Publications


  • 9-June-2016

    English

    The Economic Consequences of Outdoor Air Pollution

    This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the economic consequences of outdoor air pollution in the coming decades, focusing on the impacts on mortality, morbidity, and changes in crop yields as caused by high concentrations of pollutants. Unless more stringent policies are adopted, findings point to a significant increase in global emissions and concentrations of air pollutants, with severe impacts on human health and the environment. The market impacts of outdoor air pollution are projected to lead to significant economic costs, which are illustrated at the regional and sectoral levels, and to substantial annual global welfare costs.

  • 9-June-2016

    English

    OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.
    The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildings and equipment; and other resources, such as learning time.
    This series offers timely policy advice to both governments and the education community. It includes both country reports and thematic studies.

  • 9-June-2016

    English

    OECD Business and Finance Outlook 2016

    It is seven years since the global crisis and despite easy monetary policy, financial regulatory reform, and G20 resolutions favouring structural measures, the world economy is not making a lot of progress. Indeed, the responses to the crisis seem mainly to have stopped the banks from failing and then pushed the many faces of the crisis around between regions—currently taking the form of excess capacity in emerging markets. Productivity growth raises income per head, allows companies to pay better wages and it raises demand to help to eliminate excess capacity and improve employment. However, this element is missing in the global corporate sector. The theme of this year’s Business and Finance Outlook is fragmentation: the inconsistent structures, policies, rules, laws and industry practices that appear to be blocking business efficiency and productivity growth.

  • 8-June-2016

    English

    Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2016

    The context for global gas markets is changing rapidly, raising new challenges for industry and policy makers alike. The slowdown in Asian gas demand that started in 2014 intensified in 2015, prompting a rare decline in the region’s LNG imports and pushing prices to new lows. As the world prepares to welcome a large wave of new LNG projects, market players are left with one burning question: where will all that gas go?

    Heavily oversupplied markets in the short term have triggered sharp investment cuts across the industry; if under-investment persists it could sow the seeds of a classic bust-boom commodity cycle. Unlike previous downturns, however, this time there is greater uncertainty about future demand prospects.

    Caught between cheap coal and continued policy support for renewables, global gas demand has so far failed to react to the steep fall in prices. Industry participants are now wondering whether this is temporary or whether it marks the beginning of structurally lower growth for gas demand. How countries reassess environmental policies in the aftermath of the Paris Agreement will be key to determining what comes next for gas.

    The Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2016 assesses these trends and provides a detailed analysis of global demand supply and trade development through 2021. It also explores the links between today’s oversupply and emerging shifts in trade patterns, pricing mechanisms and market structures that have the potential to substantially reshape the global gas industry over the next few years.

  • 7-June-2016

    English

    Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Europe 2016

    The OECD series Recruiting Immigrant Workers comprises country studies of labour migration policies. Each volume analyses whether migration policy is being used effectively and efficiently to help meet labour needs, without adverse effects on labour markets. It focuses mainly on regulated labour migration movements over which policy has immediate and direct oversight. This particular volume looks at the efficiency of European Union instruments for managing labour migration.

  • 6-June-2016

    English

    Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 - Cities, flexibility and pathways to carbon-neutrality

    Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 presents a clear technological and economical pathway for the Nordic region towards a nearly carbon-neutral energy system in 2050. Nordic countries’ success can send a strong signal to the global community that the ambitions of the Paris Agreement from COP21 are achievable.

    The report identifies opportunities for policy makers and the private sector in three strategic areas:

    1. Incentivise and plan for a significantly more distributed, flexible and interconnected Nordic electricity system. A decentralised electricity supply with a high share of wind is likely to achieve a carbon-neutral system at lower cost than a system reliant on nuclear and thermal generation. But the shift will require flexibility measures beyond those now provided by Nordic hydropower, as well as a significant increase in cross-border electricity trade.

    2. Ramp up technologies to decarbonise energy-intensive industries and long-distance transport. Emissions from industries like steel and cement are the most challenging to reduce, requiring rapid advances in the demonstration and deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and other innovative technologies. Electrification will be at the core of most low-carbon transportation, but long-distance transport will likely require large volumes of biofuels.

    3. Tap into cities’ positive momentum to strengthen national decarbonisation and enhance energy efficiency in transport and buildings. Driven in part by air quality, health and congestion objectives, many Nordic cities lead their countries’ decarbonisation efforts, with more ambitious targets and advanced roll-out of electric vehicles.

  • 1-June-2016

    English

    Promoting Productivity for Inclusive Growth in Latin America

    After a period of relatively robust growth that has allowed tens of millions of poorer households to join the global middle class, growth in Latin America has slowed recently, partly as a result of external factors. To close the still large gaps in living standards in relation to advanced economies, the region needs to significantly raise productivity growth while making sure that everybody has the opportunity to benefit from it. This will require comprehensive structural reforms, supported by a pro-productivity policy framework that incorporates social inclusion considerations from the outset.

  • 31-May-2016

    English

    Green Investment Banks - Scaling up Private Investment in Low-carbon, Climate-resilient Infrastructure

    This report provides the first comprehensive study of publicly capitalised green investment banks (GIBs), analysing the rationales, mandates and financing activities of this relatively new category of public financial institution. Based on the experience of over a dozen GIBs and GIB-like entities, the report provides a non-prescriptive stock-taking of the diverse ways in which these public institutions are catalysing private investment in low-carbon, climate-resilient infrastructure and other green sectors, with a spotlight on energy efficiency projects. The report also provides practical information to policy makers on how green investment banks are being set up, capitalised and staffed.

  • 31-May-2016

    English

    The Governance of Inclusive Growth

    Public governance can make a broad-based contribution to sound, sustainable and inclusive growth. Aligning public governance tools and processes with the broader objectives of policy making for inclusive growth can help governments deal with the complexities that go hand-in-hand with reconciling growth and inclusiveness. These complexities include setting out a vision, ensuring that policies complement each other and that different parts of government work together towards common goals, and engaging stakeholders to improve effectiveness, delivery and inclusion. After describing the OECD approach to inclusive growth, the report discusses which public governance principles, tools and arrangements can be used, and when, to enable a whole-of-government shift towards inclusive growth.

  • 25-May-2016

    English

    Netherlands 2016 - Foundations for the Future

    How can the Netherlands move its school system “from good to great”? This report draws on international experience to look at ways in which the strong Dutch school system might go further still on the path to excellence. Clearly the Dutch school system is one of the best in the OECD, as measured by PISA and PIAAC and is also equitable, with a very low proportion of poor performers. The report therefore proposes an incremental approach to reform, building on strengths while responding to some emerging challenges. The Netherlands should strengthen the quality of early childhood education and care, revisit policies related to early tracking with more objective testing and track decisions, and enhance the permeability of the system. It should develop the professionalism of teachers and school leaders through enhanced collective learning and working, while at the same time strengthening accountability and capacity in school boards. This report will be valuable not only for the Netherlands, but also to the many other education systems looking to raise their performance who are interested in the example of the Netherlands.

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