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Publications


  • 26-September-2019

    English

    Unlocking the Potential of Migrants - Cross-country Analysis

    Among the millions of asylum seekers who recently arrived in OECD countries, the majority are young people who may be able to take advantage of vocational education and training (VET) opportunities to help them enter skilled employment. This report provides advice to governments and other stakeholders who are seeking to use VET to promote integration, in particular for young humanitarian migrants. While the study draws particularly on policy and practice observed in Germany, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland, it also highlights other international practices. The report focuses on the main channels through which migrants succeed in VET. It is essential that migrants are fully informed about the opportunities VET provision offers and that they have access to high quality preparatory programmes enabling access to upper-secondary VET. Once in such provision, targeted support should help them to complete VET programmes successfully. OECD countries are putting in place innovative measures to achieve better outcomes for both migrants and for economies as a whole. Ultimately this report argues that VET systems can become stronger, more flexible and more inclusive, when working better for all students, including those with diverse and vulnerable backgrounds.
  • 24-September-2019

    English

    Fostering Students' Creativity and Critical Thinking - What it Means in School

    Creativity and critical thinking are key skills for complex, globalised and increasingly digitalised economies and societies. While teachers and education policy makers consider creativity and critical thinking as important learning goals, it is still unclear to many what it means to develop these skills in a school setting. To make it more visible and tangible to practitioners, the OECD worked with networks of schools and teachers in 11 countries to develop and trial a set of pedagogical resources that exemplify what it means to teach, learn and make progress in creativity and critical thinking in primary and secondary education. Through a portfolio of rubrics and examples of lesson plans, teachers in the field gave feedback, implemented the proposed teaching strategies and documented their work. Instruments to monitor the effectiveness of the intervention in a validation study were also developed and tested, supplementing the insights on the effects of the intervention in the field provided by the team co-ordinators.What are the key elements of creativity and critical thinking? What pedagogical strategies and approaches can teachers adopt to foster them? How can school leaders support teachers' professional learning? To what extent did teachers participating in the project change their teaching methods? How can we know whether it works and for whom? These are some of the questions addressed in this book, which reports on the outputs and lessons of this international project.
  • 23-September-2019

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Hamburg Metropolitan Region, Germany

    With about 8% of national territory, the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (HMR) is the second largest in Germany. In the first OECD Territorial Review to cover Germany, the HMR is examined under the lens of its competitiveness, innovation, and sustainable urban and regional development.
  • 23-September-2019

    English

    Digital Opportunities for Better Agricultural Policies

    Recent digital innovations provide opportunities to deliver better policies for the agriculture sector by helping to overcome information gaps and asymmetries, lower policy-related transaction costs, and enable people with different preferences and incentives to work better together. Drawing on ten illustrative case studies and unique new data gathered via an OECD questionnaire on agri-environmental policy organisations' experiences with digital tools, this report explores opportunities to improve current agricultural and agri-environmental policies, and to deliver new, digitally enabled and information-rich policy approaches. It also considers challenges that organisations may face to make greater use of digital tools for policy, as well as new risks which increased use of digital tools may bring. The report provides practical advice on how policy makers can address challenges and mitigate risks to ensure digital opportunities for policy are realised in practice. Finally, the report briefly considers the broader regulatory and policy environment underpinning digitalisation of the agriculture sector, with the view to ensuring that use of digital tools for agricultural and agri-environmental policy remains coherent with the digitalisation of agriculture more generally.
  • 23-September-2019

    English

    The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Economic Diagnosis and Possible Solutions

    This report explores the main reasons behind the unreliable supply of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) in health-care systems and policy options to address the issue. Tc-99m is used in 85% of nuclear medicine diagnostic scans performed worldwide – around 30 million patient examinations every year. These scans allow diagnoses of diseases in many parts of the human body, including the skeleton, heart and circulatory system, and the brain. Medical isotopes are subject to radioactive decay and have to be delivered just-in-time through a complex supply chain. However, ageing production facilities and a lack of investment have made the supply of Tc-99m unreliable. This report analyses the use and substitutability of Tc-99m in health care, health-care provider payment mechanisms for scans, and the structure of the supply chain. It concludes that the main reasons for unreliable supply are that production is not economically viable and that the structure of the supply chain prevents producers from charging prices that reflect the full costs of production and supply.
  • 20-September-2019

    English

    Chicory

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and high quality photographs to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the Chicory standard. It is thus a valuable tool for the inspection authorities, professional bodies and traders interested in international trade of Chicory.
  • 18-September-2019

    English

    Accelerating Climate Action - Refocusing Policies through a Well-being Lens

    Insufficient progress in climate change mitigation is driving the climate system into unchartered territory with severe projected consequences. This report builds on the OECD Well-being Framework and applies a new perspective that analyses synergies and trade-offs, and creates two-way alignment between climate change mitigation and broader well-being goals across the five economic sectors (electricity, heavy industry, residential, surface transport, and agriculture) that are responsible for more than 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions.Limiting climate risks is fundamental to our collective well-being, and there are synergies between mitigation policy and other well-being goals which can be leveraged around jobs, income, health, education, wider environmental quality and the resources needed to sustain our livelihoods through time. At the same time, concerns about issues such as affordability of energy and the impact of climate policies on jobs need to be taken into account to counter growing economic and social inequalities within and between countries. The report argues that reframing climate policies using a well-being lens is necessary for making visible such synergies and trade-offs; allowing decision-makers to increase the former and anticipate, manage and minimise the latter. This requires us to rethink societal goals in terms of well-being, reframe our measures of progress and refocus policy-making accordingly.
  • 17-September-2019

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The United States 2019

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences.In the United States, the shale revolution continues to be a driving force for energy policy, shifting it from a mindset of energy scarcity to one of energy abundance. Innovations in oil and gas extraction through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have vastly increased the importance of US production in the energy landscape, both at home and internationally. The timely siting of supporting infrastructure will be essential to ensure continued gains from the shale boom.US government policy is centred on the concept of 'energy dominance,' which reflects a strategy of maximising energy production, expanding exports and being a leader in energy technologies. Environmental deregulation is a central focus, though it may have implications for the trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions.The United States has achieved notable reductions in CO2 emissions over the past decade, led by its power sector. Low-cost shale gas combined with falling costs and policy support for renewables have shifted dependence away from coal-fired generation. Still, closures of coal and nuclear plants are expected to continue, requiring policy and regulatory responses to ensure a steady transition.Energy security remains a priority for the United States, which continues to demonstrate a strong focus on reliability and resilience.In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help the United States smoothly manage the transformation of its energy sector.
  • 17-September-2019

    English

    Establishing Multilateral Power Trade in ASEAN

    The ASEAN member states have a long-standing goal to establish multilateral power trading in the region. To date, regional power trading has been limited to a series of uncoordinated bilateral cross-border arrangements. Multilateral power trading can bring multiple benefits, including reduced system costs, increased energy security and an ability to integrate higher shares of variable renewable energy. An examination of international experiences shows that it is possible to establish multilateral trading while allowing for stepwise and voluntary development and respecting local sovereignty. At the same time, increased cross-border integration and power trade does require increased co-ordination and regulatory harmonisation.This report identifies a set of minimum political, technical and institutional requirements that the ASEAN member states will need to meet in order to establish multilateral power trading in the region. Some of these minimum requirements can be met by building upon existing efforts in the region. The report also proposes a set of trading arrangements of increasing levels of ambition which, taken together, will enable ASEAN to establish multilateral power trading in a manner that is consistent with maximising national sovereignty and the equitable sharing of benefits. These recommendations include a summary of potential roles for regional institutions and an example transaction to show how trading might potentially work in practice.
  • 16-September-2019

    English

    Education Policy Outlook 2019 - Working Together to Help Students Achieve their Potential

    Taking the perspective of institutions and the system, Education Policy Outlook 2019: Working Together to Help Students Achieve their Potential, analyses the evolution of key education priorities and key education policies in 43 education systems. It compares more recent developments in education policy ecosystems (mainly between 2015 and 2019) with various education policies adopted between 2008 and 2014. This report includes around 460 education policy developments (with evidence of progress or impact for over 200 of them) spanning from early childhood education and care to higher education and lifelong learning on topics related to school improvement, evaluation and assessment, governance and funding. It looks into 'what is being done', as well as 'why and how it works' to help education systems gain better understanding of how policies can have greater opportunities of success in their specific contexts.
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