Publications


  • 13-November-2008

    English

    Space Technologies and Climate Change - Implications for Water Management, Marine Resources and Maritime Transport

    This book examines the contributions that space technologies can make in tackling some of the serious problems posed by climate change. Focusing on examples of water management, marine resources and maritime transport, it sets out the rationale for further developing satellite systems to measure and monitor climate change and help mitigate its consequences. The report underlines the need to consider satellites not just as research and development systems, but as an important component of a critical communication- and information-based infrastructure for modern societies. The tool box for decision makers that concludes the book reviews different methodological options for deciding on investments in space-based earth observation.

  • 12-November-2008

    English

    Encouraging Student Interest in Science and Technology Studies

    Encouraging Student Interest in Science and Technology Studies examines overall trends in higher education enrolments and the evolution of S&T compared with other disciplines. The results suggest that although absolute numbers of S&T students have been rising as access to higher levels of education expands in OECD economies, the relative share of S&T students among the overall student population has been falling, The report shows that encouraging interest in S&T studies requires action to tackle a host of issues inside and outside the education system, ranging from teacher training and curriculum design to improving the image of S&T careers. Numerous examples of national initiatives are used to complement the analyses to derive a set of practical recommendations.

  • 23-October-2008

    English

    Privatisation and Regulation of Urban Transit Systems

    Urban public transport services generally run at a large deficit. This has led public authorities to seek efficiencies, notably through private sector involvement. Support for the sector traditionally seeks to provide basic mobility services to all segments of society, including low-income users. Intervention is also required to manage the natural tendency towards concentration and market power in the provision of these transport services. Policy towards urban public transport is increasingly aimed at managing congestion on the roads and mitigating CO2 emissions by substituting for travel by car. 

    Achieving coherent transport networks that are efficient and financially sustainable is a challenge for any public authority. This Round Table examines experience in integrating private management and capital with public transport policy objectives in a number of developed economies. For network operators, the Round Table concludes that innovation is the key to surviving the rapidly changing policy and regulatory environment.

  • 23-October-2008

    English

    Enhancing the Role of SMEs in Global Value Chains

    The globalisation of production processes characterises the current phase of globalisation. Participation in global value chains (GVCs) can bring stability to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and allow them to increase productivity and expand their business. This OECD report identifies the ways in which governments, the business community, and international organisations can facilitate SMEs’ gainful participation in global value chains through policies, practices and targeted support programmes. It presents the findings of case studies carried out in five industries (the automotive sector, scientific and precision instruments, software, film production and distribution and tourism).
  • 20-October-2008

    English

    Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products - Fifth Edition

    The Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products is a world standard guide to the names of fish and fish products traded internationally. This fifth edition comprises 1187 items, with descriptions in English and French and the equivalents for the main headings in 18 other languages: Danish, Dutch, Finnish, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Croatian, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish. Indexes are provided for each language, including an index of scientific names for species of fish, shellfish, etc.

  • 20-October-2008

    English

    CO2 Capture and Storage: A Key Carbon Abatement Option

    Oil, coal and natural gas will remain the world’s dominant sources of energy over the next decades, with resulting carbon dioxide emissions set to increase to unsustainable levels. However, technologies that help reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuels can reverse this trend. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is particularly promising. CCS takes CO2 from large stationary sources and stores it in deep geological layers to prevent its release into the atmosphere.

    Responding to a G8 Gleneagles request, this study documents progress toward the development of CCS, covering capture, transportation and storage technologies and their costs; storage capacity estimates, regional assessment of CCS potential; legal and regulatory frameworks; public awareness and outreach strategies; and financial mechanisms and international mechanisms.

    It also discusses the role of CCS in ambitious new energy scenarios that aim for substantial emissions reduction. This publication elaborates the potential of CCS in coal-fuelled electricity generation and estimates for capture in the industry and fuel transformation sectors. Finally, it assesses the infrastructure needed to process and transport large volumes of CO2.

  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 316: Phototransformation of Chemicals in Water – Direct Photolysis

    This Test guideline describes studies on phototransformation in water to determine the potential effects of solar irradiation on chemicals in surface water, considering direct photolysis only.

    It is designed as a tiered approach. The Tier 1 is based on a theoretical screen. The rate of decline of a test chemical in a direct photolysis study is generally assumed to follow pseudo first-order kinetics. If the maximum possible losses is estimated to be superior or equal to 50% of the initial concentration over a 30-day period, an experimental study is proceeded in Tier 2. The direct photolysis rate constants for test chemicals in the laboratory is determined using preferably a filtered xenon arc lamp capable of simulating natural sunlight in the 290 to 800 nm, or sunlight irradiation, and extrapolated to natural water. If estimated losses are superior or equal to 20%, the transformation pathway and the identities, concentrations, and rate of formation and decline of major transformation products are identified. An optional task is the additional determination of the quantum yield for various types of water bodies, seasons, and latitudes of interest.

    The test chemical should be directly dissolved in the aqueous media saturated in air at a concentration which should not exceed half its solubility. For linear and non-linear regressions on the test chemical data in definitive or upper tier tests, the minimum number of samples collected should be 5 and 7 respectively. The exact number of samples and the timing of their collection is determined by a preliminary range-finding. Replicates (at least 2) of each experimental determination of kinetic parameters are recommended to determine variability and reduce uncertainty in their determination.

  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 508: Magnitude of the Pesticide Residues in Processed Commodities

    This Test Guideline describes how to plan and carry out processing studies, i.e. determine residue levels in primary processed commodities following pesticide application on raw agriculture commodities (RAC) under conditions likely to lead to maximum residues. It provides the distribution of residues (active ingredient, and/or metabolites, degradation products), and preferential accumulation in various processed products resulting from the processing of a commodity.

    Used RACs (of plant origin and animal origin) should contain field-treated quantifiable residues, at sufficient levels so that concentration/dilution factors for the various consumed products and non-consumed intermediates can be determined. Pesticides residues to be measured are determined by the residue definition based on studies on the nature of the residue in processing and/or in plant and livestock. For each field test site (at least two independent) the processing factor (Pf) is calculated as the ratio between the residue level in the processed commodity and in the RAC or the commodity to be processed. If a given commodity has two or more significantly different commercial procedures, two trials for each procedure are necessary. Spiked samples should be run concurrently with those from the processing study to ensure the method validity.

  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 315: Bioaccumulation in Sediment-dwelling Benthic Oligochaetes

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess bioaccumulation of sediment-associated chemicals in endobenthic oligochaetes worms. It applies to stable, neutral organic chemicals having log Kow values between 3.0 and 6.0, superlipophilic substances that show a log Kow of more than 6.0, or stable metallo-organic compounds which tend to associate with sediments.

    The test consists of two phases. During the uptake phase, worms are exposed to sediment spiked with the test substance, topped with reconstituted water and equilibrated as appropriate. Groups of control worms are held under identical conditions. The duration of the uptake phase is by default 28 days, unless a steady-state has been reached before. For the elimination phase, the worms are transferred to a sediment-water-system free of test substance. This second phase is terminated when either the 10% level of steady state concentration, or of the concentration measured in the worms on day 28 of the uptake phase, is reached, or after a maximum of 10 days. Change of the concentration of the test substance in/on the worms is monitored throughout both phases of the test. The uptake rate constant (ks), the elimination rate constant (ke) and the kinetic bioaccumulation factor (BAFK = ks/ ke) are calculated. Radiolabelled test substances may be used to determine whether metabolites identification and quantification should be made. The minimum number of treated replicates for kinetic measurements should be three per sampling point throughout uptake and elimination phase. To ensure the test validity (cumulative mortality of the worms < 20% of the initial number), toxicity tests should also be conducted at regular intervals. Besides, the worm lipid content, the sediment total organic carbon content and the residue level in worms at the end of the elimination phase are useful for the interpretation of the results.

  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 314: Simulation Tests to Assess the Biodegradability of Chemicals Discharged in Wastewater

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess the extent and kinetics of primary and ultimate biodegradation of organic chemicals whose route of entry into the environment begins with their discharge to wastewater. It consists of five simulation tests in a) sewer systems, b) activated sludge, c) anaerobic digester sludge, d) treated effluent in the mixing zone of surface water, and e) untreated wastewater that is directly discharged to surface water. These tests are appropriate for chemicals released continuously or episodically to wastewater.

    The five test methods described are open batch systems or closed gas flow-through batch systems. The principle objectives are to i) measure the rate of primary biodegradation, ii) measure the rate of mineralization and iii ) follow the formation and decay of major transformation products when appropriate.

    Typically, a test chemical, radiolabelled (14C) in an appropriate position, is incubated with a representative environmental sample. Abiotic and biotic treatments are prepared for each test chemical and condition. The level of parent and degradation products is determined using chromatographic separation and radio-analytical detection methods.

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