Publications


  • 18-April-2018

    English

    Japan: Promoting Inclusive Growth for an Ageing Society

    Japan has achieved a comparatively high level of well-being: skill levels are high, unemployment is low and life expectancy at birth is the highest in the OECD. Since its launch in 2013, Abenomics has had a positive effect on the economy, and per capita output growth has picked up. However, to achieve inclusive growth and greater well-being, Japan needs to address important challenges to foster fiscal sustainability, narrow the productivity gap with leading OECD countries and manage the demographic transition. A new fiscal plan going beyond achieving a primary surplus should lay out concrete measures to raise revenues and control spending. As Japan’s population ages, using all available talent in the labour market and achieving gender equality are key to overcome labour shortages. Boosting productivity, which has been stagnant, will require increasing returns from R&D, capitalising on the digital economy, fostering the dynamism of SMEs, and reducing barriers to foreign direct investment and trade to promote greater integration into global value chains. Japan’s education system is one of the top performers in the OECD, but there is scope to further invest in teachers and schools. Finally, further action to foster green growth and environmental quality as well as effectively leveraging upcoming international sports events, such as the Rugby World Cup 2019 and the Olympic and Paralympic Games 2020, would also boost local development and inclusive growth. The complementarity of reforms needed to achieve inclusive and sustainable growth in in an aging society makes a compelling case for a comprehensive approach.
  • 18-April-2018

    English

    Low-Carbon Transition in the Cement Industry

    The cement sector is the third-largest industrial energy consumer and the second-largest industrial CO2 emitter globally. Rising global population and urbanisation patterns, coupled with infrastructure development needs, drive up the demand for cement and concrete and increase pressure to accelerate action in reducing the carbon footprint of cement production.

    Under a scenario that considers announced carbon mitigation commitments and energy efficiency targets by countries, the cement sector would increase its direct CO2 emissions just 4% globally by 2050, for an expected growth of 12% in cement production over the same period. However, more ambitious action would be needed to achieve global climate goals.

    This Technology Roadmap builds on the long-standing collaboration of the IEA with the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). It provides an update of the Cement Technology Roadmap 2009: Carbon Emissions Reductions up to 2050, and sets a strategy for the cement sector to achieve the decoupling of cement production growth from related direct CO2 emissions through improving energy efficiency, switching to fuels that are less carbon intensive, reducing the clinker to cement ratio, and implementing emerging and innovative technologies such as carbon capture. The report therefore outlines a detailed action plan for specific stakeholders to 2050 as a reference and a source of inspiration for international and national policy makers to support evidence-based decisions and regulations. 

  • 18-April-2018

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Amsterdam

    In Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 51.66% of the population was born outside of the country or has at least one parent born abroad. Amsterdam is proud of its cultural and ethnical diversity and actively works to attract international students and high-skilled migrants. Like many European cities, Amsterdam experienced a peak in refugees and asylum seekers arrivals in 2015 and in response has implemented a holistic integration model, which starts at the moment migrants arrive and supports them for their first three years. Migrants are not considered as a minority group with different needs, but rather as one group among others with specific characteristics (such as women, the elderly, the disabled, LGBT) whose outcomes are monitored to identify potential structural gaps in their access to opportunities and services. This work compiles data and qualitative evidence on how local actions for integration, across a number of sectors, are being designed and implemented by the City of Amsterdam and its partners within a multi-level governance framework.
  • 18-April-2018

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Gothenburg

    Today, 34% of the population of Gothenburg, Sweden, was born outside of the country or has at least one parent born abroad. The city is growing at a fast pace: 4 400 new residents registered in 2016. Newcomers account for the bulk of demographic growth, of which 12 858 refugees settled in the city between 2010 and 2016. However, migration is not a new phenomenon in Gothenburg, with nearly 41.7% of migrant residents having arrived more than 10 years ago. The Gothenburg municipality has a significant track record in managing the impact of migration on local demand for work, housing, goods and services, cultural and linguistic diversity, and other parts of daily life. This report presents the way Gothenburg municipality and its state and non-state partners are addressing migrant integration issues and opportunities. It compiles data and qualitative evidence on how local integration efforts are designed and implemented within a multi-level governance framework.
  • 18-April-2018

    English

    Housing Dynamics in Korea - Building Inclusive and Smart Cities

    Housing in Korea has been part of the government policy development agenda for the past three decades contributing to reducing the historical housing shortage and improving the quality of dwellings. Despite its achievements, Korea now faces a housing affordability challenge as prices are too high for several social groups (i.e. newly wedded), owner occupancy levels are decreasing, and social housing is struggling to meet demand. Korea has a complex social housing system largely focused on low-income households, who still suffer from housing poverty in terms of housing stability, affordability and quality.
     
    A holistic view on housing policy to promote a more inclusive society and sustainable economic growth is needed. To overcome the current housing challenge requires expanding the network of public housing providers by including the private and community sectors that could alleviate the government’s financial burden. Korea is linking housing and urban regeneration strategies to respond to the complex challenges of social inclusion, job creation, housing and economic revitalisation. Korea has been at the forefront of smart city development for more than a decade, which has brought benefits to Korean cities such as integrated transport systems, and it is now committed to applying the concept as a vehicle for inclusive growth.
  • 17-April-2018

    English

    OECD Economic Surveys: Costa Rica 2018

    Costa Rica has achieved strong levels of well-being. However, many institutional obstacles are hampering more robust growth and the spreading of its gains more widely. Setting in motion a 'virtuous cycle' of inclusive growth will require reforms across several policy areas that present win-win opportunities in terms of equity and productivity improvements. Rebalancing spending towards early childhood and secondary education would improve outcomes and equity and also help increasing the low level of participation of women in the labour market. Costa Rica should move from the current emphasis on education spending towards outcome policy targets, supported by performance indicators. Policies to reduce labour market informality should continue, including greater enforcement of obligations to pay social security contributions and a gradual move to a smaller number of minimum wages. Eliminating unjustified exemptions from competition would boost productivity growth. Fiscal imbalances remain the major threat to growth and living standards in the medium term. A comprehensive fiscal reform package is needed to bring to a halt the fast rising debt-to-GDP ratio, including measures to increase tax revenues and curb spending, strengthen the budgetary framework with a new, operational fiscal rule and restrict earmarking.SPECIAL FEATURES: FISCAL POLICY; PRODUCTIVITY; INCLUSIVE GROWTH
  • 12-April-2018

    English

    Taxation of Household Savings

    This report provides a detailed review of the taxation of household savings in 40 OECD and partner countries. It examines the different approaches that countries take to taxing household savings, and calculates marginal effective tax rates on a wide range of savings vehicles (including bank accounts, bonds, shares, private pensions and housing) to assess the impact of these approaches on savings behaviour. It examines asset holdings across income and wealth distributions to help assess the distributional impact of savings taxation, and discusses recent changes in the exchange of information for tax purposes between tax administrations. It also draws out a range of implications from this analysis for savings tax policy as part of an inclusive growth tax agenda.
  • 12-April-2018

    English

    The Role and Design of Net Wealth Taxes in the OECD

    This report examines and assesses the current and historical use of net wealth taxes, defined as recurrent taxes on individual net assets, in OECD countries. It provides background on the use of wealth taxes over time in OECD countries as well as on trends in income and wealth inequality. It then assesses the case for and against the use of a net wealth tax to raise revenues and reduce inequality, based on efficiency, equity and tax administration considerations. The effects of personal capital income taxes and taxes on wealth transfers are also discussed to understand how these taxes interact with net wealth taxes. Finally, the report looks at practical tax design issues and shows that the way a net wealth tax is designed can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and fairness of the tax. The report concludes with a number of practical tax policy recommendations regarding net wealth taxes.
  • 11-April-2018

    English

    Apprenticeship in England, United Kingdom

    One of a series of studies on vocational education and training, this review focuses on the apprenticeship system in England and concludes with policy recommendations.England has launched a series of reforms that champion the institution of apprenticeship, and address some previous weaknesses. The reforms encourage more substantive apprenticeship programmes and a stronger funding framework. Despite these strengths, there is still some way to go to establish an apprenticeship system in England to match those of the strongest countries.This report suggests several ways in which reforms might be adapted to achieve higher quality and better outcomes. An effective apprenticeship system involves various elements such as the development of the apprentice in the workplace by the employer and the broader education of young apprentices. The report argues that England should consider introducing regulations and standards to ensure that these elements are part of all apprenticeship programmes, and that the recently introduced apprenticeship levy supports high-quality training. In comparison to other countries, England has relatively few young apprentices. The report suggests England could facilitate transition from school to work by making better use of apprenticeships targeting school leavers.
  • 10-April-2018

    English

    Strengthening Shardara Multi-Purpose Water Infrastructure in Kazakhstan

    More than 8 000 large multi-purpose water infrastructures (MPWIs) around the world contribute to economic development, as well as water, food and energy security, encompassing all human-made water systems including dams, dykes, reservoirs and associated irrigation canals and water supply networks. Focused on the specific case of the Shardara MPWI located in Low Syr-Darya Basin, South Kazakhstan and Kyzyl-Orda oblasts (provinces) of Kazakhstan, this report looks at the choice and design of MPWI investment strategies that ensure a high economic return on investments and potential bankability, based on application of a computer model and lessons learned from 15 international MPWI case studies.
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