More than 200 multilateral donors receive or serve as a channel for 40% of all aid. To help meet the challenge of ensuring effective and co-ordinated multilateral aid efforts, Multilateral Aid 2010 covers trends in and total use (core and non-core) of the multilateral system, with a special focus on trust funds from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank. It explores development perspectives of the climate change funding architecture and provides an overview of the response of multilaterals to the financial and economic crisis.
While the OECD’s annual Development Co-operation Report serves as a key reference for statistics and analysis on the latest trends in international aid, the Multilateral Aid report – as the name implies – takes a specific look at trends in multilateral aid only.
This report identifies potential improvements in terms of more effective safety and environmental regulation for trucks, backed by better systems of enforcement, and identifies opportunities for greater efficiency and higher productivity.
The report is based on a review of literature, consultation among stakeholders, and research and analysis from working group members. It also presents the results of a comprehensive benchmarking study of 39 truck configurations in operation around the world – from typical workhorse vehicles to very high capacity vehicles – and assesses their performance in terms of dynamic stability, productivity and impact on the infrastructure.
This report presents the OECD review of Portugal’s environmental policy performance for 2011. It finds that environmental policies have been consolidated and strengthened since the last review in 2001, but that meeting the post-Kyoto targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions will be challenging. With energy and climate policies being closely related, the report points out that with less than 50% of hydro capacity currently being exploited, there is potential for further development in that area. It also describes the challenges regarding coastal zone and marine management.
Topics covered in the report include greening growth, implementation of environmental policies , international co-operation , climate change, waste management and the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), and nature and biodiversity.
Further information about the Environmental Performance Review programme is available on line via www.oecd.org/env/countryreviews.
Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is indispensable for making good decisions on what transport projects to fund. It essentially aims to figure out which projects offer the best value for money. However, the practical relevance of CBA does not always live up to its appeal in principle. One problem is that there is sometimes disagreement over what to include in CBA, both on the cost side and the benefits side of the analysis. As a result, value for money is not always fully transparent. More politically, value for money is only a partial criterion for decision-making, leading to disagreement about the relative importance of the results from CBA compared to other inputs to the decision-making process.
This report examines the extent to which these shortcomings can be addressed. In terms of what to include in CBA, discussion focuses on equity and distributional impacts, productivity effects, agglomeration benefits and external costs. The focus then turns to how best to present guidance on project selection to decision makers. The report includes papers on the way CBA is used in three countries – France, Mexico and the United Kingdom – and how it is evolving in response to changing policy priorities.
In mid-2010, the government commenced a review of the New Zealand Energy Strategy. The result is the publication of a new energy strategy, which establishes clear long-term policy priorities and energy-savings goals. Implementing these strategies will bring many new challenges, including attainment of the government’s medium-term energy-savings targets.
New Zealand enjoys the advantage of a diverse and balanced portfolio of renewable-energy resources, which contribute over 70% of electricity output – the third highest portion in IEA member countries. This resource base has the potential to deliver greater volumes of energy and the government aspires to increase this proportion to 90% of electricity generation by 2025. Meeting this target will bring many benefits but also tough challenges, such as maintaining a robust National Grid.
This review analyses the energy-policy challenges facing New Zealand and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide New Zealand towards a more sustainable energy future.
This report presents an overview of country initiatives concerning efficient, effective public services and open and innovative government. It focuses on four core issues: delivery of public services in times of fiscal consolidation; a more effective and performance-oriented public service; promotion of open and transparent government; and strategies for implementation of a reform agenda. These issues were discussed at the OECD Public Governance Ministerial Meeting held in Venice, Italy, in November 2010, hosted by the Italian Ministry for Public Administration and Innovation.
Trade promotes economic growth, alleviates poverty and helps countries reach their development goals. However, developing countries – in particular the least developed – face difficulties in making trade happen and turning trade into economic growth. The Aid for Trade Initiative – launched at the 2005 World Trade Organisation conference in Hong Kong – aims at helping these countries to take advantage of trade opportunities and to reap the benefits of their integration into the world economy. The Initiative has been a success: it has not only raised awareness among both donors and developing countries about the role of trade in development, but also helped secure increased resources.
Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction: How Aid for Trade Can Help explains how Aid for Trade can foster economic growth and reduce poverty, and why it is an important instrument for a development strategy that actively supports poverty alleviation. Unlocking this potential requires carefully designed and sequenced trade reforms. While developing countries have many trade-related needs, but financial resources and political capital for reforms are limited, it is an important priority to tackle the most binding constraints to trade expansion. This report describes the diagnostic tools available, evaluates their strengths and weaknesses, and suggests a dynamic framework to guide the sequencing of reform and donor support.