Publications


  • 8-November-2012

    English

    Sharing Road Safety - Developing an International Framework for Crash Modification Functions

    Each year about 1.3 million people are killed and another 50 million people are injured on roads worldwide. These road crashes cost countries between 1 and 3 percent of their GDP. Many of these crashes can be prevented by effective countermeasures. This report helps identify the most effective safety countermeasures.

    Policy makers need to justify expenditure on road safety in terms of effectiveness, competing for the scarce resources available. The risk of making poor decisions and the cost of making better decisions can be reduced by the use of reliable studies on how effective safety measures are, based on Crash Modification Functions (CMFs). This report shows that there is a prospect for significant advances and major cost savings through the transfer of results internationally, allowing for more rapid adoption and dissemination of new life-saving safety measures.

    The report serves as a guide to how research results can be shared internationally. It provides checklist for systematic review of road safety studies and a framework for standardising methodology.

    The report targets the road safety research community but will also find an audience among policy makers at all levels of government. The report highlights the value of Crash Modification Functions and the importance of ensuring practicioners use the best CMFs available.

  • 7-November-2012

    English

    Nuclear Energy and Renewables - System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

    This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.

  • 2-November-2012

    English

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Ukraine 2012

    Ukraine’s energy sector faces unprecedented challenges, from a heavy reliance on expensive fossil-fuel imports to inefficient infrastructure and markets. Yet there is also potential for Ukraine to experience an energy revolution, one that could boost employment, lift economic growth and enhance energy security. Modernisation of Ukraine’s energy-supply sectors has only begun and will require investment on a huge scale, complemented by a fundamental reform of the business environment. A strong dependency on oil and gas imports and often-inefficient energy production, transportation and supply sectors means that reducing energy demand must be a greater priority. The potential for energy efficiency gains in the residential, district heating and industrial sectors is large. Endowed with large conventional energy reserves, alongside sizeable renewable potential, Ukraine can build the capacity to significantly increase its resource production.

    Releasing this potential will require deep regulatory reform and full implementation of international treaty provisions. Effective competition, alongside a progressive move towards market prices, will also help Ukraine attract investment to develop the sector. A draft energy strategy, which sets out a series of supply-side measures, was published in 2012. Broadening and implementing a comprehensive energy strategy, one that takes greater account of demand-side policies, could significantly improve progress in the medium term.

    This review analyses the large energy-policy challenges facing Ukraine and provides recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide policy makers in the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Indonesia 2012

    This Review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, assesses the performance of Indonesian agriculture over the last two decades, evaluates Indonesian agricultural policy reforms and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. The evaluation is based on the OECD Committee for Agriculture’s approach that agriculture policy should be evidence-based and carefully designed and implemented to support productivity, competitiveness and sustainability, while avoiding unnecessary distortions to production decisions and to trade. Conducted in partnership with the OECD Investment Committee, the Review comprises a special chapter highlighting key challenges to be addressed to attract sustainable investment in agriculture, drawing from the OECD Policy Framework for Investment in Agriculture.

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Israel 2012 - Raising Standards

    At a time when ever more information is available about the quality of health care, the challenge for policy makers is to better understand the policies and approaches that sit behind the numbers. This book examines whether care in Israel is safe, effective and responsive to patients’ needs. It examines what works and what does not work, both to benchmark the efforts of countries and to provide advice on reforms to improve quality of health care.

  • 17-October-2012

    English

    Sustainable Materials Management - Making Better Use of Resources

    Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is increasingly recognised as a policy approach that can make a key contribution to green growth and the challenges that are posed by sustained global economic and demogarphic growth. One of the key challenges of the SMM approach is to effectively address the environmental impacts that can occur along the life-cycle of materials, which frequently extends across borders and involves a multitude of different economic actors.   This book outlines a series of policy principles for SMM, examines how to set and use targets for SMM, and explores various policy instruments for SMM.  In addition it provides examples of policy action plans from the UK and the Netherlands, before presenting a series of conclusions and recommendations.
  • 15-October-2012

    English

    Addressing the Competitiveness Challenges in Germany and the Euro Area

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of Germany and the Euro Area, focusing on how their governments can make reform happen.
     

  • 15-October-2012

    English

    India: Sustaining High and Inclusive Growth

    Drawing on the OECD’s expertise in comparing country experiences and identifying best practices, this book tailors the OECD’s policy advice to the specific and timely priorities of India, focusing on how its government can make reform happen.
     

  • 4-October-2012

    English

    OECD Internet Economy Outlook 2012

    The Internet is now a fundamental infrastructure supporting the economy and is firmly in its 2nd stage of development, having evolved from a data network connecting PCs with wires to a much broader network of new portable devices from mobile phones to tablet computers. It is also on the cusp of a much larger expansion to objects that typically did not have communications capabilities: the “Internet of things” is projected to have more connections than the people using them. This raises many important socio-economic and political issues for stakeholders to consider, as economies and societies become increasingly inter-meshed.

    Supported by time series data, this publication begins with an overview of trends and highlights how the Internet sector has proven to be resilient during the recent economic crisis. It then examines the various drivers and impacts of Internet use and deployment, as well as emerging technologies, broadband, e-commerce, e-health, digital content, security and privacy, and reflects on a methodology for measuring the Internet economy.

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