Publications


  • 21-December-2017

    English

    Safety Assessment of Transgenic Organisms in the Environment, Volume 7 - OECD Consensus Documents

    Volume 7 of the Series compiles the OECD consensus documents for use in environmental risk assessment of transgenic organisms (biosafety) issued in 2016 and 2017.

    The first two chapters cover the biology of plant species (sorghum and tomato) and include elements of taxonomy, centres of origin, reproductive biology, genetics, outcrossing, crop production and cultivation practices, interactions with other organisms, main pests and pathogens, and biotechnological developments.

    The third chapter relates to Atlantic salmon, the first OECD biosafety publication to address an animal species. It describes the biology and ecology of wild salmon (including classification, life stages, reproduction, centres of origin, geographical distribution, population dynamics, interaction with other organisms) and of the farmed form (domestication, aquaculture rearing practices, biocontainment, interactions with the external environment). It also provides elements of genetics, research on genetically engineered salmon and resources for its risk assessment.

  • 21-December-2017

    English

    Catching Up? Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants

    Previous OECD and EU work has shown that even native-born children with immigrant parents face persistent disadvantage in the education system, the school-to-work transition, and the labour market. To which degree are these linked with their immigration background, i.e. with the issues faced by their parents? This publication includes cross-country comparative work and provides new insights on the complex issue of the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage for native-born children of immigrants.

  • 20-December-2017

    English

    How Immigrants Contribute to Thailand's Economy

    The effects of immigration on the Thai economy are considerable, as the number of immigrants has increased rapidly since the turn of the century. Immigrant workers now contribute to all economic sectors, and are important for the workforce in industrial sectors such as construction and manufacturing and in some service sectors including private household services. Immigration is associated with an improvement of labour market outcomes of the native-born population, and in particular appears to increase paid employment opportunities. Immigration is also likely to raise income per capita in Thailand, due to the relatively high share of the immigrant population which is employed and therefore contributes to economic output. Policies aiming to further diversify employment opportunities for immigrant workers could also be beneficial for the economic contribution of immigration.
     
    How Immigrants Contribute to Thailand’s Economy is the result of a project carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization, with support from the European Union. The project aimed to analyse several economic impacts – on the labour market, economic growth and public finance – of immigration in ten partner countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Rwanda, South Africa and Thailand. The empirical evidence stems from a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses of secondary and in some cases primary data sources.

  • 19-December-2017

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2017

    Canada, the world's second largest country by area, has abundant natural resources. Its vast territory includes large tracts of undisturbed wilderness. However, urbanisation and agriculture are putting pressure on the natural asset base. Since 2000, Canada has made progress in decoupling economic growth from air pollution, energy consumption and GHG emissions, but it remains one of the most energy- and emissions-intensive economies in the OECD. Further progress is needed to transition to a green, low-carbon economy.

    This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Canada. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on climate change mitigation and urban wastewater management.

  • 19-December-2017

    English

    Decentralisation and Multi-level Governance in Kazakhstan

    This review examines the reforms undertaken by the government of Kazakhstan in the area of public governance and evaluates their impact on the powers and responsibilities of subnational levels of government. It places particular emphasis on finding the right allocation of roles and responsibilities among different levels of government, and on using decentralisation as a means to increase self-reliance, civic participation, accountability, and enhanced capacity at the local level. The report also offers a number of recommendations for further strengthening the role of local executive bodies and democratising some aspects of local government.

  • 19-December-2017

    English

    OECD Guidelines on Insurer Governance 2017 Edition

    As financial institutions whose business is the acceptance and management of risk, insurers are expected to have sound governance practices and effective risk management systems. The nature of their business activities requires insurers to be subject to tailored guidance on their risks and responsibilities.
     
    The OECD Guidelines on Insurer Governance provide guidance and serve as a reference point for insurers, governmental authorities, and other relevant stakeholders in OECD and non-OECD countries. The Guidelines have been revised and expanded for the second time since they were first adopted in 2005 to reflect evolving market practices and updates to international guidance following the financial crisis.

  • 19-December-2017

    English

    Boosting Disaster Prevention through Innovative Risk Governance - Insights from Austria, France and Switzerland

    In 2014 the OECD carried out work to take stock of OECD countries' achievements in building resilience to major natural and man-made disasters. The report suggested that albeit significant achievements were made through effective risk prevention and mitigation management, past disasters have revealed persistent vulnerabilities and gaps in risk prevention management across OECD. Based on the findings of this OECD-wide report a cross-country comparative study was undertaken in Austria, France and Switzerland to test the recommendations put forward in specific country contexts. This report summarises the individual and comparative country case study findings. It highglights that the risk prevention policy mix has shifted in favor of organisational measures such as hazard informed land use planning or strengthening the enforcement of risk sensitive regulations. In the meantime, the great need for maintaining the large stock of structural protection measures has been overlooked and vulnerability might increase because of that. The report highlights the need for better policy evaluation to increase the effectiveness of risk prevention measures in the future. The report highlights practices where countries succeeded to make risk prevention a responsibility of the whole of government and the whole of society, by analysing supporting governance and financing arrangements.

  • 18-December-2017

    English

    Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital: Condensed Version 2017

    This publication is the tenth edition of the condensed version of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital. This shorter version contains the articles and commentaries of the Model Tax Convention on Income and Capital as it read on 21 November 2017, but without the historical notes and the background reports that are included in the full version.

    The full version of the OECD Model Tax Convention for each edition is published separately. It is available in print, PDF and web formats. The web format includes extensive interlinking, making it easy to link from articles to related commentaries. The web and PDF versions will be available via the OECD iLibrary.

  • 18-December-2017

    English

    Coal 2017

    The future of coal – the world’s dominant fuel for more than a century – continues to be one of the most pressing questions in the energy scene. Coal is under pressure in many regions of the world for its contribution to greenhouse gases. It is being squeezed out in power generation by cheap and abundant natural gas and fast-growing renewables, whose costs are also plummeting.

    At the same time, however, recent declines in coal usage have also been reversed this year by stronger consumption in coal’s three largest markets – China, India, and the United States. But, whereas this growth is expected to be temporary in China and United States, that is not the case for India. Despite progress in energy efficiency improvements and the deployment of renewables, increasing energy needs for its economic growth and development will push India to expand coal use.

    The IEA Coal 2017 market and analysis report provides a comprehensive analysis of recent trends and forecasts through 2022 of coal demand, supply and trade at both the global and regional levels. The insights provided in this report help to explain the current developments in coal markets and provide a window into the fuel’s future over the next five years.

  • 15-December-2017

    English

    Getting Skills Right: Italy

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in Italy. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; the design of education and training systems and their responsiveness to changing skill needs; the re-training of unemployed individuals; and the improvement of skills use and skills matching in the labour market. The assessment is based on country visits, desk research and data analysis conducted by the OECD Secretariat.

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