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Publications


  • 21-December-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume I - Inland and Maritime Transports and Ports

    Portugal’s services markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD. Inland and maritime transports in Portugal are a vital part of the business environment, ensuring the movement of goods and passengers and inputs for the business sector. Regulatory restrictions limit the ability of firms to effectively compete in the markets, whether as providers or customers, while hampering innovation, efficiency and productivity. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for road, railway and maritime transport, and many ancillary services (such as vehicle inspection centres), as well as Portugal’s ports. The report examines 1 064 pieces of legislation and makes 417 individual recommendations for amending or removing restrictive provisions to improve competition, and makes a detailed inventory of the analysis underlying the work. Analysis of Portuguese legislation was complemented by research into international experiences and wide consultations with public and private sector stakeholders. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the provisions to benefit businesses and consumers alike. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and gives estimates of their impact. Provided all recommendations are fully implemented, the benefit to the economy from lifting the barriers in the land and maritime transport sectors is estimated to be around EUR 250 million a year.
  • 20-December-2018

    English

    Working Better with Age: Japan

    Currently, Japan has the highest old-age dependency ratio of all OECD countries, with a ratio in 2017 of over 50 persons aged 65 and above for every 100 persons aged 20 to 64. This ratio is projected to rise to 79 per hundred in 2050. The rapid population ageing in Japan is a major challenge for achieving further increases in living standards and ensuring the financial sustainability of public social expenditure. However, with the right policies in place, there is an opportunity to cope with this challenge by extending working lives and making better use of older workers' knowledge and skills. This report investigates policy issues and discusses actions to retain and incentivise the elderly to work more by further reforming retirement policies and seniority-wages, investing in skills to improve productivity and keeping up with labour market changes through training policy, and ensuring good working conditions for better health with tackling long-hours working culture.
  • 20-December-2018

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2019 - Towards Smart Urban Transportation

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region.The Outlook comprises four main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of a special thematic chapter addressing a major issue facing the region. The 2019 edition of the Outlook looks at smart cities, with a special focus on transportation. Addressing traffic congestion, in particular, is critical in realising the potential benefits of urbanisation for growth. The third part of the report includes structural country notes offering specific recommendations for each country, and the fourth part discusses the recent progress made in key aspects of regional integration.
  • 19-December-2018

    English

    Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use in Latin America - Evidence from Environmental Performance Reviews

    This report synthesises key findings on biodiversity and ecosystem services from the Environmental Performance Reviews completed for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru between 2013 and 2017. The report aims to provide a sense of the common challenges facing these Latin American countries, the strategies being used to tackle them, the gaps that remain and how these can be addressed. Focusing on Latin America is particularly pertinent given the great wealth of biodiversity in the region and the growing pressures on its conservation and sustainable use.
  • 18-December-2018

    English

    Coal 2018 - Analysis and Forecasts to 2023

    Coal remains a major component of global fuel supplies, accounting for 27% of all energy used worldwide and making up 38% of electricity generation. It plays a crucial role in industries such as iron and steel. But concerns about air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions cloud the future of coal. Coal 2018: Analysis and Forecasts to 2023 addresses these key questions and more:
    • Do China’s policies to limit urban coal use to ramp up natural gas and renewables mean it is abandoning coal?
    • Will the push for renewables in India lead to a peak in Indian coal demand?
    • How significant will the growth in coal demand be in other parts of developing Asia?
    • How likely is it that coal demand will continue to decline in the United States and Europe? Will this trend spread to other parts of the world?
    • Will robust demand and high prices for seaborne coal lead to new investment in coal mining?
    This year’s annual IEA coal market report also presents recent trends and the IEA’s
    five-year forecasts for global coal supply, demand, and trade.
  • 18-December-2018

    English

    International Trade by Commodity Statistics - Volume 2018 Issue 6

    This reliable source of yearly data covers a wide range of statistics on international trade of OECD countries and provides detailed data in value by commodity and by partner country. Each of the first five volumes of International Trade by Commodity Statistics contains the tables for six countries, published in the order in which they become available. The sixth volume also includes the OECD country groupings OECD Total and EU28-Extra.For each country, this publication shows detailed tables relating to the Harmonised System HS 2012 classification, Sections and Divisions (one- and two- digit). Each table presents imports and exports of a given commodity with more than seventy partner countries or country groupings for the most recent five-year period available.
  • 17-December-2018

    English

    Social Protection System Review - A Toolkit

    The positive impacts of social protection on reducing poverty and inequality and contributing to development are well evidenced. Establishing an integrated system facilitates the provision of a social protection floor, whereby individuals are appropriately protected throughout the life cycle. This is achieved not only by making sure there is a sufficient range of programmes to cover a population’s risk profile but also by sharing information on different individuals to ensure they are linked to an appropriate programme.The Social Protection System Review is one of a small number of tools that serve to analyse how effective a country is in establishing a social protection system that responds to the needs of its people both today and in the future. The toolkit presents methodologies which can be implemented in any country, at any income level and by any institution. It is intended to generate policy recommendations that are actionable through national systems.
  • 17-December-2018

    English

    Getting Skills Right: Brazil

    The world of work is changing. Digitalisation, deepening globalisation and population ageing are having a profound impact on the type and quality of jobs that are available and the skills required to perform them. To what extent individuals, firms and economies can harness the benefits of these changes critically depends on the readiness of adult learning systems to help people develop relevant skills for this changing world of work. In Brazil, the speed of population ageing is projected to be significantly faster than what has been experienced by most developed economies. At the same time, increasing integration into the global economy will create new opportunities and propel growth. But it will also affect the content of exports and the stage at which Brazil contributes for Global Value Chains (GVCs). Profound changes in the economy are to be expected in the coming decades. As these changes have not yet fully materialised, Brazilian policy makers have a window of opportunity to prepare for the transformations ahead. This report aims at providing policy recommendations, based on best practices internationally, to prepare the Brazilian adult learning system so that it is ready to support people in acquiring the relevant skills for the future.
  • 14-December-2018

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Austria 2018

    Over the past two decades, Austria has become one of the most R&D intensive economies among OECD countries and in the world, dedicating 3.1% of its GDP on R&D in 2016, the second highest figure in the European Union. To fully harness this R&D capacity, Austrian innovation policy needs to put a stronger emphasis on efficiency in transforming R&D inputs into impacts. To achieve higher impacts, Austria also needs to steer its research and innovation system towards leadership excellence in global markets. This requires enhanced international attractiveness for top-level researchers and talent, and a conducive environment for highly innovative enterprises. Austria could also benefit from strengthening R&D and innovation to support key transitions, such as digitalisation and Industry 4.0, and to tackle key societal challenges. The STI policy mix and governance arrangements should be adapted accordingly.
  • 14-December-2018

    English

    OECD Research and Development Expenditure in Industry 2018 - ANBERD

    This 2018 edition of OECD Research and Development Expenditure in Industry provides statistical data on R&D expenditure broken down by industrial and service sectors. Data are presented in current and constant USD PPP values. Coverage is provided for 31 OECD countries and four non-member economies. The coverage of ANBERD includes multiple sectors, with extended coverage of service sectors according to ISIC Revision 4 classification. This publication is a unique source of detailed internationally-comparable business R&D data, making it an invaluable tool for economic research and analysis.
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