This first review of Mexico’s energy policies by the International Energy Agency comes at a momentous time for the country’s energy sector. The broad-based Energy Reform, beginning with the Constitutional changes of December 2013, has continued at a steady and impressive pace. Its reach and scope amounts to one of the most ambitious energy system transformations in decades. The IEA applauds the government of Mexico for the progress made to date.
Starting from a largely closed and monopoly-driven energy market, the reform has taken concrete steps to harness market forces to attract investments and increase production while ensuring transparency and rule of law, improving energy security and strengthening the environmental sustainability of the energy sector.
Some policy areas, such as promoting competition and redesigning emergency preparedness, will have to remain a priority. The transition to open energy markets should continue in a transparent manner, and with regulatory certainty. The new roles and responsibilities for the public and private entities, in particular for energy supply emergencies and energy data collection, should be defined well. It is also critical to ensure sufficient resources for the several new or strengthened regulatory authorities.
For the long term, as Mexico’s population, cities and economy are projected to grow strongly, a cross-sectoral approach is required to limit the increase in energy demand and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Mexico and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
The northern sparsely populated areas (NSPA) of Finland, Norway and Sweden are becoming increasingly important to the geopolitical and economic interests of these countries and the European Union. These regions have unique geographical characteristics - low population density and a harsh climate - and face specific challenges due to an ageing population, long distances from markets, and high-cost land transport. However, high productivity growth is possible in low-density regions. This report sets out policy recommendations at cross-border, national and regional scales to enhance prosperity and well-being across the NSPA. This includes closer co-operation with national governments to address shared challenges and opportunities such as improving east-west transport connections and reducing occupational and skills barriers to labour mobility, and addressing barriers to business growth such as access to finance.
Sweden has long given priority to promoting both sustainable economic growth in its regions and equity among them. This report looks at the progress Sweden has made in its regional growth policy, multi-level governance system and rural policy. It also takes a more in-depth look at two topics of increasing importance: whether rural Sweden has been “left behind”, and issues of regional and municipal governance. The report suggests steps Sweden can take to address its regional and rural policy challenges. It also assesses to what degree Sweden has implemented the recommendations made in the 2010 OECD Territorial Review of Sweden.
This year marks a new period of oil market management by leading oil producers, who put together in late 2016 the most comprehensive agreement to limit oil output seen since 2009. The reason was to ensure that oil prices were stabilised to avoid economic dislocation in producing countries and to provide a platform for gradual growth. The agreement brought to an end a two-year free market window in which producers competed to secure outlets for their oil.
This agreement provides the backdrop to the latest IEA five-year oil market forecast, which was renamed Market Report Series: Oil 2017 (formerly known as the Medium-Term Oil Market Report). While we cannot know how long the deal will last, it provides clear trends to guide our view of the next five years.
The Oil 2017 report, which provides market analysis and forecasts to 2022, sets the scene for what promises to be a transformative period in the history of oil.
In many ways, primary care in Denmark performs well. Danish primary care is trusted and valued by patients, and is relatively inexpensive. But there are important areas where it needs to be strengthened. Most critically, Danish primary care is relatively opaque in terms of the performance data available at local level. Greater transparency is vital in the next phase of reform and sector strengthening. Robust information on quality and outcomes empowers patients and gives them choice. It can support GPs to benchmark themselves, and engage in continuous quality improvement. It also allows the authorities to better understand where they should direct additional resources. This report draws on evidence and best practice from across OECD health systems to support Denmark in: agreeing on the steps that will strengthen its primary care sector, delivering high-quality, patient-centred care, and establishing a sustainable footing as the foundation for a high-performing health system.
OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data, and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD countries and selected partner economies. The most recent reviews include Chile and France (2016).
This report is the first Environmental Performance Review of Estonia. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on waste and materials management, and mining and the environment.
“Behavioural insights”, or insights derived from the behavioural and social sciences, including decision making, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, organisational and group behaviour, are being applied by governments with the aim of making public policies work better. As their use has become more widespread, however, questions are being raised about their effectiveness as well as their philosophical underpinnings. This report discusses the use and reach of behavioural insights, drawing on a comprehensive collection of over 100 applications across the world and policy sectors, including consumer protection, education, energy, environment, finance, health and safety, labour market policies, public service delivery, taxes and telecommunications. It suggests ways to ensure that this experimental approach can be successfully and sustainably used as a public policy tool.
Public sector integrity is crucial for sustained socioeconomic development. This report assesses Peru's integrity system at both the central and subnational levels of government. It provides a set of recommendations to strengthen and consolidate this system, instil a culture of integrity, and ensure accountability through control and enforcement. Beyond reviewing the institutional arrangement of the system, the report analyses the policies and practices related to political finance, the promotion of public ethics and the management of conflict of interests, lobbying, whistleblower protection, internal control and risk management, as well as the disciplinary regime and the role of the criminal justice system in containing corruption.