Publications


  • 13-November-2018

    English

    Main Economic Indicators - Volume 2018 Issue 11

    The monthly Main Economic Indicators (MEI) presents comparative statistics that provide an overview of recent international economic developments for the 36 OECD countries, the euro zone and a number of non-member economies.
    This indispensable and unique source of key short-term statistics is a vehicle for analysis for corporate planners, economists, academics, researchers and students. Using the most up-to-date, user-friendly tabular presentation, the indicators cover national accounts, business surveys and consumer opinions, leading indicators, retail sales, production, construction, prices, employment, unemployment, wages, finance, international trade and balance of payments.
  • 12-November-2018

    English

    Global Outlook on Financing for Sustainable Development 2019 - Time to Face the Challenge

    The financing for sustainable development agenda promises to bring together more actors than ever before – from businesses, governments, philanthropists, and remitting households – to address the world’s most pressing problems and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.Yet, in spite of this promise, the financing for sustainable development gap is growing. While needs continue to increase, resources available to developing countries have been constrained and in some cases even declining, as illustrated by the recent drop in foreign direct investments. New financial instruments and interactions have yet to mobilise much-needed new resources in sufficient volumes. And despite significant advances, we do not yet fully understand the opportunities and risks faced by the various actors in this complex new global financing system.This report sounds a wake-up call. To fulfil the commitments of the 2030 Agenda, and lift hundreds of millions of people out of extreme poverty, the international community needs to maximise the development footprint of existing and future resources, thereby 'shifting the trillions' towards the SDGs. The first in a series, this report charts a forward path for the changes required in measurement, policies, and operations to achieve these ambitious objectives.
  • 12-November-2018

    English

    Subnational Public-Private Partnerships - Meeting Infrastructure Challenges

    This report focuses on the challenges of governing infrastructure investment and public-private partnerships (PPPs) at the subnational level. Subnational governments – cities and regions – play a vital role in the infrastructure landscape. Infrastructure needs in energy, transport, water and telecommunications are substantial, estimated at USD 6.3 trillion per year between 2016 and 2030. In a tight fiscal environment, it is critical to diversify sources of financing for infrastructure investment and PPPs represent an alternative to traditional government procurement with the potential to improve value for money. However, PPPs are complex and sometimes risky arrangements that require capacity that is not always readily available in government, in particular at the subnational level. This report examines the challenges of using PPPs at the subnational level and ways to address them. It does so by focusing on three case studies: subnational PPPs in France, local Private Finance Initiative (PFI) projects in the United Kingdom, and PPPs in Virginia (United States).
  • 12-November-2018

    English

    Developing Robust Project Pipelines for Low-Carbon Infrastructure

    This report aims to provide policy makers with a comprehensive examination of 'project pipelines', a common concept in infrastructure planning and investment discussions, and one which has become a focal point in countries’ efforts to implement their climate commitments. The analysis is structured around some basic but important guiding questions, including: What is meant by project pipelines? How can we characterise them? What concrete approaches and actions can governments and other public institutions take to develop project pipelines and mobilise private finance into these projects? This close look at pipelines suggests that they can only be as robust as the investment-ready and bankable projects that constitute them, as effective as institutions that deliver them, and as ambitious as the objectives to which they are linked. Through a series of case studies, the report highlights that while governments and public institutions are already taking actions to develop robust pipelines in a range of country settings, these pipelines nevertheless need to be strengthened significantly to meet long-term climate mitigation objectives. Good practices pioneered by the countries and actors in the case studies can provide models for governments to adapt and bolster their own efforts.
  • 7-November-2018

    English

    Stemming the Superbug Tide - Just A Few Dollars More

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a large and growing problem with the potential for enormous health and economic consequences, globally. As such, AMR has become a central issue at the top of the public health agenda of OECD countries and beyond. In this report, OECD used advanced techniques, including machine learning, ensemble modelling and a microsimulation model, to provide support for policy action in the human health sector. AMR rates are high and are projected to grow further, particularly for second- and third-line antibiotics, and if no effective action is taken this is forecasted to produce a significant health and economic burden in OECD and EU28 countries. This burden can be addressed by implementing effective public health initiatives. This report reviews policies currently in place in high-income countries and identifies a set of ‘best buys’ to tackle AMR that, if scaled up at the national level, would provide an affordable and cost-effective instrument in the fight against AMR.
  • 7-November-2018

    English

    The Future of Social Protection - What Works for Non-standard Workers?

    Social protection systems are often still designed for the archetypical full-time dependent employee. Work patterns deviating from this model – be it self-employment or online 'gig work' – can lead to gaps in social protection coverage. Globalisation and digitalisation are likely to exacerbate this discrepancy as new technologies make it easier and cheaper to offer and find work online, and online work platforms have experienced spectacular growth in recent years. While new technologies and the new forms of work they create bring the incomplete social protection of non-standard workers to the forefront of the international policy debate, non-standard work and policies to address such workers’ situation are not new: across the OECD on average, one in six workers is self-employed, and a further one in eight employees is on a temporary contract. Thus, there are lessons to be learned from country experiences of providing social protection to non-standard workers. This report presents seven policy examples from OECD countries, including the 'artists’ insurance system' in Germany or voluntary unemployment insurance for self-employed workers in Sweden. It draws on these studies to suggest policy options for providing social protection for non-standard workers, and for increasing the income security of on-call workers and those on flexible hours contracts.
  • 6-November-2018

    English

    Flexibility and Proportionality in Corporate Governance

    This report provides an assessment of the flexibility and proportionality arrangements available within corporate governance frameworks that relate to seven areas of regulation: pre-emptive rights; board composition, board committees and board member qualifications; say on pay and the detail of disclosure on remuneration; related party transactions; disclosure of periodic financial information and ad-hoc information; major shareholding disclosure, and takeovers.  It covers 39 jurisdictions, including in-depth case studies of the United Kingdom; Sweden; Italy; Japan; the United States of America, and Portugal and is based in part on a questionnaire to which all participating jurisdictions in 2017 responded.
  • 5-November-2018

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Paraguay - Volume 2. In-depth Analysis and Recommendations

    Having achieved robust economic growth and remarkable macroeconomic stability over the past 15 years, Paraguay has set a course to become not only more prosperous, but also more inclusive by 2030. To deliver on its development ambition, the country will have to overcome a number of crosscutting constraints that limit progress towards widely shared improvements in citizen well-being, as identified in Volume 1 of the review. Putting Paraguay on a more inclusive development path requires co-ordinated actions to increase the capacity of the state to redistribute, to improve the delivery of public services, and to break the persistence of poverty and inequality across generations. This report discusses policy actions and priorities in three critical areas to make Paraguay’s development more inclusive. It presents in-depth analysis and recommendations to improve the effectiveness of social protection, the delivery of health services, and the formation of skills for all Paraguayans.
  • 1-November-2018

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Finland 2018

    Since 2016, the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) in-depth country policy reviews focus on key energy security challenges in fast-changing global energy markets as well as on the transition to clean-energy systems. This latest update on Finland’s energy policies therefore offers insights into three special focus areas – bioenergy, transportation, and combined heat and power (CHP) production.
    With abundant forest resources, Finland is a global leader in developing second-generation biofuels. This report examines the impacts of greater biofuel use on sustainability and the country’s carbon sink, and it offers perspectives for Finland’s potential for innovation in heavy duty, aviation and maritime transport.
    The country has aligned its climate and energy policies within a robust policy framework and set ambitious climate targets for 2030, such as cutting oil consumption in half and achieving 30% of renewables in transport by 2030. As the power sector is largely decarbonised, transport is a key sector for the country’s ambitious national climate targets.
    Finland has been a leader among IEA countries in public and private spending on energy research, development and demonstration. A longer-term policy framework for 2050 will be pivotal to guide investments in clean energy technology innovation, a critical factor for reaching decarbonisation goals.
    The report looks at the challenges Finland faces and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
  • 1-November-2018

    English

    Global Gas Security Review 2018 - Meeting Challenges in a Fast Changing Market

    Today’s natural gas markets are being reshaped by major emerging liquefied natural gas (LNG) buyers, led by the People’s Republic of China and the rising production and exports from the United States. This transformation, driven by growing markets and supplied by fast-changing LNG trade, brings its share of security-related challenges as was highlighted by China’s supply shortfall over
    the last winter.
    Supply flexibility remains a key prerequisite to ensuring continued global gas trade development and security. Yet priorities in terms of flexibility differ between long-term traditional buyers, who seek the removal of destination clauses, and new emerging buyers more focused on procuring short-term supply, usually for prompt delivery.
    The International Energy Agency’s third edition of the Global Gas Security Review provides an in-depth analysis of recent security-related issues and lessons learned.
    The report shows the most recent trends in LNG flexibility, based on a detailed assessment of contractual data. It examines the impact of the growing role of emerging LNG buyers and of the development of market liquidity on trade and new contracts. And, this year, it includes a special focus on short-term LNG deliverability as well as shipping fleet availability, two important factors in assessing gas security of supply around the world.
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