Publications


  • 5-July-2018

    English

    OECD Economic Surveys: Lithuania 2018

    Since renewed independence in 1991 and transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, Lithuania has substantially raised well-being of its citizens. Thanks to a market-friendly environment the country grew faster than most OECD countries over the past ten years. The financial system is resilient, and fiscal positions stabilised after a long period of deficits and rising debt. Yet productivity has remained subdued due to stringent labour market regulations, informality and skills mismatch. Wage and income inequality are high, fuelling emigration. The population is ageing fast and declining, particularly because of emigration, putting pressure on the pension system. A wide-reaching labour market, unemployment benefits and pension reform entitled 'new social model' implemented in 2017 is expected to reinvigorate inclusive growth, strengthen the social safety net and underpin the sustainability of public finances. However, catch-up and more inclusive growth will require raising productivity that still remains well below the OECD average, and has slowed down recently. And rapid ageing and high emigration shrink the labour force by 1% every year, requiring a comprehensive approach to address the economic consequences.SPECIAL FEATURES: PRODUCTIVITY AND INCLUSIVENESS; AGEING TOGETHER
  • 5-July-2018

    English

    Agricultural Policies in India

    This report assesses the performance of agricultural and food policy in India and calculates a set of policy indicators providing a comprehensive picture of agricultural support. These indicators, developed by the OECD, are already used regularly in the analysis of the agriculture and food sector in 51 OECD countries and emerging economies and are now available for India for the first time.Government intervention in India is found to provide both negative and positive support to agriculture, with market and trade interventions often depressing prices, while subsidies to fertilisers, water, power and other inputs incentivise their use. This reveals the inherent difficulty in attempting to secure remunerative prices and higher incomes for farmers, while at the same time keeping food prices low for consumers. The report also points to policy-induced pressures on natural resources such as water and soil. Detailed recommendations are offered which, if implemented, have the potential to improve farmers' welfare, reduce environmental damage, alleviate some of the pressure on scarce resources, better prepare the sector for climate change, improve food and nutrition security for the poor, improve domestic market functioning and position India to participate more fully in agro-food global value chains.
  • 5-July-2018

    English

    Delivering Quality Health Services: A Global Imperative

    Universal health coverage (UHC) aims to provide health security and universal access to essential care services without financial hardship to individuals, families and communities. UHC enables a transition to more productive and equitable societies and economies and is enshrined in the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). But UHC should not be implemented without considering the quality of the care provided. Quality means care that is effective, safe, people-centered, timely, equitable, integrated and efficient. High-quality care improves health outcomes and reduces waste. It is integral to a high-value, sustainable health system. Universal access to high-quality health care is not a luxury only rich countries can afford. It can be achieved in all settings with strong leadership, planning and implementation. The returns are worth the investment. While significant progress has been made to improve care quality has been made, more effort is needed in both developing and developed countries. This report describes the current situation with regard to UHC and global quality of care, and outlines the steps governments, health services and their workers, together with citizens and patients need to urgently take.
  • 5-July-2018

    English

    How Immigrants Contribute to Argentina's Economy

    The recent effects of immigration on the Argentine economy appear to be limited but positive. On average, immigration is not associated with job losses or income declines for the population born in Argentina. High-skilled immigration is on the contrary even associated with rising labour incomes among university graduates and female low-skilled immigration is associated with a higher labour-force participation of low-skilled native-born women. The estimated contribution of immigrants to value added is below their labour force participation share but above their population share. The estimated contribution of immigrants to public finance in 2013 was small. Additional migration and non-migration policies and better co-ordination between various policy areas could further improve the integration and economic contributions of immigrants.How Immigrants Contribute to Argentina’s Economy is the result of a project carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization, with support from the European Union. The project aimed to analyse several economic impacts – on the labour market, economic growth, and public finance – of immigration in ten partner countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Rwanda, South Africa and Thailand. The empirical evidence stems from a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses of secondary and in some cases primary data sources.
  • 4-July-2018

    English

    OECD Employment Outlook 2018

    The 2018 edition of the OECD Employment Outlook reviews labour market trends and prospects in OECD countries. Chapter 1 presents recent labour market developments. Wage growth remains sluggish due to low inflation expectations, weak productivity growth and adverse trends in low-pay jobs. Chapter 2 looks at the decline of the labour share and shows that this is partially related to the emergence of 'superstar' firms, which invest massively in capital-intensive technologies. Chapter 3 investigates the role of collective bargaining institutions for labour market performance. Systems that co-ordinate wages across sectors are associated with better employment outcomes, but firm-level adjustments of sector-level agreements are sometimes required to avoid adverse effects on productivity. Chapter 4 examines the role of policy to facilitate the transition towards new jobs of workers who were dismissed for economic reasons, underlying the need of early interventions in the unemployment spell. Chapter 5 analyses jobseekers' access to unemployment benefits and shows that most jobseekers do not receive unemployment benefits and coverage has often been falling since the Great Recession. Chapter 6 investigates the reason why the gender gap in labour income increases over the working life, stressing the role of the lower professional mobility of women around childbirth.
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  • 4-July-2018

    English

    Energy Prices and Taxes - Volume 2018 Issue 2

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices.The end-user prices cover the main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity.Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies with each data series.
  • 3-July-2018

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Paraguay - Volume I. Initial Assessment

    Paraguay has achieved strong and resilient growth and made progress across a range of development outcomes since it emerged from a prolonged period of economic and political instability in the early 2000s. In 2014, the country adopted its first National Development Plan, setting course towards an ambitious vision of the country’s future. To maintain the pace of economic growth and achieve more inclusive development Paraguay will need to overcome a number of institutional, economic and social constraints that challenge its development model. This first volume of the Multi-dimensional Review of Paraguay analyses the country’s development performance and presents the main constraints to the country’s development. It examines five broad areas, corresponding to the key areas of the Sustainable Development Goals: prosperity, people’s well-being, planet, peace and institutions, and partnerships and financing.
  • 3-July-2018

    English

    OECD Public Governance Reviews: Paraguay - Pursuing National Development through Integrated Public Governance

    Paraguay has identified public governance reform as an important tool for achieving sustainable and inclusive growth. This review examines areas of public governance such as co-ordination across administrative silos, strengthening links between budgeting and planning, and enhancing the decentralisation process to improve development outcomes in all regions of the country. It also assesses the management of the civil service, as well as the implementation of open government strategies and initiatives to involve citizens and businesses in the policy cycle. This review provides concrete recommendations to support public governance reform in Paraguay.
  • 28-June-2018

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Hungary 2018

    Hungary has made significant progress in decoupling its output growth from main environmental pressures, largely due to implementing requirements of EU directives. However, greenhouse gas emissions have started to pick up with the recent rebound of economic activity. Local air quality has not improved significantly, and water quality remains at risk. Important institutional challenges impede more effective implementation of environmental laws and policies. Hungary can accelerate the transition towards a low-carbon and greener economy, particularly by investing in residential energy efficiency and sound waste and material management, and better mainstreaming of biodiversity protection into sectoral economic policies.This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Hungary. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on waste, material management and circular economy, and biodiversity.
  • 27-June-2018

    English

    Test No. 442B: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA

    The Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method described in mouse  is based on the use of measuring 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) content, an analogue of thymidine, as an indicator of this proliferation. A minimum of four animals is used per dose group, with a minimum of three concentrations of the test substance, plus a concurrent negative control group and a positive control group. The experimental schedule is during 6 days. Thereafter, the animals are killed and a single cell suspension of lymph node cells (LNC) is prepared. The procedure for preparing the LNC is crucial, in particular for the small lymph nodes in NC animals. Then the BrdU content in DNA of lymphocytes is measured by ELISA using a commercial kit of by Flow Cytometry (FCM). This study includes: measurements (weighing, BrdU) and clinical daily observations. The results are expressed as the Stimulation Index (SI) obtained by calculation from the mean BrdU labelling index. The SI should be ≥1.6 for the ELISA method or ≥2.7 for the FCM method for identifying the test material as a potential skin sensitizer. 
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