Publications


  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 488: Transgenic Rodent Somatic and Germ Cell Gene Mutation Assays

    This Test Guideline describes an in vivo assay that detects chemicals that may induce gene mutations. In this assay, transgenic rats or mice that contain multiple copies of chromosomally integrated plasmid or phage shuttle vectors are used. The transgenes contain reporter genes for the detection of various types of mutations induced by test substances. A negative control group and a minimum of 3 treatment groups of transgenic animals are treated for 28 consecutive days. Administration is usually followed by a 3-day period of time, prior to sacrifice, during which the agent is not administered and during which unrepaired DNA lesions are fixed into stable mutations. At the end of this 3-day period, the animals are sacrificed, genomic DNA is isolated from the tissue(s) of interest and purified. Mutations that have arisen during treatment are scored by recovering the transgene and analysing the phenotype of the reporter gene in a bacterial host deficient for the reporter gene. Mutant frequency, the reported parameter in these assays, is calculated by dividing the number of plaques/plasmids containing mutations in the transgene by the total number of plaques/plasmids recovered from the same DNA sample.
  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test

    This Test Guideline describes an acute immobilisation assay on chronomids and is designed to complement existing Test Guidelines for chironomid chronic toxicity assays (TG 218, 219 and 233). The test method is based on TG 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test. First instar Chironomus sp. larvae are exposed to a range of concentrations of the test substance in water-only vessels for a period of 48 hours. C. riparius is the preferred species but C. dilutus or C. yoshimatsui may also be used for the test. At least 20 larvae, preferably divided into four groups of five larvae each, should be used for each test concentration and for controls. In the definitive test, at least five test concentrations should be used, with a dilution water control and solvent control (if appropriate). Immobilisation is recorded at 24 and 48 hours, and if data allow, the EC50 is calculated at 24 and 48 hours. A limit test with a single concentration may also be performed at 100 mg/L of test substance or up to the practical limit of solubility (whichever is lowest) in order to demonstrate that the EC50 is greater than this concentration.
  • 28-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 443: Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study

    This Test Guideline is designed to provide an evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects that may occur as a result of pre- and postnatal chemical exposure as well as an evaluation of systemic toxicity in pregnant and lactating females and young and adult offspring. In the assay, sexually-mature males and females rodents (parental (P) generation) are exposed to graduated doses of the test substance starting 2 weeks before mating and continuously through mating, gestation and weaning of their pups (F1 generation). At weaning, pups are selected and assigned to cohorts of animals for reproductive/developmental toxicity testing (cohort 1), developmental neurotoxicity testing (cohort 2) and developmental immunotoxicity testing (cohort 3). The F1 offspring receive further treatment with the test substance from weaning to adulthood. Clinical observations and pathology examinations are performed on all animals for signs of toxicity, with special emphasis on the integrity and performance of the male and female reproductive systems and the health, growth, development and function of the offspring. Part of cohort 1 (cohort 1B) may be extended to include an F2 generation; in this case, procedures for F1 animals will be similar to those for the P animals.
  • 15-July-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2011

    The International Energy Agency's 2011 review of Hungary's energy policies and programmes. The review finds that regional co-operation is a vital element of Hungary's energy market and energy security policy. Hungary, which shares borders with seven countries, is well placed to improve regional energy security by catalysing the development of closely integrated regional markets for electricity and natural gas. A country strongly dependent on natural gas imports, Hungary has taken several commendable steps to manage risks to its supply. It has enhanced storage capacity and diversified cross-border capacity, and is developing new supply routes. Hungary is also working hard to strengthen the regional electricity market through new interconnectors and market coupling. Electricity demand within Hungary is expected to grow, while generating capacity is rapidly ageing. Investments are needed for grid improvements and generating capacity, both for increasing capacity (especially for low-carbon electricity) and replacing ageing plants. Ensuring predictable and attractive framework conditions for investing in energy infrastructure is crucial. The government is considering additional nuclear power units. The extent to which nuclear power capacity will be expanded should be clarified without unnecessary delay, as it will have broad implications for the viability of other current and future base-load technologies. Although per-capita energy consumption in Hungary is well below the OECD average, considerable potential remains for improving energy efficiency across all sectors. Measures to reduce consumption in the large existing building stock should be the governmentfs top priority for energy policy. Gradually, Hungary should also replace broad subsidies for energy use with direct support to those in need.
  • 8-July-2011

    English

    Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Power

    This study assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalised electricity markets with either CO2 trading or carbon taxes. It uses daily price data for electricity, gas, coal and carbon from 2005 to 2010, which encompasses the first years of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the world’s foremost carbon trading framework. The study shows that even with modest carbon pricing, competition for new investment in electricity markets will take place between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power struggling to be profitable. The outcome of the competition between nuclear and gas-fired generation hinges, in addition to carbon pricing, on the capital costs for new nuclear power plant construction, gas prices and the profit margins applied. Strong competition in electricity markets reinforces the attractiveness of nuclear energy, as does carbon pricing, in particular when the latter ranges between USD 40 and USD 70 per tonne of CO2. The data and analyses contained in this study provide a robust framework for assessing cost and investment issues in liberalised electricity markets with carbon pricing.
  • 30-June-2011

    English

    Managing Risk in Agriculture - Policy Assessment and Design

    This book examines the implications of risk management for policy in agriculture.  Opening with a chapter on risk management principles and guidelines for policy design in agriculture, the book goes on to look at quantitative analysis of risk and then at policy in various countries.
  • 27-June-2011

    English

    Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems - Workshop Proceedings, Karlsruhe, Germany, 15-17 March 2010

    The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a potential transmutation system option as part of partitioning and transmutation strategies for radioactive waste in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. These proceedings contain all the technical papers presented at the workshop on Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems held on 15-17 March 2010 in Karlsruhe, Germany. The workshop provided experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of ADS and neutron sources. It included a special session on the EUROTRANS as well as four technical sessions covering current ADS experiments and test facilities, accelerators, neutron sources and subcritical systems.
  • 23-June-2011

    English

    Geothermal Heat and Power

    The technology roadmap for Geothermal Heat and Power offers a strategic plan to maximise deployment of these energy resources by 2050. It projects that 1 400 TWh of electricity per year could come from geothermal power by 2050, up from 67 TWh at present.Additionally, geothermal heat (not including ground-source heat pump technology) could contribute 5.8 EJ (1600 TWh) annually by 2050. In order to reach these targets, policy makers, local authorities and utilities need to be more aware of the variety of geothermal resources available and of their possible applications. This roadmap describes the technological, economic and non-economic barriers facing geothermal deployment, and the steps stakeholders must take to overcome them.
  • 23-June-2011

    English

    Biofuels for Transport

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision.

    The roadmap describes the steps necessary to realise this ambitious biofuels target; identifies key actions by different stakeholders, and the role for government policy to adopt measures needed to ensure the sustainable expansion of both conventional and advanced biofuel production.
  • 23-June-2011

    English

    The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes - The Path to Reliability

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes can delay or prevent important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99Mo-producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have recently created global supply shortages.

    This report provides the findings and analysis of two years of extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It puts forth a comprehensive policy approach that would help ensure long-term supply security of 99Mo/99mTc, detailing the essential steps to be taken by governments, industry and the health community to address the vulnerabilities of the supply chain, including its economic structure.
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