Publications


  • 28-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: New Zealand 2010

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of New Zealand's energy policies and programmes.  This edition finds that New Zealand’s strong commitment to liberalised energy markets has delivered a relatively high level of energy security and economic prosperity for consumers. Since the previous IEA review in 2006, the government has built on the success of existing policy mechanisms and implemented a number of far-reaching changes in the electricity sector and environmental policy. But progress in some sectors, such as energy efficiency, has not been as strong as anticipated.   In mid-2010, the government commenced a review of the New Zealand Energy Strategy. The result is the publication of a new energy strategy, which establishes clear long-term policy priorities and energy-savings goals. Implementing these strategies will bring many new challenges, including attainment of the government’s medium-term energy-savings targets. New Zealand enjoys the advantage of a diverse and balanced portfolio of renewable-energy resources, which contribute over 70% of electricity output – the third highest portion in IEA member countries. This resource base has the potential to deliver greater volumes of energy and the government aspires to increase this proportion to 90% of electricity generation by 2025. Meeting this target will bring many benefits but also tough challenges, such as maintaining a robust National Grid. This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing New Zealand and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide New Zealand towards a more sustainable energy future.
  • 28-March-2011

    English

    The Call for Innovative and Open Government - An Overview of Country Initiatives

    This report presents an overview of country initiatives concerning efficient, effective public services and open and innovative government. It focuses on four core issues:  delivery of public services in times of fiscal consolidation; a more effective and performance-oriented public service; promotion of open and transparent government; and strategies for implementation of a reform agenda.  These issues were discussed at the OECD Public Governance Ministerial Meeting held in Venice, Italy, in November 2010, hosted by the Italian Ministry for Public Administration and Innovation.
  • 23-March-2011

    English

    Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction - How Aid for Trade Can Help

    Trade promotes economic growth, alleviates poverty and helps countries reach their development goals. However, developing countries – in particular the least developed – face difficulties in making trade happen and turning trade into economic growth. The Aid for Trade Initiative – launched at the 2005 World Trade Organisation conference in Hong Kong – aims at helping these countries to take advantage of trade opportunities and to reap the benefits of their integration into the world economy. The Initiative has been a success: it has not only raised awareness among both donors and developing countries about the role of trade in development, but also helped secure increased resources.Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction: How Aid for Trade Can Help explains how Aid for Trade can foster economic growth and reduce poverty, and why it is an important instrument for a development strategy that actively supports poverty alleviation. Unlocking this potential requires carefully designed and sequenced trade reforms. While developing countries have many trade-related needs, but financial resources and political capital for reforms are limited, it is an important priority to tackle the most binding constraints to trade expansion. This report describes the diagnostic tools available, evaluates their strengths and weaknesses, and suggests a dynamic framework to guide the sequencing of reform and donor support.
  • 15-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Norway 2011

    The International Energy Agency's 2011 comprehensive review of Norways energy policies and programmes. The review finds that Norway has a unique twin role as a major oil and gas producer and a strong global advocate of climate change mitigation. As the third-largest exporter of energy in the world, it contributes to global energy security by providing reliable supplies to consuming countries. At the same time, the Norwegians highly value environmental sustainability and the country is taking climate policy very seriously. Norway also manages its petroleum resources and revenue in a commendable way, setting a model for other countries. The challenge now for the government is to stimulate further increases in natural gas and petroleum production from safe and environmentally sustainable operations.   Norway’s large potential for hydropower generation is an asset, as European electricity markets are integrating and variable renewable energy generation is set to increase. More cross-border interconnections are needed to realise the full potential of hydropower for balancing variations in demand and supply in the regional market. Increased interconnections would also improve electricity security in Norway in times of low hydropower availability. Gas-fired power plants should also be considered for use for the same purpose. In order to meet its ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Norway needs to step up efforts at home. Although the dominance of low-carbon electricity in the energy mix limits the scope for domestic measures, large potential for emission reductions remains in oil and gas production, manufacturing and transport. However, measures to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy should be carefully designed, because they often focus on electricity and would thus not reduce emissions. Recent large increases in spending on energy RD&D and ongoing efforts to develop carbon capture and storage are very welcome.
  • 10-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Belgium 2009

    The International Energy Agency's comprehensive 2010 review of Belgium's energy policies and programmes. It finds thatBelgium is making commendable progress towards a clean and sustainable energy future. Energy intensity has recently declined, as have greenhouse gas emissions. Measures have been implemented to promote energy efficiency. Public funding for energy R&D has risen substantially. Energy security measures have been reinforced for different fuels, and an integrated emergency response policy is under development. Market reforms are advancing in both the electricity and gas sectors. Belgian energy policies are playing an increasingly important role in ensuring energy security not only in the country but also in northwest Europe. The country’s strategic location makes it an important transit hub for natural gas, oil and electricity.Nevertheless, challenges remain. A comprehensive, national strategy is needed to stimulate investment and adequately address energy security and climate change concerns. The Belgian position on the phase out of nuclear power should be reconsidered. The government should also try, through increased market transparency and streamlined planning procedures, to ensure that investment in new generation capacity is an attractive option for new players as well as incumbents. The overlapping responsibilities of the federal and regional governments reduce the cost-effectiveness of policies.This review analyses the energy challenges facing Belgium and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to serve as a guide as the country continues on its way towards a more sustainable energy future.Available at: http://www.iea.org/publications/free_new_Desc.asp?PUBS_ID=2353
  • 10-March-2011

    English

    Corporate Governance in Asia 2011 - Progress and Challenges

    In 2003, the Asian Roundtable on Corporate Governance produced recommendations to improve corporate governance in Asia, based on the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. This report summarises the results of a stocktaking exercise to determine progress made to date and the challenges remaining in the implementation of these recommendations. Included in this book are valuable insights into corporate governance rules and practices of listed companies in Asia, notably: shareholder rights, the protection of non-controlling owners, transparency and disclosure, as well as the role of company boards.
  • 2-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland 2011

    The International Energy Agency's comprehensive 2011 review Poland's energy policies and programmes.  The review finds that Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Polandfs energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Polandfs power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Polandfs efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the countryfs energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The governmentfs attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Polandfs potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.
  • 14-February-2011

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in the United States

    The United States is one of the most important agricultural producers in the world. It has a very large domestic market and is the world’s largest exporter of agricultural products. Indeed, the share of US agricultural production exported is more than double that of any other US industry and the trade surplus in agricultural products acts as an important stimulus to the US economy. Thus, US agricultural policies exert a strong influence on world agricultural markets.   The United States maintains an array of agricultural policies with goals that range from the traditional objectives of stabilising agricultural production and supporting farm income to those that have more recently increased in importance, such as assuring adequate nutrition, securing food safety, encouraging environmental protection and facilitating rural development. This study analyses and evaluates US agricultural policies, focusing on the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, in the context of developments in agricultural policy that have taken place in the United States since 1985. It looks closely at five US Farm Acts: the Food Security Act of 1985; the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990; the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996; the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (2002 Farm Act); and the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008. This study also discusses several emerging issues and challenges for US agricultural policies, and offers key policy recommendations.
  • 11-February-2011

    English

    Fisheries Policy Reform - National Experiences

    Much has been done over the years to improve fisheries management in OECD countries. Ongoing problems of over-fishing, overcapacity and the economic crisis intensify the need for reform. Although there is a general consensus on the importance of a successful fisheries management, the effort levels and effectiveness of policy reforms have differed among OECD countries. This study examines the factors that facilitate reform, as well as the difficulties countries face in the process of reform. It provides an overview of domestic reform experiences in Norway, Mexico, Iceland, New Zealand and Korea. 
  • 8-February-2011

    English

    Disaggregated Impacts of CAP Reforms - Proceedings of an OECD Workshop

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is an important policy for the European Union and accounts for about 40% of the EU budget. Ever since its inception in 1958, the CAP has been regularly reviewed and adjusted to improve its performance and adapt to changing circumstances. At a time when the post-2013 future of the CAP is being discussed and major challenges such as food security and climate change lay ahead, it is important to review the impact of past reforms and to draw lessons for the design of future policies. While the studies in these proceedings often take account of national and international market effects of agricultural policies, they tend to focus on the impact of policies on farms and at the regional and local levels. Today, the European Union is composed of very diverse regions that are affected very differently by any given farm policy, depending on the structural characteristics of the farms’ and regions’ economies. This report collects papers presented at the OECD Workshop on Disaggregated Impacts of CAP Reforms, held in Paris in March 2010, which focused on recent reforms. In particular, it examined the implementation of the single payment scheme since 2005 and the transfer of funds between different measures. Special attention was also paid to reforms of the sugar and dairy sectors with respect to the quota system and the restructuring of both these industries. The papers also look at the impact of the new direct payment system on land use, production and income.
  • << < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94 | 95 | 96 | 97 | 98 | 99 | 100 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105 | 106 | 107 | 108 | 109 | 110 | 111 | 112 | 113 | 114 | 115 | 116 | 117 | 118 | 119 | 120 | 121 | 122 | 123 | 124 | 125 | 126 | 127 | 128 | 129 | 130 | 131 | 132 | 133 | 134 | 135 | 136 | 137 | 138 | 139 | 140 | 141 | 142 | 143 | 144 | 145 | 146 | 147 | 148 | 149 | 150 | 151 | 152 | 153 | 154 | 155 | 156 | 157 | 158 | 159 | 160 | 161 | 162 | 163 | 164 | 165 | 166 | 167 | 168 | 169 | 170 | 171 | 172 | 173 | 174 | 175 | 176 | 177 | 178 | 179 | 180 | 181 | 182 | 183 | 184 | 185 | 186 | 187 | 188 | 189 | 190 | 191 > >>