Publications


  • 9-October-2017

    English

    Test No. 246: Bumblebee, Acute Contact Toxicity Test

    This test guideline is a laboratory test method, designed to assess the acute contact toxicity of pesticides and other chemicals to adult worker bumblebees.Adult worker bumblebees are exposed to the test chemical dissolved in an appropriate carrier, by direct application to the dorsal thorax (droplet). The test duration is at least 48 h. Mortality is recorded daily and compared with control values. Results are analysed in order to calculate the LD50 and NOED, if possible, at 24 h & 48 h and furthermore at 72 h & 96 h in case the study is prolonged.
  • 7-October-2017

    English

    Women's Economic Empowerment in Selected MENA Countries - The Impact of Legal Frameworks in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia

    This report examines how current legal provisions in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia are impacting women’s ability to fully participate in economic life, both as employees and entrepreneurs. It is based on a comparative analysis of the various rights set out in constitutions, personal status laws, labour laws, in addition to tax and business laws. The report recognises the considerable progress made – in particular in the aftermath of the 2011 uprisings – following the adoption of constitutional and institutional reforms to strengthen women’s status.Yet ensuring sufficient opportunities for women remains a challenge in the six countries. The report suggests that this may be due to different factors such as: the existence of certain laws that are gender discriminatory, contradictions between various legal frameworks, lack of enforcement mechanisms, and barriers for women in accessing justice.  Through targeted policies, countries can tackle these challenges, and help unleash women’s potential to boost growth, competitiveness and inclusive social development.
  • 4-October-2017

    English

    Green Growth in Cebu, Philippines

    Urban green growth policies encourage economic development while reducing negative environmental externalities and the consumption of natural resources and environmental assets. This report is the fourth case study in the OECD Urban Green Growth in Dynamic Asia project. It explores policies and governance systems to promote green growth in  Metro Cebu, Philippines, and provides recommendations for enhancing Cebu’s green growth potential.
     
    Metro Cebu is the second most populated urban area of the Philippines after Metro Manila. Its economic growth has been impressive. However, it faces many challenges that hinder its sustainable growth in areas such as land use and the provision of basic urban services – transportation, energy, solid waste, and water security. Ongoing development offers numerous opportunties for the metro area to shift towards the cleaner sustainable model which the concept of green growth offers. 
     
  • 4-October-2017

    English

    The Pursuit of Gender Equality - An Uphill Battle

    Gender inequalities persist in all areas of social and economic life and across countries. Young women in OECD countries generally obtain more years of schooling than young men, but women are less likely than men to engage in paid work. Gaps widen with age, as motherhood typically has marked negative effects on gender pay gaps and career advancement. Women are also less likely to be entrepreneurs, and are underrepresented in private and public leadership positions.The 2013 and 2015 OECD Gender Recommendations provide guidance on how to advance gender equality in education, employment, entrepreneurship and public life; this book discusses recent developments in these areas in one overview chapter and 24 short chapters which each include key findings and policy recommendations. Topics include violence against women, gender budgeting, the unequal sharing of unpaid work, labour market outcomes and migration. The book presents a range of indicators illustrating gender gaps. It also discusses recent policy initiatives, such as pay transparency measures to reduce gender wage gaps and policy reform aimed at fathers taking parental leave. Overall, progress has been slow and there is a strong need for further policy action to close gender gaps in education, employment, entrepreneurship and public life.
  • 4-October-2017

    English

    Renewables 2017 - Analysis and Forecasts to 2022

    The renewable electricity market has witnessed an unprecedented acceleration in recent years, and it broke another annual deployment record in 2016. The market’s main driver last year was solar photovoltaics, which is boosting the growth of renewables in power capacity around the world. As costs decline, wind and solar are becoming increasingly comparable to new-build fossil fuel alternatives in a growing number of countries. China remains the dominant player, but India is increasingly moving to the centre stage. Government policies are introducing more competition through renewable auctions, further reducing costs.The IEA’s newly renamed Renewables 2017 (formerly titled Medium-Term Renewables Market Report) provides a detailed market analysis and overview of renewable electricity capacity and generation, biofuels production, and heat consumption, as well as a forecast for the period between 2017 and 2022. This year’s report also provides additional analysis on the contribution of electric vehicles to renewable road transport and on the off-grid solar market in Africa and developing Asia.Finally, the report identifies a set of policy improvements in key markets that could accelerate the growth of renewables in the electricity sector as well as the growth of transport biofuels for the first time. These are needed to accelerate decarbonisation in all sectors in order to be on track to meet long-term climate goals.
  • 29-September-2017

    English

    Tax Administration 2017 - Comparative Information on OECD and Other Advanced and Emerging Economies

    This report is the seventh edition of the OECD's Tax Administration Comparative Information Series. It provides internationally comparative data on important aspects of tax systems and their administration in 55 advanced and emerging economies. The format and approach for the 2017 edition of the publication has been revised. The commentary is now more succinct, focusing on significant tax administration issues and trends. It provides increased analysis, backed by more than 170 data tables and complemented by more than one-hundred examples of innovation and practice in tax administrations. It also features eight articles authored by officials working in participating tax administrations that provide an 'inside view' on a range of topical issues tax administrations are managing. The report has three parts. The first contains seven chapters that examine and comment on tax administration performance and trends up to the end of the 2015 fiscal year. The second part presents the eight tax administration authored articles, while part three of the publication contains all the data tables which form the basis of the analysis in this report as well as details of the administrations that participated in this publication.
  • 29-September-2017

    English

    The Changing Tax Compliance Environment and the Role of Audit

    The report sets out how tax compliance strategies are evolving in light of new technologies, data sources and tools, including the increasing use of advanced analytics. It also looks at how these changes might affect the role of audit and auditors in the future. Finally it suggests a number of areas where further work by the Forum on Tax Administration might assist tax administrations in their consideration and implementation of administrative reforms as a result of the changing compliance environment.
  • 29-September-2017

    English

    Building Skills for All in Australia - Policy Insights from the Survey of Adult Skills

    Australia’s overall performance in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) ranges from average to very good. However, three million adults, representing one-fifth of the working age population, have low literacy and/or numeracy skills. Building Skills for All in Australia describes the characteristics of the low-skilled and discusses the consequences that low skills have on economic and social development for both individuals and Australian society. The review examines the strengths of the Australian skills system, highlighting the strong basic skills found in the migrant population, widespread proficiency in use of ICT and the positive role of workplaces in skills development. The study explores, moreover, the challenges facing the skills system and what can be done to enhance basic skills through education, training or other workplace measures. One of a series of studies on low basic skills, the review presents new analyses of PIAAC data and concludes with a series of policy recommendations. These include: increasing participation of women in STEM fields, addressing underperformance of post-secondary VET students and preventing drop-out, improving pre-apprenticeships, enhancing mathematics provision within secondary education and tackling poor access to childcare facilities for young mothers.
  • 29-September-2017

    English

    Reforming Sanitation in Armenia - Towards a National Strategy

    This report assesses the state of Armenia’s sanitation services, which are in poor shape, and proposes ways forward for reforming the sector by: ensuring equitable access by all and identifying solutions that work for the poorest and most remote communities; generating economies of scale and scope, and reducing both investment and operational costs for the efficient delivery of sanitation services; and moving towards sustainable cost recovery for the sanitation sector, by identifying how much funding can be mobilised from within the sector and how much external transfers are required. The state of Armenia’s sanitation services are inadequate, with 51% of the population in rural areas using unimproved facilities, causing direct damage to the environment and exposing inhabitants to health risks, and better access but degraded sewerage-system infrastructure in urban areas, posing health hazards due to potential cross-contamination between sewage and drinking water. According to preliminary estimates, EUR 2.6 billion of investments will be required to meet Armenia’s sanitation needs, with approximately EUR 1 billion needing to be spent in the next 7 to 10 years. Given the country’s current economic situation, this investment will have to be spread over time and targeted to avoid further deterioration of infrastructure and increase of the financing gap.
  • 28-September-2017

    English

    Corporate Governance in Colombia

    This review of Corporate Governance in Colombia was prepared as part of the process of Colombia's accession to OECD Membership. The report describes the corporate governance setting for both listed companies and the state-owned sector (SOEs). The review then examines the legal and regulatory framework and company practices to assess the degree to which the recommendations of the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises have been implemented. The review finds that Colombia's framework for the corporate governance of listed companies is largely consistent with the Principles, although some companies have been reluctant to implement some of the good practices recommended in Colombia's national corporate governance code. For SOEs, the report recognises substantial reforms undertaken during the review process to adopt an ambitious national ownership policy. Reforms have included establishing an ownership co-ordination unit and more transparent reporting on SOE performance, and removing ministers from SOE boards and establishing more transparent board nomination processes aimed at enhancing the qualifications of board members. The report seeks continuing efforts to consolidate these reforms and to implement plans announced in the national ownership policy.
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