Publications


  • 26-August-2010

    English

    Trade and Economic Effects of Responses to the Economic Crisis

    The dramatic collapse in world trade in 2009 is, this report shows, mainly due to: the drop in demand for highly traded products; the drying up of trade finance; and the vertically integrated nature of global supply chains. Contrary to expectations, protectionist measures were relatively muted and did not play a significant part. In fact, because of their sheer size, stimulus measures may have had more impact on trade than direct trade policy measures Nevertheless, dollar for dollar, direct trade restricting measures have the most strongly negative impacts on growth and employment: a one dollar increase in tariff revenues results in a USD 2.16 drop in world exports and a USD 0.73 drop in world income. 

    The analyses presented here suggest that exit strategies from measures to deal with the crisis will be most effective in boosting growth and jobs if they first roll back measures that discriminate between domestic and foreign firms and those that target specific sectors. General demand stimulus measures and active labour market policies are preferable under current conditions. 

  • 23-August-2010

    English

    Post-Public Employment - Good Practices for Preventing Conflict of Interest

    The movement of personnel between employment in the public and private sectors, referred to as the “revolving door” phenomenon, raises particular attention in the context of the response of governments to the financial and economic crisis. 

    This OECD survey of 30 member countries shows that the vast majority of countries have established basic standards for preventing post-public employment conflict of interest. But few have tailored these standards to address risk areas and professions such as regulators or public procurement officials. Enforcing standards and imposing suitable sanctions remains a challenge for many countries.

    The principles presented in this volume serve as a point of reference for policy makers and managers to review and modernise post-public employment policies. It is part of the pathfinding efforts of the OECD to promote public sector integrity for cleaner, fairer and stronger economies.

  • 18-August-2010

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers: Sweden - Will the Recent Reforms Make It?

    Sickness and disability is a key economic policy concern for many OECD countries. Medical conditions, or problems labelled as such by societies and policy systems, are proving an increasing obstacle to raising labour force participation and keeping public expenditure under control. More and more people of working age rely on sickness and disability benefits as their main source of income, and the employment rates of those reporting disabling conditions are low. This report is an assessment of the Swedish reforms, which aim to lower inactivity and increase participation, against the background of recent trends and policy responses in other OECD countries. It looks at what Sweden is currently doing and what more it could do to transform its sickness and disability schemes from passive benefits to active support systems that promote work.    
  • 30-July-2010

    English

    Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

    Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA enables member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to share research on breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants and to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes.

    Energy Technology Initiatives: Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation, highlights the most significant recent achievements of the 42 IEA Implementing Agreements.
  • 30-July-2010

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers: Canada - Opportunities for Collaboration

    Sickness and disability policy reform has been a priority for OECD countries wanting to improve employment and social outcomes in this domain. The recent recession and corresponding fall in labour demand is expected to hit marginalised workers, including workers with health problems or disability, harder than the broader working-age population. There is a pressing need for policy makers to address the recent “medicalisation” of labour market problems, a phenomenon that appears to underlie much of the difficulties countries find in disability policy making. This report is an assessment of the Canadian situation, albeit through the lens of the federal government and the provinces of Québec, British Columbia and Manitoba. It looks at the current state of play following a decade of various reforms and preceding a period where further revisions are likely.
  • 26-July-2010

    English

    International Nuclear Law - History, Evolution and Outlook

    This publication commemorates the International School of Nuclear Law which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2010. The purpose of the publication is to provide an overview of the international nuclear law instruments, their background, content and development over the years and to present an outlook on future needs in the field of international nuclear law. Renowned experts in the nuclear law field have contributed scholarly papers on the various aspects of international nuclear law, including international institutions, protection against ionising radiation, nuclear safety, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and safeguards, nuclear security, transport of nuclear material and fuel, management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, liability, compensation and insurance for nuclear damages, environmental protection and international trade in nuclear material and equipment. This publication is dedicated to the school’s 500+ alumni from all around the world.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 442B: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA

    The Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method described in mouse (CBA/JN strain) is based on the use of measuring 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) content, an analogue of thymidine, as an indicator of this proliferation. A minimum of four animals is used per dose group, with a minimum of three concentrations of the test substance, plus a concurrent negative control group and a positive control group. The experimental schedule is during 6 days. Thereafter, the animals are killed and a single cell suspension of lymph node cells (LNC) is prepared. The procedure for preparing the LNC is crucial, in particular for the small lymph nodes in NC animals. Then the BrdU content in DNA of lymphocytes is measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. This study includes: measurements (weighing, BrdU) and clinical daily observations. The results are expressed as the Stimulation Index (SI) obtained by calculation from the mean BrdU labelling index. The SI should be ¡Ý1.6 before further evaluation of the test material as a potential skin sensitizer is warranted.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment

    This Guideline is designed to assess the effects of prolonged exposure of chemicals to the life-cycle of the sediment-dwelling freshwater dipteran Chironomus sp. First instar chironomid larvae are exposed to five concentrations of the test chemical in sediment-water systems. The test substance is spiked into the water or alternatively the sediment, and first instar larvae are subsequently introduced into test beakers in which the sediment and water concentrations have been stabilised. Chironomid emergence, time to emergence, and sex ratio of the fully emerged and alive midges are assessed. Emerged adults are transferred to breeding cages, to facilitate swarming, mating and oviposition. The number of egg ropes produced and their fertility are assessed. From these egg ropes, first instar larvae of the 2nd generation are obtained. These larvae are placed into freshly prepared test beakers (spiking procedure as for the 1st generation) to determine the viability of the 2nd generation through an assessment of their emergence, time to emergence and the sex ratio of the fully emerged and alive midges. All data are analysed either by a regression model to estimate the concentration that would cause X% reduction in the relevant endpoint, or by using hypothesis testing to determine a No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC).

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

    The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell division during or after exposure to the test substance. This Test Guideline allows the use of protocols with and without the actin polymerisation inhibitor cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B allows for the identification and selective analysis of micronucleus frequency in cells that have completed one mitosis, because such cells are binucleate. This Test Guideline also allows the use of protocols without cytokinesis block provided there is evidence that the cell population analysed has undergone mitosis.

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 209: Activated Sludge, Respiration Inhibition Test (Carbon and Ammonium Oxidation)

    This Test Guideline is designed to assess the effects of a substance on micro-organisms from activated sludge of waste-water treatment plants by measuring their respiration rate (carbon and/or ammonium oxidation) as oxygen consumption. The test results may also serve as an indicator of suitable non-inhibitory concentrations of test substances to be used in biodegradability tests. The test allows the determination of ECx and/or NOEC values of the test substance. The inhibition of three different oxygen uptakes may be determined, i.e. total, heterotrophic only, and that due to nitrification in the absence and presence of N-allylthiourea, a specific nitrification inhibitor. For obtaining both NOEC and ECx, six controls and five treatment concentrations in a geometric series with five replicates are recommended. In each test vessel, test mixtures containing water, synthetic sewage feed and the test substance are incubated at the pH of 7.5 ±0.5 and the temperature within 20±2°C under forced aeration to keep the dissolved oxygen concentration above 60-70% saturation. The oxygen consumption is measured after 3 hours of exposure and additional measurements at 30 minutes of exposure can be performed in the case that the test substance is rapidly degraded.

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