Publications


  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Nuclear Energy Outlook 2008

    World energy demand continues to grow unabated and is leading to very serious concerns about security of supply, soaring energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. Nuclear energy is being increasingly seen as having a role to play in addressing these concerns. Responding to renewed interest in nuclear energy, this Nuclear Energy Outlook uses the most current data and statistics available and provides projections up to 2050 to consider growth scenarios and potential implications on the future use of nuclear energy. It also offers unique analyses and recommendations on the possible challenges that lie ahead. Topics covered by the NEO include nuclear power’s current status and projected trends, environmental impacts, uranium resources and security of supply, costs, safety and regulation, radioactive waste management and decommissioning, non-proliferation and security, legal frameworks, infrastructure, stakeholder engagement, advanced reactors and advanced fuel cycles.
  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 226: Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess the effects of chemical substances in soil on the reproductive output of the soil mite species Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer Canestrini (Acari: Laelapidae). It can be used for water soluble or insoluble substances, but not with volatile substances.

    Adult females of similar age are exposed to a range of concentrations of the test substance mixed into 20 g dry mass of artificial soil 28-35 days after the start of the egg laying period. Depending on the endpoint (ECx, NOEC or both), five to twelve concentrations should be tested. At least two to four replicates for each test concentrations and six to eight control replicates, of 10 animals each, are recommended. At 20¡ãC, the test lasts 14 days after introducing the females, which usually allows the control offspring to reach the deutonymph stage. The number of surviving females (mortality ¡Ü 20% for a valid test) and the number of juveniles per test vessel (at least 50 for a valid test) are determined. The fecundity of the mites exposed to the test substance is compared to that of controls in order to determine the ECx (e.g. EC10, EC50) or the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC). Any observed differences between the behaviour and the morphology of the mites in the control and the treated vessels should be recorded.

  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test

    The test method described in this Test Guideline assesses the effect of chemicals on the reproductive output of Daphnia magna Straus. To this end, young female Daphnia are exposed to the test substance added to water at a range of concentrations (at least five). For semi-static tests, at least 10 animals at each test concentration and for flow-through tests, 40 animals divided into four groups of 10 animals at each test concentration, are used. The test duration is 21 days. Reproductive output of the parent animals and the total number of living offspring produced per parent alive at the end of the test should be reported. The study report should also include: the daily counting of the offspring, the daily recording of the parent mortality, the weekly measurement of oxygen concentration, temperature, hardness and pH values and the determination of the concentrations of test substance. Optionally, the sex ratio of the offspring may be recorded. The reproductive output of the animals exposed to the test substance is compared to that of the control in order to determine the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) and hence the no observed effect concentration (NOEC). In addition, and as far as possible, the data are analyzed using a regression model in order to estimate the concentration that would cause an x % reduction in reproductive output.

  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 407: Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to test substance via oral administration. The method is based on the repeated oral administration of the substance of interest during one limited period (one dose level daily during 28 days). This Guideline is intended primarily for use with rodents (rat preferably). At least 10 animals (5 female and 5 male) should be used for each dose level. Three tests groups, at least, should be used. The test compound is administered by gavage or via the diet or drinking water. A limit test may be performed if no effects would be expected at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/d. The report of this study will include results from clinical and functional observations, body weight and food/water consumption measurements, hematology and clinical biochemistry; as well as gross necropsy and histopathology.

  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and-Down Procedure

    The method permits estimation of an LD50 with a confidence interval and the results allow a substance to be classified for acute toxicity according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of chemicals.

    It is easiest to apply to materials that produce death within couple of days. This Test Guideline is intended for use with rodents (rat female preferably). There are a limit test and a main test. The limit test can be used efficiently to identify chemicals that are likely to have low toxicity. The test substance is administered generally in a single dose by gavage to animals fasted prior to dosing. Single animals are dosed in sequence usually at 48h intervals. The first animal is dosed a step below the best preliminary estimates of the LD50. The second animal receives a lower dose (if the first animal dies) or a higher dose (if the first animal survives). Animals are observed with a special attention given during the first 4 hours and daily thereafter, for a total of 14 days generally. Weights Animals should be determined at least weekly. All the animals should be subjected to gross necropsy. Globally the LD50 is calculated using the maximum likelihood method. Following this, it may be possible to compute interval estimates for the LD50; most narrow is the interval and better is LD50 estimation.

    Software to be used with TG 425, 432, 455. Click here. Software not part of the Mutual Acceptance of Data.

  • 10-October-2008

    English

    Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and discusses how they should develop this role in the future. The key issues, approaches and trends are analysed and compared across a range of countries, from the experiences of the most entrepreneurial universities in North America to advanced European models and emerging practices in Central and Eastern Europe.

    It is clear that entrepreneurship engagement is a rapidly expanding and evolving aspect of higher education that requires proper support and development. The book stresses the need to expand existing entrepreneurship efforts and introduce more creative and effective approaches, building on the best practices highlighted from around the world. It will provide inspiration for those in higher education seeking to expand and improve their entrepreneurship teaching and knowledge-transfer activities, and for policy makers who wish to provide appropriate support initiatives and frameworks.

  • 10-October-2008

    English

    Cucumbers

    This set of standards is published within the framework of the activities of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It comprises comments and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of standards in force and is therefore a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in the international trade in these products.

  • 3-October-2008

    English

    17th International ITF/OECD Symposium on Transport Economics and Policy: Benefiting from Globalisation - Transport Sector Contribution and Policy Challenges

    The opportunities for individuals and businesses to benefit from globalisation are increased by efficient, cost-effective transport networks. A competitive, responsive, well-organised transport sector facilitates trade, but creating the conditions for this poses policy challenges that must be tackled if transport is to contribute fully to globalisation. This was the main theme of the 17th ITF/OECD Symposium.

    These conference proceedings contain summaries of the opening session ceremonies and discussions and the full text of the 16 papers presented as introductory reports for the discussions.  The reports cover such fields as data and trends, globalisation and transport sector development, transport policy and regional integration, trade and infrastructure, and international transport and domestic policy.

  • 2-October-2008

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Hungary 2008

    OECD's comprehensive review of Hungary's environmental programs and policies, covering air and water management, nature and biodiversity, sustainable development, the environment-economy interface, the environment-social interface, and international commitments. The review includes relevant statistical information as well as a series of recommendations for strengthening environmental infrastructure, implementing environmental policy and integrating environmental concerns into economic decisions.

  • 1-October-2008

    English

    West African Mobility and Migration Policies of OECD Countries

    This publication reviews migration policies in the main OECD countries receiving West African migrants and analyses the recent discussions within Europe. This report lists common approaches undertaken in Europe, Africa and West Africa and aims to shed light on decision makers’ strategic thinking. It provides the greater public with an objective understanding of this recent dynamic.

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