainable levels.Faced with these challenges, the government of Japan has revised its energy policy in recent years to focus on further diversifying its energy mix (less use of fossil fuels, more reliance on renewable energy, restarting nuclear plants when declared safe) and curbing carbon emissions. Building on these plans, Japan has outlined ambitious goals to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 26% between 2013 and 2030.This emissions reduction commitment requires a balancing act between energy security, economic efficiency, environmental protection and safety. This International Energy Agency (IEA) review of Japan’s policies highlights three areas that are critical to its success: energy efficiency, increasing renewable energy supply and restarting nuclear power generation. The IEA encourages Japan to increase low-carbon sources of power supply. It also recognises that nuclear power can only be restored provided that the highest safety standards are met and the critical issues following the Fukushima accident are addressed, including decontaminating areas affected by the radioactive release and regaining public trust.This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Japan and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
  • 30-September-2016

    English

    Evaluation Systems in Development Co-operation - 2016 Review

    Evaluation is widely recognised as an important component for learning and improving development effectiveness. Evaluation responds to public and taxpayer demands for credible information and independent assessment of development co-operation activities. The Development Assistance Committee’s Network on Development Evaluation supports members in their efforts to strengthen and continuously improve evaluation systems.The 2016 review of evaluation systems in development co-operation looks at the changes and trends in evaluation systems over the last five years. The report describes the role and management of evaluation in development agencies, ministries and multilateral banks. It provides information about the specific institutional settings, resources, policies and practices of DAC Evaluation Network members, and includes specific profiles on each member’s evaluation system. The study identifies major trends and current challenges in development evaluation. It covers issues such as human and financial resources, institutional setups and policies, independence of the evaluation function, reporting and use of evaluation findings, joint evaluation, and the involvement of partner countries in evaluation work.This report is part of the DAC Network on Development Evaluation’s ongoing efforts to increase the effectiveness of development co-operation policies and programmes by promoting high-quality, independent evaluation.
  • 29-September-2016

    English

    Supreme Audit Institutions and Good Governance - Oversight, Insight and Foresight

    This report maps the activities of ten leading Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) in Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Korea, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, South Africa and the United States. In particular, it looks at how these SAIs assess key stages of the policy cycle as well as resulting policies and programmes. SAIs have untapped potential to go beyond their traditional oversight role and contribute evidence for more informed policy-making. The report provides examples and case studies of SAIs’ activities that consider and support the integration of international good practices into policy and programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. It provides guidance for SAIs seeking to engage in oversight, insight and foresight, taking into account the SAI’s internal strategy as well as policy challenges and actors in the external environment.
  • 28-September-2016

    English

    Making Education Count for Development - Data Collection and Availability in Six PISA for Development Countries

    This report reviews the collection, availability and quality of system-level data and metadata on education from countries participating in the PISA for Development project: Cambodia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Senegal and Zambia. PISA for Development aims to increase low income countries’ use of PISA assessments for monitoring progress towards national goals for improving education and for analysing the factors associated with student learning outcomes, particularly among poor and marginalised populations. The project also helps track progress towards the international education targets defined in the Education 2030 Framework for Action, which the international community adopted in 2015 as the strategy for achieving the Education Sustainable Development Goal (SDG).The report suggests technically sound and viable options for improving data quality, completeness and international comparability in the six countries that are reviewed. It also provides insights into overcoming some of the challenges common to countries that participate in PISA for Development and to other middle income and low income countries.
  • 27-September-2016

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Ukraine 2016

    Ukraine’s post-Maidan authorities have embarked upon an ambitious reform programme to improve the country’s framework for investment and strengthen the country as an attractive investment destination. This review, which was prepared in close cooperation with the Ukrainian authorities in response to their 2011 request to adhere to the Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises (OECD Declaration), analyses the general investment framework as well as recent reform, and shows where further efforts are necessary. It assesses Ukraine’s ability to comply with the principles of openness, transparency and non-discrimination and its policy convergence with international investment standards such as the OECD Declaration. In light of the recently updated OECD Policy Framework for Investment, it also studies other areas such as investment promotion and facilitation, infrastructure development; financial sector development and responsible business conduct practices. In the scarcely two years since a new attempt at economic reforms was launched in earnest, Ukraine has made quite important progress in introducing a modern legal framework for investment. But additional efforts are required in some policy areas to reaffirm Ukraine’s attractiveness for investors.
     
  • 26-September-2016

    English

    Taxing Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean 2016

    This new high profile report provides details of taxes paid on wages in twenty economies in Latin America and the Caribbean.  It covers: personal income taxes and social security contributions paid by employees; social security contributions and payroll taxes paid by employers; cash benefits received by in-work families.It illustrates how these taxes and benefits are calculated in each member country and examines how they impact on household incomes. The results also enable quantitative cross-country comparisons of labour cost levels and the overall tax and benefit position of single persons and families on different levels of earnings.The publication shows the amounts of taxes and social security contributions levied and cash benefits received for eight different family types which vary by a combination of household composition and household type.  It also presents the resulting average and marginal tax rates (i.e. the tax burden). Average tax rates show that part of gross wage earnings or total labour costs which is taken in tax and social security contributions (both before and after cash benefits). Marginal tax rates show the part of a small increase of gross earnings or total labour costs that is paid in these levies.The data presented can be used in academic research and to analyse tax, social and economic policies in Latin America and the Caribbean.
  • 26-September-2016

    English

    Effective Carbon Rates - Pricing CO2 through Taxes and Emissions Trading Systems

    To tackle climate change, CO2 emissions need to be cut. Pricing carbon is one of the most effective and lowest-cost ways of inducing such cuts. This report presents the first full analysis of the use of carbon pricing on energy in 41 OECD and G20 economies, covering 80% of global energy use and of CO2 emissions. The analysis takes a comprehensive view of carbon prices, including specific taxes on energy use, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices. It shows the entire distribution of effective carbon rates by country and the composition of effective carbon rates by six economic sectors within each country. Carbon prices are seen to be often very low, but some countries price significant shares of their carbon emissions. The ‘carbon pricing gap’, a synthetic indicator showing the extent to which effective carbon rates fall short of pricing emissions at EUR 30 per tonne, the low-end estimate of the cost of carbon used in this study, sheds light on potential ways of strengthening carbon pricing.
  • 26-September-2016

    English

    Innovating Education and Educating for Innovation - The Power of Digital Technologies and Skills

    OECD’s Innovation Strategy calls upon all sectors in the economy and society to innovate in order to foster productivity, growth and well-being. Education systems are critically important for innovation through the development of skills that nurture new ideas and technologies. However, whereas digital technologies are profoundly changing the way we work, communicate and enjoy ourselves, the world of education and learning is not yet going through the same technology-driven innovation process as other sectors.This report served as the background report to the second Global Education Industry Summit which was held on 26-27 September 2016. It discusses the available evidence on innovation in education, the impact of digital technologies on teaching and learning, the role of digital skills and the role of educational industries in the process of innovation. The report argues for smarter policies, involving all stakeholders, for innovation in education.
  • 26-September-2016

    English

    Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in Turkey

    Productivity growth in the Turkish agricultural sector is supported today by better technologies, crop varieties and animal breeds. Yet improvements have slowed since the late 2000s, and the productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy remains large. To overcome these challenges, Turkey will need to reduce the substantial technological and human resource disparities between small-holder and commercial segments in agriculture, and ensure more equal regional development. Considerable structural adjustment is also required, both within agriculture and in the overall economy, supported by broad policy actions in the areas of labour, education, social security systems, and land reform. Important efforts have been made to boost national innovation systems, but there remains considerable catch up in terms of the quality and impact of R&D. 
  • 22-September-2016

    English

    Tax Policy Reforms in the OECD 2016

    This is the first edition of 'Tax Policy Reforms in the OECD'. This annual series of reports aims to track and compare tax policy developments over time across OECD countries. This year’s edition focuses on the tax reforms that were introduced in 2015 and identifies the most significant tax policy reforms as well as common tax policy trends across groups of countries. The Report is primarily based on responses to the OECD Tax Policy Reform Questionnaire which is sent yearly to all member countries to collect information on tax reforms and their expected revenue effects. Monitoring  tax policy reforms across the OECD and understanding the context in which they were undertaken is crucial to inform tax policy discussions but also to support member and non-member countries in their assessment and design of future tax reforms.
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