Publications


  • 22-September-2016

    English

    The Governance of Inclusive Growth - An Overview of Country Initiatives

    Achieving inclusive growth relates closely to how governments work and how policies are designed, implemented, delivered and evaluated. This publication presents an overview of country initiatives concerning inclusive growth in 39 OECD member and partner countries. It was prepared in the context of the OECD Public Governance Ministerial Meetings held in Helsinki, Finland, on 28 October 2015. The publication focuses on four core issues: engaging with citizens and businesses for more inclusive policies and services; innovative policy design for inclusive growth; improving the delivery of services for and with citizens; and, strengthening accountability through better performance management and evaluation.

  • 21-September-2016

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Systems: Latvia 2016

    Latvia’s health system broadly delivers effective and efficient care to the population within a context of significantly fewer resources – and higher health care needs – compared to most OECD countries. Latvia has successfully consolidated its hospital sector and strengthened primary care, with the average length of stay in hospital falling between 2005 and 2013 and with GPs are now informed, and required to follow-up, patients who called for emergency medical assistance but were not hospitalised. OECD health systems could learn much from these reforms as well as longer-standing institutions, such as Latvia’s physician assistants. Latvia nevertheless faces important challenges to its health system: up to one in five Latvians report foregoing health care because of the cost; waiting times for key diagnostic and treatment services can be long; and inclusion of key treatments in  publicly-funded benefits does not always reflect latest best practice. Critically, the health system lags behind many OECD countries in the degree to which data are used to systematically measure, compare and improve the performance of services, especially at provider or local levels. This review supports Latvia in continuing its reforms of the health system, informed by international best practices.

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  • 21-September-2016

    English

    Debate the Issues: New Approaches to Economic Challenges

    To capitalise on the new international resolve epitomised by COP21 and the agreement on the universal Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires a renewed effort to promote new policy thinking and new approaches to the great challenges ahead. Responding to new challenges means we have to adopt more ambitious frameworks, design more effective tools, and propose more precise policies that will take account of the complex and multidimensional nature of the challenges. The goal is to develop a better sense of how economies really work and to articulate strategies which reflect this understanding. The OECD’s New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) exercise challenges our assumptions and our understanding about the workings of the economy. This collection from OECD Insights summarises opinions from inside and outside the Organisation on how NAEC can contribute to achieving the SDGs, and describes how the OECD is placing its statistical, monitoring and analytical capacities at the service of the international community. The authors also consider the transformation of the world economy that will be needed and the long-term “tectonic shifts” that are affecting people, the planet, global productivity, and institutions.

  • 20-September-2016

    English

    School Leadership for Learning - Insights from TALIS 2013

    The OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is the largest international survey of teachers and school leaders. Using the TALIS database, this report looks at different approaches to school leadership and the impact of school leadership on professional learning communities and on the learning climate in individual schools.

    It looks at principals’ instructional and distributed leadership across different education systems and levels. Instructional leadership comprises leadership practices that involve the planning, evaluation, co-ordination and improvement of teaching and learning. Distributed leadership in schools explores the degree of involvement of staff, parents or guardians, and students in school decisions.

    How are principals’ and schools’ characteristics related to instructional and distributed leadership? What types of leadership are favoured across countries? What impact do they have on the establishment of professional learning communities and positive learning environments? The report notes that teacher collaboration is more common in schools with strong instructional leadership. However, about one in three principals does not actively encourage collaboration among the teaching staff in his or her school. There is room for improvement; and both policy and practice can help achieve it. The report offers a series of policy recommendations to help strengthen school leadership.

  • 20-September-2016

    English

    Driving Performance at Latvia's Public Utilities Commission

    Regulators are proactive referees of the sectors they regulate, contributing to the delivery of essential public utilities for citizens. To fulfill this function, they need to be constantly alert, checking sectoral trends as well as assessing the impact of their decisions. However, while measuring regulators’ performance is essential, it is also challenging, from defininig what should be measured to attributing impacts to regulators' decisions. To address these challenges, the OECD has developed an innovative framework that looks at the institutions, processes and practices that help regulators assess their performance. The framework has been applied to Latvia's Public Utilities Commission, which is responsible for regulating energy, communications, water and waste. The review offers unique insights into the work of a multi-sector regulator, identifying the organisational features that allow lessons and experiences to be shared across sectors and contribute to good performance. It  highlights the importance of clarifying the role and functions of the regulator and its relationship with other public institutions, setting long-term strategic objectives for the regulator's activities, and having the right regulatory tools with appropriate incentives for the efficient and effective provision of public utility services.
     

  • 20-September-2016

    English

    Extended Producer Responsibility - Updated Guidance for Efficient Waste Management

    This report updates the 2001 Guidance Manual for Governments on Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), which provided a broad overview of the key issues, general considerations, and the potential benefits and costs associated with producer responsibility for managing the waste generated by their products put on the market. Since then, EPR policies to help improve recycling and reduce landfilling have been widely adopted in most OECD countries; product coverage has been expanded in key sectors such as packaging, electronics, batteries and vehicles; and EPR schemes are spreading in emerging economies in Asia, Africa and South America, making it relevant to address the differing policy contexts in developing countries.
     
    In light of all of the changes in the broader global context, this updated review of the guidelines looks at some of the new design and implementation challenges and opportunities of EPR policies, takes into account recent efforts undertaken by governments to better assess the cost and environmental effectiveness of EPR and its overall impact on the market, and addresses some of the specific issues in emerging market economies.

  • 19-September-2016

    English

    International Migration Outlook 2016

    The 2016 edition of the International Migration Outlook analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and selected non-OECD countries, and looks at the evolution of the labour market outcomes of recent immigrants in OECD countries. The report includes two special chapters: “The economic impact of migration: Why the local level matters” and "International migration following environmental and geopolitical shocks: How can OECD countries respond?", as well as country notes and a statistical annex.

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  • 19-September-2016

    English

    Financing the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Decommissioning of both commercial and R&D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. It is important to understand the costs of decommissioning projects in order to develop realistic cost estimates as early as possible based on preliminary decommissioning plans, but also to develop funding mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. Sound financial provisions need to be accumulated early on to reduce the potential risk for residual, unfunded liabilities and the burden on future generations, while ensuring environmental protection.

    Decommissioning planning can be subject to considerable uncertainties, particularly in relation to potential changes in financial markets, in energy policies or in the conditions and requirements for decommissioning individual nuclear installations, and such uncertainties need to be reflected in regularly updated cost estimates.

    This booklet offers a useful overview of the relevant aspects of financing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It provides information on cost estimation for decommissioning, as well as details about funding mechanisms and the management of funds based on current practice in NEA member countries.

  • 15-September-2016

    English

    Education at a Glance 2016 - OECD Indicators

    Education at a Glance is the authoritative source for information on the state of education around the world. It provides key information on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education; and the learning environment and organisation of schools.

    The 2016 edition introduces a new indicator on the completion rate of tertiary students and another one on school leaders. It provides more trend data and analysis on diverse topics, such as: teachers’ salaries; graduation rates; expenditure on education; enrolment rates; young adults who are neither employed nor in education or training; class size; and teaching hours. The publication examines gender imbalance in education and the profile of students who attend, and graduate from, vocational education.

    The report covers all 35 OECD countries and a number of partner countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Lithuania, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia and South Africa).

    This edition includes more than 125 figures and 145 tables. The Excel™ spreadsheets used to create them are available via the StatLinks provided throughout the publication. More data is available in the OECD Education Statistics database.

  • 14-September-2016

    English

    World Energy Investment 2016

    In this inaugural annual report on energy investments around the world, the International Energy Agency (IEA) looks at the lifeblood of the global energy system: investment. The ability to attract and direct capital flows is vital to transitioning to a low-carbon economy while also maintaining energy security and expanding energy access worldwide. The success or failure of energy policies can be measured by their ability to mobilise investments.

    The new report measures in a detailed manner the state of investment in the energy system across technologies, sectors and regions. The analysis takes a comprehensive look at the critical issues confronting investors, policy-makers, and consumers over the past year.

    World Energy Investment 2016 addresses key questions, including :

    • What was the level of investment in the global energy system in 2015? Which countries attracted the most capital?
    • What fuels and technologies received the most investment and which saw the biggest changes?
    • How is the low fuel price environment affecting spending in upstream oil and gas, renewables and energy efficiency? What does this mean for energy security?
    • Are current investment trends consistent with the transition to a low-carbon energy system?
    • How are technological progress, new business models and key policy drivers such as the Paris Climate Agreement reshaping investment?

    As a unique benchmark of current investment trends, World Energy Investment 2016 serves as a complement to the forecasts and projections found in other IEA publications and provides a critical foundation for decision making by governments and industry.

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