Publications


  • 19-July-2017

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: France 2016

    France has a significantly low-carbon electricity mix, owing to the key role of nuclear energy. However, much of France’s nuclear fleet is reaching the end of its lifetime. Against this background, France has started an ambitious energy transition: it is a world leader in designing a governance framework with a national low-carbon strategy, carbon budgets, a carbon price trajectory and plans for energy investment.France plans to reduce the share of nuclear to 50% in the electricity mix by 2025. While some nuclear reactors may continue long-term operation under safe conditions, maintaining security of supply and a low-carbon footprint while reducing nuclear energy will require investments in renewable energy and efficiency. The 2016 IEA review of France’s energy policies highlights these and several other areas that are critical to the success of the energy transition. For example, planned growth of the share of electric vehicles and variable renewable electricity will require enhanced power system operation and flexibility, including demand-side response, smart grids and metering, and more interconnections.The financing of this transition depends upon continued carbon price signals, increasingly open markets, competition, and consumer empowerment in gas and electricity retail markets.This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing France and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure, sustainable and affordable energy future.
  • 17-July-2017

    English

    Gas 2017 - Analysis and Forecasts to 2022

    The natural gas market is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Industry has overtaken the power sector as the driving force behind the growing use of gas, thanks to rising demand in places like the People’s Republic of China, developing Asia, the Middle East and the United States. At the same time, structural changes in gas supply and trade are changing the global gas market. Heavily oversupplied markets, the ongoing shale-gas revolution in the United States, the second wave of additional liquefaction capacity from Australia and the US, and the fast-growing LNG trade are disrupting traditional gas business and pricing models. This is forcing market players to redefine their strategies and explore new markets.The IEA’s renamed Gas 2017 market report provides a detailed analysis of supply and trade developments, infrastructure investments, and demand-growth forecast through 2022. It assesses the main changes that will likely transform the gas market, led by rising demand in countries that include China, India, and Pakistan, thanks to ongoing economic growth and relatively low LNG prices. It also explores widening regional differences to traditional gas users, with flat demand forecast in Europe and structural demand decline in Japan.Oversupplied markets will also keep pressure on prices and discourages new upstream investment in gas production and LNG liquefaction capacity. At the same time, market reforms in places like Egypt, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico have the potential to bring new investments and technologies to unlock vast domestic resources, creating new prospects for the gas industry.
  • 17-July-2017

    English

    International Productivity Monitor

    The 32nd issue of the International Productivity Monitor is a special issue produced in collaboration with the OECD. All articles published in this issue were selected from papers presented at the First Annual Conference of the OECD Global Forum on Productivity held in Lisbon, Portugal, July 7-8, 2016.
    The Forum was established by a large group of OECD member countries in 2015 to provide a platform for the mutual exchange of information and international cooperation between public bodies with a responsibility for promoting productivity-enhancing policies. The primary purpose of the Forum is to shed light on the structural and policy drivers of productivity, especially in the context of the generalized slowdown in productivity growth affecting OECD countries. It helps generate synergies in policy-oriented research; share data, results and insights; and facilitate the diffusion of best policy practices leveraging on both cross-country analysis and country-specific experiences. To this end, the Forum organizes conferences and workshops connecting policy-makers, academics and other stakeholders and proposes and coordinates research programs in areas related to productivity, notably by encouraging collaboration with national experts, to extend and support work done at the OECD.
  • 13-July-2017

    English

    Government at a Glance 2017

    Government at a Glance 2017 provides the latest available data on public administrations in OECD countries. Where possible, it also reports data for Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Lithuania, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. This edition contains new indicators on public sector emploympent, institutions, budgeting practices and procedures, regulatory governance, risk management and communication, open government data and public sector innovation. This edition also includes for the first time a number of scorecards comparing the level of access, responsiveness and quality of services in three key areas: health care, education and justice.Each indicator in the publication is presented in a user-friendly format, consisting of graphs and/or charts illustrating variations across countries and over time, brief descriptive analyses highlighting the major findings conveyed by the data, and a methodological section on the definition of the indicator and any limitations in data comparability. A database containing qualitative and quantitative indicators on government is available on line. It is updated twice a year as new data are released. The database, countries fact sheets and other online supplements can be found at www.oecd.org/gov/govataglance.htm.
  • 13-July-2017

    English

    Building Inclusive Labour Markets in Kazakhstan - A Focus on Youth, Older Workers and People with Disabilities

    Kazakhstan has made major economic and social advances in the past decade and a half. Yet, Kazakhstan needs to sustain high growth rates in the future to converge towards the living standards of OECD countries. This report provides a review of the labour market and social policies that could help Kazakhstan in its dual objectives of building more inclusive labour markets, while maintaining a path of strong growth. It explores the role that institutions and policies play in helping vulnerable groups to access gainful and productive jobs, particularly focusing on three key groups: youth, older workers, and people with disabilities, and provides a comprehensive set of policies to increase the employment and employability of these groups. Evaluations and lessons from innovative experiences in OECD and other countries are used to formulate recommendations tailored to Kazakhstan.
  • 11-July-2017

    English

    Aid for Trade at a Glance 2017 - Promoting Trade, Inclusiveness and Connectivity for Sustainable Development

    This edition of Aid for Trade at a Glance focuses on trade connectivity, which is critical for economic growth, inclusiveness and sustainable development. Physical connectivity enables the movement of goods and services to local, regional and global markets. It is closely intertwined with digital connectivity which is vital in today’s trade environment. Yet, the Internet remains inaccessible for 3.9 billion people globally, many of whom live in the least developed countries.This report builds on the analysis of trade costs and extends it into the digital domain, reflecting the changing nature of trade. It seeks to identify ways to support developing countries – and notably the least developed – in realising the gains from trade. It reviews action being taken by a broad range of stakeholders to promote connectivity for sustainable development, including by governments, their development partners and by the private sector. One message that emerges strongly is that participation in e-commerce requires much more than a simple internet connection.Chapters were prepared by the World Bank, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the International Trade Centre (ITC), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organisation (WTO), The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and Business for eTrade Development.
  • 11-July-2017

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Lao PDR

    This first OECD Investment Policy Review of Lao PDR uses the OECD Policy Framework for Investment to assess the investment climate in Lao PDR and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by the Government of Lao PDR in its reform efforts. It includes chapters on trends in foreign investment and trade, the legal framework for investment, regulatory restrictions on foreign investment, corporate governance, investment promotion and facilitation, promoting and enabling responsible business conduct, infrastructure connectivity and the investment framework for green growth.
  • 11-July-2017

    English

    World Energy Investment 2017

    The second annual IEA benchmark analysis of energy investment – the lifeblood of the global energy system – presents diverse findings, with upbeat news in some quarters and bearish indicators in others.World Energy Investment 2017 provides a critical foundation for decision making by governments, the energy industry and financial institutions.With analysis of the past year’s developments across all fuels and all energy technologies, the report reveals the critical issues confronting energy markets and features the emerging themes for 2017 and beyond. It highlights the ways in which investment decisions taken today are determining how energy supply and demand will unfold tomorrow, complementing the forecasts and projections found in other IEA publications.This year’s edition examines the financial landscape for energy investment and how financing flows are evolving in relation to renewable energy expansion, shorter-cycle oil and gas projects, and innovations in energy efficiency financing.World Energy Investment 2017 addresses key questions, including:
    • Which countries and policies attracted the most energy investment in 2016?
    • Investments are growing the fastest in which fuels and technologies?
    • How are oil and gas companies reinventing themselves to survive the new technology and price environments in the sector?
    • How might energy investment trends affect energy security and climate change mitigation?
    • How are business models evolving with the changing availabilities of capital for different energy sources?
    • What are governments and the energy sector spending on energy R&D, and who are the biggest spenders?
  • 11-July-2017

    English

    Guidance Document on the Reporting of Defined Approaches and Individual Information Sources to be Used within Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) for Skin Sensitisation

    With a view to assisting the evaluation of integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA) in regulatory decision-making within OECD Member Countries, this guidance document provides guidance on the reporting of defined approaches to testing and assessment in the area of skin sensitisation using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as a conceptual framework. Annex 1 (page 25) outlines twelve illustrative case studies for skin sensitisation and Annex 2 (page 279) lists information sources used within the case studies.
  • 10-July-2017

    English

    OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations 2017

    This 2017 edition of the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines incorporates the substantial revisions made in 2016 to reflect the clarifications and revisions agreed in the 2015 BEPS Reports on Actions 8-10 Aligning Transfer pricing Outcomes with Value Creation and on Action 13 Transfer Pricing Documentation and Country-by-Country Reporting. It also includes the revised guidance on safe harbours approved in 2013 which recognises that properly designed safe harbours can help to relieve some compliance burdens and provide taxpayers with greater certainty. Finally, this edition also contains consistency changes that were made to the rest of the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines.  The OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines were approved by the OECD Council in their original version in 1995.

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