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Publications


  • 29-April-2020

    English

    Foreign direct investment and trade in agro-food global value chains

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade are driving forces in agro-food global value chains (GVCs), allowing companies to spread their activities across countries in complex production chains. This study explores the landscape of FDI in the agriculture and food sectors, using a novel database of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) covering the period 1997-2017. The study finds that FDI plays an important role in driving participation in agro-food GVCs, underscoring the close interdependencies between FDI, trade, and the various other channels that multinational enterprises (MNEs) use to engage with GVCs. The results from a survey of agro-food MNEs suggest that FDI decisions are underpinned by a diverse range of strategic motivations that go beyond commercial considerations and market-related factors. In particular, open, transparent and predictable trade and investment policies can have a strong positive influence on agro-food FDI. The study also highlights the importance of a broader set of policy areas, including dynamic agricultural innovation systems, policies to support supply chain linkages, and strong and effective laws governing responsible business conduct.
  • 28-April-2020

    English

    The effectiveness of social protection for long-term care in old age - Is social protection reducing the risk of poverty associated with care needs?

    As people grow old and their health deteriorates, they are likely to require help with everyday activities that were once second nature; they need what is commonly termed long-term care (LTC). With demand for LTC in old age expected to grow, OECD countries face significant challenges in balancing financial sustainability with the provision of effective social protection against the financial risks associated with developing LTC needs – the cost of care can far exceed median incomes and its duration can be many years. This report provides a novel set of comprehensive and internationally comparable estimates of the adequacy, equity and efficiency of public social protection systems for LTC in old age in OECD countries and EU Member States. Using a set of 'typical cases' of LTC need to ensure comparability, including different levels of severity and different ways in which needs can be met, this report shows cross-country and regional variations in the total costs of LTC services, the degree of public coverage, the out-of-pocket costs that care recipients face, and the associated poverty risks. The quantitative results are discussed in the context of how different countries design LTC benefits and schemes, including cost-sharing mechanisms. Finally, to illustrate the policy relevance of the analyses, the distributive effects of actual and hypothetical policy scenarios are simulated, including an international free personal care policy, and possible reforms in Ireland and England.
  • 27-April-2020

    English

    SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Brazil 2020

    This publication presents the findings of the OECD review of SME and entrepreneurship policy in Brazil. SMEs play an important role for economic growth and social inclusion in Brazil, accounting for 62% of total employment and 50% of national value added. However, productivity gaps between SMEs and large companies are wider in Brazil than in the OECD area, which is also the result of low innovation and export propensity among Brazilian SMEs. Business ownership and business creation are common, but growth-oriented entrepreneurship is much less widespread. Brazil’s SME policy is enshrined in the 1988 Federal Constitution, which grants to micro and small enterprises a preferential treatment in different policy areas (e.g. tax and labour law). Brazilian SME policies are, therefore, mostly aimed at this constituency, whereas mid-sized firms are largely missing in the national policy debate. Simples Nacional, a preferential tax and regulatory regime, is the main federal SME policy, but Brazil also operates a large number of targeted programmes for SMEs. This report provides policy recommendations to enhance Brazil’s SME and entrepreneurship performance, covering, among others, innovation policy, export support, access to finance, and women’s entrepreneurship.
  • 24-April-2020

    English

    Effective Adult Learning Policies - Challenges and Solutions for Latin American Countries

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, as across the globe, globalisation and rapid technological change, together with demographic developments are reshaping skill demands and supply in all countries. These trends are expected to continue in the coming years at an increasing pace. Technological progress, in particular, is profoundly transforming the world of work and, in turn, the skills demanded by employers. This poses challenges but it also creates opportunities for Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries in the near future. Effective Adult Learning Policies: Challenges and Solutions for Latin American Countries discusses how individuals and firms in Latin American countries can harness the benefits of those changes. The report explores the challenges for LAC adult learning systems in supplying labour market relevant skills, what are the barriers to an inclusive participation in adult learning and what solutions governments, firms and individuals should collectively put in place to ensure that adult learning is truly effective.
  • 24-April-2020

    English

    Luxembourg 2020

    The IEA regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of best practices and experiences. Luxembourg experienced strong economic and population growth between 2008 and 2018. For most of that decade, energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions fell significantly, but they started to increase again in 2016. The government has adopted ambitious energy sector targets, including a 50-55% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. Luxembourg faces challenges achieving those targets. Low energy prices for consumers are creating a barrier to the investments needed in energy efficiency and renewables. And the country has a fossil fuel-intensive energy mix driven by a high demand for transportation fuels, notably from transiting freight trucks. Luxembourg is embedded in the European electricity market, a sector that is transforming swiftly as rising shares of variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar PV, put increased attention on security of supply. In this context, Luxembourg plans to expand and upgrade its electricity grids, but the country would benefit further from the deployment of measures to increase energy storage and demand-side response in its power system. It is also important to ensure competitive markets that foster innovation and new energy services. In this report, the IEA provides a range of energy policy recommendations to help Luxembourg smoothly manage the transition to a smart, flexible and sustainable energy system.
  • 22-April-2020

    English

    Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2020 - An OECD Scoreboard

    Sufficient and affordable access to different sources of finance is crucial to enable SMEs and entrepreneurs to contribute to inclusive growth. The 9th edition of the Scoreboard on Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs provides data from 48 countries around the world on SME lending, alternative finance instruments and financing conditions, as well as information on policy initiatives to improve SME access to finance. Lending conditions remained broadly favourable in the run-up to the COVID-19 outbreak, despite some early signals of tightening. Nevertheless, SME bank credit increased only at a modest pace in many countries and declined in some others in 2018. At the same time, the take-up by SMEs of other sources of finance, including leasing and factoring, equity crowdfunding and venture capital investments expanded significantly, suggesting that SMEs are increasingly turning to a combination of instruments. The thematic chapter provides an overview of the evolution of SME financing policies over the last decade, from the immediate post-crisis period and the early recovery years, to the most recent policy trends.
  • 22-April-2020

    English

    How teachers differ in their perceptions of leadership for learning - Clustering teacher data from TALIS 2018

    When surveying teachers on the multiple domains of leadership for learning, teachers cluster into three different patterns of responses correlated with teaching experience, job satisfaction, and workload stress. Examining these clusters of teacher response patterns, and how they relate to the other teachers in the school and the principal, provides a unique way of viewing the school climate around instructional improvement, and allows possible different options for policy or professional development to be considered.
  • 22-April-2020

    English

    Examining a congruency-typology model of leadership for learning using two-level latent class analysis with TALIS 2018

    Are teachers and principals aligned in their perceptions of the core components of the theory of Leadership for Learning across countries, or are there subgroups of schools in which there is misalignment? The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which a congruency-typology model of leadership for learning is distributed across countries/economies using the TALIS 2018 dataset through examining the interaction of significantly different subgroups of teacher and principal responders through using multilevel latent class analysis (LCA) with a cross-level interaction. I analyse data from lower secondary schools of n=152 635 teachers in 9 079 schools and their principals across 47 countries/economies. Currently in the research literature on school leadership, leadership for learning has emerged as a framework to bring together managerial, transformational, distributed, and instructional leadership. Yet little is known about leadership for learning across national contexts. This study 1) maps the TALIS 2018 survey items to the current literature and surveys for leadership for learning, 2) then details the methods and analysis framework to examine if there are multiple significantly different types of teachers, principals, and schools from a leadership for learning theory framework. The final model 3) identifies a three-group teacher typology and a three-group principal typology, linking these types to school context, covariates, as well as teacher and principal training and experience. Results relate directly to the intersection of research, policy, and practice for training and capacity of school leaders across 47 countries/economies globally.
  • 22-April-2020

    English

    Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience 2015-2017

    The International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is an essential system for the international exchange of information on safety related events at nuclear power plants worldwide. The fundamental objective of the IRS is to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants through the sharing of timely and detailed information on such events, and the lessons that can be learnt from them, to reduce the chance of recurrence at other plants. The first edition of this publication covered safety related events reported between 1996 and 1999. This seventh edition covers the 2015-2017 period and highlights important lessons learnt from a review of the 246 event reports received from participating states during those years. The IRS is jointly operated and managed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • 21-April-2020

    English

    Can blockchain technology reduce the cost of remittances?

    The achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) demands unprecedented resources and efforts. Remittances as one of the largest development finance flows are an important source of income for millions of households in developing countries and offer tremendous potential to contribute towards the achievement of Agenda 2030. However, the high cost of sending remittances limits their full potential. The global average cost of sending USD 200 is 6.9% of the remittance. SDG 10 C aims to reduce the cost to less than 3% and to eliminate remittance corridors with cost higher than 5% by 2030. Blockchain technology promises to disintermediate banks, transform the financial landscape and drastically reduce the cost of cross-border transactions, yet there is a need for further evidence on this topic. The OECD Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) has developed this paper to provide an overview of diverse perspectives on the intersection of blockchain technology and remittances by exploring the opportunities and challenges of this technology for reducing the cost of remittances. The paper identifies several limitations, such as data privacy risks, regulatory uncertainty and last-mile delivery, among others, while investigating whether blockchain technology is the solution to reduce the cost of remittances.
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