Publications


  • 24-September-2013

    English

    Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Future fuel cycle characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial for the continued development of nuclear energy, especially in the post-Fukushima context. Fuel cycle choices have both long- and short-term impacts, and a holistic assessment of their characteristics, cost and associated safety issues is of paramount importance. This report associates quantified impacts with foreseeable nuclear energy development in different world regions. It gives initial results in terms of uranium resource availability, fuel cycle facility deployment and reactor types. In particular, the need to achieve short doubling times with future fast reactors is investigated and quantified. The report also provides guidelines for performing future studies to account for a wider range of hypotheses on energy demand growth, different hypotheses regarding uranium resource availability and different types of reactors to be deployed.
  • 24-September-2013

    English

    Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4) - Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires

    The International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving national and international response arrangements for nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. Early INEX exercises focused on the national and international aspects of early phase management of nuclear power plant emergencies. Starting with INEX-3 (2005-2006), the international community began looking at issues concerning longer-term consequence management. In 2008, the WPNEM started preparing the INEX-4 series, which was conducted in 2010-2011 and addressed consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. The goal of INEX-4 was to provide a basis for enhancing emergency management through the exchange of exercise experiences from participating countries and the identification of good practices and common issues. This summary report provides general outcomes based on country responses to the INEX-4 evaluation questionnaire and suggests areas of focus for future consideration.
  • 23-September-2013

    English

    Nuclear Energy Today (Second Edition)

    Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies.
  • 20-September-2013

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Estonia 2013

    This review of Estonia’s energy policies analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It finds that Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive.
    The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions.The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states.
  • 20-September-2013

    English

    OECD Integrity Review of Italy - Reinforcing Public Sector Integrity, Restoring Trust for Sustainable Growth

    In response to the ongoing economic crisis, Italy is undertaking a series of critically important reforms, combining pro-growth policies with severe austerity measures to achieve fiscal consolidation. The success of these structural reforms will rely heavily on the capacity of the government to restore trust in its ability and commitment to guide the country towards sustainable economic growth. At the time of this publication, however, less than a quarter of Italian citizens trusted the quality of government decision-making. Concerns over public integrity and corruption stand out as key elements underlying this prevailing lack of trust.To restore the deficit of trust in the Italian government, the public sector needs to be embedded within a comprehensive integrity framework. Law 190 of November 6, 2012 (the Anti-Corruption Law) enshrines public sector integrity management and strengthens existing corruption prevention provisions through the designation of a new anti-corruption authority, a detailed framework for the adoption of a national anti-corruption plan, and new provisions regarding the conduct and prevention of conflict of interests in the public sector.This OECD Integrity Review provides guidance on the implementation of key integrity and corruption prevention elements of the Law, most notably those concerning institutional coordination, the regulation of conduct and whistleblower protection, and management of integrity risks in public sector activities. The review concludes each chapter with proposals for action, with OECD member countries’ best practices in mind, with the ultimate goal of supporting Italy in its efforts to enhance integrity in the public sector and restore trust.
  • 15-September-2013

    English

    The People's Republic of China – Avoiding the middle-income trap: Policies for sustained and inclusive growth

    This book provides an overview of the key challenges currently faced in China and OECD's main policy recommendations to address them. Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, the book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of China, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.
  • 2-September-2013

    English

    Water and Climate Change Adaptation - Policies to Navigate Uncharted Waters

    This report sets out the challenge for freshwater in a changing climate and provides policy guidance on how to navigate this new 'waterscape'. It highlights the range of expected changes in the water cycle and the challenge of making practical, on-site adaptation decisions for water. It offers policymakers a risk-based approach to better 'know', 'target' and 'manage' water risks and proposes policy guidelines to prioritise action and improve the efficiency, timeliness and equity of adaptation responses.The report also highlights general trends and good practices drawn from the OECD Survey of Policies on Water and Climate Change Adaptation, covering all 34 member countries and the European Commission. Individual country profiles are available, which provide a snapshot of the challenges posed by climate change for freshwater and the emerging policy responses (on-line only).Finally, the report highlights the benefits of well-designed economic instruments (e.g. insurance schemes, water trading, water pricing), ecosystem-based approaches and ‘real options’ approaches to financing. These approaches can improve the flexibility of water policy and investment, reducing the cost of adjusting to changing conditions.
  • 2-September-2013

    English

    Water Security for Better Lives

    This publication examines the critical issues surrounding water security (water shortage, water excess, inadequate water quality, the resilience of freshwater systems), providing a rationale for a risk-based approach and the management of trade-offs between water and other (sectoral and environmental) policies.
     
    The report sets out a three-step process to 'know', 'target' and 'manage' water risks: (1) appraising the risks, (2) judging the tolerability and acceptability of risks and weighing risk-risk trade-offs, and (3) calibrating appropriate responses.
     
    The publication provides policy analysis and guidance on the use of market-based instruments and the complex links between water security and other policy objectives, such as food security, energy security, climate mitigation and biodiversity protection.
  • 12-August-2013

    English

    OECD Development Assistance Peer Reviews: United States 2011

    Every four years, each of the 24 members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) with the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations Development Programme as observers is scrutinised by its peers in the Committee.Five different member countries are peer reviewed each year. The aim is to assess the extent to which the development policies, strategies and activities of the reviewed country meet the standards set by the DAC. Members provide constructive criticism and recommendations based on a report that touches on aid policies, volumes, institutions and field operations. There are no sanctions if the country fails to take the recommendations on board. The exercise is meant to encourage positive change, support mutual learning and raise the overall effectiveness of aid throughout the donor community.
  • 6-August-2013

    English

    OECD Development Assistance Peer Reviews: Greece 2011

    Every four years, each of the 24 members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) with the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations Development Programme as observers is scrutinised by its peers in the Committee.Five different member countries are peer reviewed each year. The aim is to assess the extent to which the development policies, strategies and activities of the reviewed country meet the standards set by the DAC. Members provide constructive criticism and recommendations based on a report that touches on aid policies, volumes, institutions and field operations. There are no sanctions if the country fails to take the recommendations on board. The exercise is meant to encourage positive change, support mutual learning and raise the overall effectiveness of aid throughout the donor community.
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