This report draws on the results of the 2016 global monitoring exercise carried out under the auspices of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation. It offers a snapshot of progress on internationally agreed principles aimed at making development co-operation more effective.The provision of data and information for the monitoring exercise was led by 81 countries, with the participation of more than 125 bilateral and multilateral development partners, as well as hundreds of civil society organisations, private sector representatives and other relevant development stakeholders in the participating countries. This report presents the findings from the exercise, based on careful analysis and aggregation of this information. It is intended to stimulate and inform policy dialogue at the country, regional and international levels, generating an evidence-base for further collective action to strengthen the contribution of effective development co-operation to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.
The report confirms the importance of principles and commitments to strengthen the focus on development results, ensure country ownership of the development process and the inclusiveness of development partnerships, and enhance transparency and mutual accountability around development efforts.
Borders are becoming increasingly porous, with growing flows of goods, services, people and capital. Governments, more than ever, need to co-ordinate their efforts to develop global standards to address climate change, as well as crises related to finance, health, environment and migration; secure peace; and ensure sustainable economic prosperity and social inclusion. International organisations play a key role in fostering multilateral action and addressing the fragmentation that may undermine effective domestic action. To shed greater light on international standard setting, this unique report collects, compares and assesses the practices of 50 international organisations on their governance arrangements, operational modalities, use of quality management disciplines and co-operation efforts. It analyses different types of organisations – inter-governmental, supra-national, trans-governmental and private – and identifies avenues for making their action more effective, inclusive and relevant.
The 2017 edition of the Latin American Economic Outlook explores youth, skills and entrepreneurship. Young Latin Americans embody the region’s promise and perils. They stand at the crossroads of a region whose once promising economy and social progress are now undergoing a slowdown. The Outlook identifies potential strategies and policy responses to help Latin America and the Caribbean revive economic growth. While development can stem from different sources, skills and entrepreneurship can empower youth to develop knowledge-intensive economic activities, boost productivity and transform the region’s politics as they transition successfully from the world of school to the world of productive work and create that future they seek. The report highlights valuable experiences and best practices in these fields and proposes strategies to allow Latin America to consolidate long-term growth while assuring continuity in the social agenda.
Giving people better opportunities to participate actively in the labour market improves well-being. It also helps countries to cope with rapid population ageing by mobilising more fully each country’s potential labour resources. However, weak labour market attachment of some groups in society reflects a range of barriers to working or moving up the jobs ladder. This report on Slovenia is the second country study published in a series of reports looking into how activation policies can encourage greater labour market participation of all groups in society with a special focus on the most disadvantaged. Labour market and activation policies are well developed in Slovenia. However, the global financial crisis hit Slovenia hard and revealed some structural weaknesses in the system, which have contributed to a high level of long-term unemployment and low employment rates for some groups. This report on Slovenia therefore focuses on activation policies to improve labour market outcomes for four groups: long-term unemployed people; low-skilled workers; older workers; and workers who were made or are at risk of becoming displaced. There is room to improve policies through promoting longer working lives and through enabling the Employment Service and related institutions to help more harder-to-place jobseekers back into employment.
After decades of innovation, satellites now play a discrete but pivotal role in the efficient functioning of modern societies and their economic development. This publication provides the findings from a OECD Space Forum project on the state of innovation in the space sector, with a view to examine how space innovation may impact the larger economy. New analysis and indicators contribute to answering some of the following questions: is the space sector still a driver for innovation in the 21st century? What are the determinants for an innovative space sector? And what are the policy responses to encourage and harness better space-related innovation?
Since the beginning of China’s economic transformation in the early 1970s, investment has been a key driver of China’s growth and has contributed to substantial improvements in living standards. Over three decades of average annual GDP growth of 10%, disposable incomes have soared, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of extreme poverty. The share of the population living in extreme poverty has declined from above 90% in the early 1980s to less than 10% today. However, this growth model is no longer sustainable. Returns on investment have declined, although they are still higher than those of the Asian Tigers. Excess capacity is plaguing several sectors, and negative externalities have been onerous, notably in terms of environmental degradation and income inequality. A key objective of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) is therefore to move the economy towards a path of more balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth.
Recent interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) is being driven by a desire to reduce the total capital costs associated with nuclear power plants and to provide power to small grid systems. According to estimates available today, if all the competitive advantages of SMRs were realised, including serial production, optimised supply chains and smaller financing costs, SMRs could be expected to have lower absolute and specific (per-kWe) construction costs than large reactors. Although the economic parameters of SMRs are not yet fully determined, a potential market exists for this technology, particularly in energy mixes with large shares of renewables.
This report assesses the size of the market for SMRs that are currently being developed and that have the potential to broaden the ways of deploying nuclear power in different parts of the world. The study focuses on light water SMRs that are expected to be constructed in the coming decades and that strongly rely on serial, factory-based production of reactor modules. In a high-case scenario, up to 21 GWe of SMRs could be added globally by 2035, representing approximately 3% of total installed nuclear capacity.
Energy efficiency improvements over the last 25 years saved a cumulative USD 5.7 trillion in energy expenditures. This virtual supply of energy generates multiple benefits for governments, businesses and households, including greater energy security from reduced dependence on energy imports and billions of tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions reductions.
Strengthening our understanding of the energy efficiency market and the prospects over the medium term is becoming increasingly important. The 2015 Energy Efficiency Market Report (EEMR) evaluates the impact of energy efficiency in the energy system and assesses the scale and outlook for further energy efficiency investment using detailed country-by-country energy efficiency indicator data and IEA expertise.
This year’s report includes an in-depth look into the buildings energy efficiency market and the electricity sector. Energy efficiency investments in the buildings sector totalled between USD 90 billion in 2014. In the electricity sector, energy efficiency has proved critical in flattening electricity consumption in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries, driving utilities to adapt their business models.
Promoting and expanding energy efficiency markets is a worldwide phenomenon, and EEMR 2015 presents a number of case studies at the national, state and municipal level. These include examinations of Latin America’s two largest economies, Brazil and Mexico, which are looking to efficiency to boost productivity and social development. Energy-exporting countries like Saudi Arabia and the Russian Federation are also increasingly turning to efficiency to increase exports and reduce the costs of growing domestic energy consumption. In addition to national governments, major urban areas such as Tokyo, Seoul and Paris are increasingly enabling energy efficiency investment.
Since the last International Energy Agency (IEA) review of Turkey’s energy policies, the country’s reliance on natural gas use has grown along with rising oil and gas imports, leaving the Turkish economy increasingly exposed to the volatility in oil and gas prices. Turkey aims to promote sustainable economic growth - the IEA urges the government to set a longer term energy policy agenda for 2030. However, owing to declining global liquefied natural gas prices, Turkey now has an opportunity to reduce its single supplier dependence, build a competitive gas market, and move ahead with its plans to create a regional gas hub.
Turkey’s power sector reforms have attracted private investment and fostered economic growth and energy access. Integration into a regional gas and electricity trade framework is moving along as a result of the first interconnection of Turkey with the European electricity grid and the construction of the Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline that will deliver gas from the Caspian to Turkey and the European Union.
In that context, the IEA urges Turkey to complete the liberalisation of its electricity and gas markets in order to attract critically needed investment. The review also notes that Turkey should set up independent transmission system operators, competitive wholesale markets, and foster resilient and modern gas and electricity infrastructure.
This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Turkey and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) is home to 8.6 million people and is Indonesia’s second-largest urban agglomeration. Rapid growth has created a number of challenges for the city, including traffic congestion, air pollution, municipal solid waste and water access and management. The BMA also faces several acute disaster risks primarily related to flooding and seismic activity. The area will need to address these challenges in order to continue sustainable development and to benefit from its environmental assets.
Urban green growth policies encourage economic development while reducing either its negative environmental or the consumption of natural resources and environmental assets, including water, energy and undeveloped land. This report, part of the OECD Urban Green Growth in Dynamic Asia project, explores policies, practices and governance systems to promote green growth in Bandung, Indonesia, and provides recommendations for enhancing Bandung’s green growth potential.