Share

Publications


  • 10-April-2019

    English

    Under Pressure: The Squeezed Middle Class

    Middle-class households feel left behind and have questioned the benefits of economic globalisation. In many OECD countries, middle incomes have grown less than the average and in some they have not grown at all. Technology has automated several middle-skilled jobs that used to be carried out by middle-class workers a few decades ago. The costs of some goods and services such as housing, which are essential for a middle class lifestyle, have risen faster than earnings and overall inflation. Faced with this, middle classes have reduced their ability to save and in some cases have fallen into debt. This report sheds light on the multiple pressures on the middle class. It analyses the trends of middle-income households through dimensions such as labour occupation, consumption, wealth and debt, as well as perceptions and social attitudes. It also discusses policy initiatives to address the concerns raised by the middle-class, by protecting middle-class living standards and financial security in the face of economic challenges.
  • 10-April-2019

    English

    Digital Innovation - Seizing Policy Opportunities

    This report discusses how the digital transformation – digital technologies, data and software, AI-based analytics and other advances – is changing innovation processes and outcomes. It highlights the general trends across the economy and factors behind sector-specific dynamics, including increasing use of data as a key input for innovation, the expanding possibilities for experimentation offered by virtual simulation, 3D printing and other digital technologies, and the growing focus on services innovation enabled by digital technologies.In view of such changes, this report evaluates how innovation policies should adapt to foster innovation and inclusive development in the digital age, and identifies priority areas for policy action. It also explores novel innovation policy approaches implemented by countries to foster digital technology adoption and collaborative innovation.
  • 10-April-2019

    English

    University-Industry Collaboration - New Evidence and Policy Options

    This report discusses challenges and opportunities in assessing the impacts of science-industry knowledge exchange on innovation. The report provides new evidence on joint industry-science patenting activity and academic start-ups, as well as on the impact of geographical proximity between research institutions and industry on local innovation. The report explores the complex set of knowledge-transfer channels, such as collaborative research, co-patenting, academic spinoffs, and their relative importance across science fields and industry sectors. It also experiments with using labour force survey data to assess the contributions of graduates in social sciences to different industries.Different policy mixes are used in OECD countries to stimulate science-industry knowledge transfer. This report presents a taxonomy of 21 policy instruments, which include grants for collaborative university-industry research and financial support to university spin-offs, and discusses their possible positive and negative interactions. Based on a number of country case studies, the report also sheds light on new policy approaches to support spin-off creation. The report also explores recent trends on the governance of public research of high relevance to science-industry knowledge transfer using newly developed policy indicators for 35 OECD countries.
  • 9-April-2019

    English

    Engaging Employers and Developing Skills at the Local Level in Australia

    Local vocational education and training programmes serve as a valuable educational pathway to improve the transition from school to work. Within the VET system, quality apprenticeship programmes can provide employers with a skilled workforce that is more agile in a rapidly evolving global economy while also supporting new employment opportunities for disadvantaged groups.This report focuses on how to better engage employers in apprenticeship and other work-based skills development programmes aligned with growing sectors of the local economy. A key part of this report was the implementation of an employer-based survey, which gathered information from over 300 Australian employers about their skills needs and barriers to apprenticeship participation. The report also provides information on four case studies, including Sydney Metro and STEMship in New South Wales, Collective Education in Tasmania, and the Dream, Believe, Achieve programme in Queensland. The case studies demonstrate how local organisations are building stronger business-education partnerships.
  • 5-April-2019

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Switzerland 2019

    The OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. The policies and programmes of each DAC member are critically examined approximately once every five years. DAC peer reviews assess the performance of a given member, not just that of its development co-operation agency, and examine both policy and implementation. They take an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian assistance activities of the member under review.This review assesses the performance of Switzerland including its strategic support to multilateralism in order to tackle global goods and challenges, its comprehensive vision for development and partnerships and the current pressure on development and humanitarian programmes.
  • 4-April-2019

    English

    Women and Trade Networks in West Africa

    Women make a significant contribution to West Africa's food economy, perpetuating a long tradition of commerce and participating in cross-border trade and regional outreach. Their activities face numerous obstacles but also present important opportunities, highlighted in this report through an unprecedented relational and spatial analysis of social networks. The study focuses on the rice sector in the Dendi region (Benin, Niger and Nigeria) and on the regional governance networks that support women's entrepreneurship. It confirms that Nigeria occupies a privileged position due to its demographics and growing urbanisation. The report proposes the development of innovative public policies based on the reinforcement of the social capital of women and policy approaches that promote better integration of the initiatives undertaken by governments, international and non-governmental organisations to empower women and strengthen their resilience.
  • 2-April-2019

    English

    Driving Performance at Peru's Energy and Mining Regulator

    As 'market referees', regulators contribute to the delivery of essential public utilities. Their organisational culture, behaviour and governance are important factors in how regulators, and the sectors they oversee, perform. The report uses the OECD Performance Assessment Framework for Economic Regulators to assess both the internal and external governance of Peru's Energy and Mining Regulator (Osinergmin). The review discusses Osinergmin's achievements and good practices, analyses the key drivers of its performance, and proposes an integrated reform package to help the regulator prepare for the future.
  • 2-April-2019

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Rome

    This report focuses on the local level integration of migrants in Rome, and provides information on the national framework for integration in Italy. While the study assumes that local authorities are at the forefront of migrant integration - providing information and essential services, ensuring access to education and the labour market, overcoming the barriers for full inclusion in the host society, and managing conflicts - local authorities are not alone. This report stresses the importance of multi-level governance of migrant integration, highlighting the key role of third sector enterprises, NGOs, business, faith-based organisations and unions. It identifies and shares selected local actions and governance practices to manage the short- and long-term effects of migration flows, and provides an international comparative of practices implemented by other EU cities, highlighting the most effective measures and lessons learned.
  • 1-April-2019

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Hidalgo, Mexico

    Hidalgo is one of the smallest states in Mexico. It benefits from its close proximity to Mexico City and contains a number of economic and environmental assets in its territory. After a long period of economic stagnation, the state is now closing up the gap with national standards. Yet, productivity and income levels remain low with respect to national levels, and there exist high socio-economic disparities between the south of the state and the municipalities in the northern and mountainous area. This review looks at how the state of Hidalgo is seeking to boost its economy, particularly through a series of institutional reforms and policies to improve the business environment. It highlights opportunities to accelerate the economic convergence and transit towards high-value added economic sectors. The review also identifies a number of recommendations to promote inclusive growth and reduce its north-south divide and offers suggestions to address governance challenges in the territory.
  • 28-March-2019

    English

    The Sharing and Gig Economy: Effective Taxation of Platform Sellers - Forum on Tax Administration

    This report looks at approaches to help ensure the effective taxation of those earning income from the sale of goods or services in the sharing and gig economy. It considers the different ways that tax administrations can best engage with platform sellers, sharing and gig economy platforms, and each other to enable more effective tax compliance. The report is divided into four chapters. The first chapter sets out the background to the sharing and gig economy and the role of online platforms. The second chapter provides some examples of current approaches that are being taken by OECD Forum on Tax Administration members that participated in this work. Chapter three sets out a range of options that tax administrations may wish to consider to help enable compliance in this sector. Finally, chapter four sets out three recommendations and considerations for possible further work: joint work between tax administrations and platforms on providing information and support to platform sellers; improving the evidence base to enhance understanding of the tax at risk in relation to platforms; and assisting in the possible development of a legislative model for standardised reporting by sharing and gig economy platforms.
  • << < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>