Publications


  • 20-October-2014

    English

    Women in Business 2014 - Accelerating Entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Women in Business 2014 summarises the progress made by the OECD-MENA Women Business Forum (WBF) since the publication of its first Women in Business report in 2012. In 2012, five groups of actions had been identified as priorities to be carried out by governments, international stakeholders, financial and business support organisations, as well as statistical agencies. In two years, the WBF has developed inputs for three of these areas of priority actions. The WBF’s contributions are growing along with its increased recognition as a hub which spurs concrete improvements in the business climate for women entrepreneurs in the MENA region.Today, women’s entrepreneurship is all the more important as governments in the region are facing the colossal challenge of rebooting job creation to improve the well-being of a growing workforce and confidence in the economy. The economic prospects of MENA economies that are going through a political transition have improved but unemployment has increased, inflation is rising and public finances have deteriorated. In these countries, political uncertainties add to long term structural difficulties. In the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, the challenges still lie in the diversification of their economies. 
  • 15-October-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Korea

    With the rising economic importance of human resources and skills, employment and training agencies are now often expected to play a more important role in local strategies to support new creation, facilitate restructuring and increase productivity. The OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme has developed an international cross-comparative study examining the contribution of local labour market policy to boosting quality employment and enhancing productivity. In Korea, the review has looked at the range of institutions and bodies involved in employment and skills policies, focusing on local strategies in the Bucheon and Busan regions.
  • 8-October-2014

    English

    Energy Efficiency Market Report 2014

    The evidence is clear: energy efficiency has played, and continues to play, a large and valuable role in the sustainable development of the global economy. The energy demand that is avoided as a result of steady improvements in the efficiency of energy-using stock such as buildings, cars and appliances is larger than the total final consumption from coal, oil or gas in IEA member countries.The market for energy efficiency investments is very large – estimated between USD 310 billion and USD 360 billion in 2011 – and this market is producing results: total final consumption in IEA countries is estimated to be 60% lower today because of energy efficiency improvements over the last four decades. Since 2001, investments in energy efficiency in 18 IEA countries have helped to avoid over 1 700 million tonnes of oil-equivalent from being consumed.This year’s report includes an in-depth look at energy efficiency developments in the transport sector and in finance. Huge new waves of demand for mobility are emerging in OECD non‑member economies, bringing with them the challenges of pollution and congestion already faced in OECD countries. Fuel-economy standards and other policies are expected to help shape the market for more energy-efficient vehicles in the years to come. In financial markets, energy efficiency is becoming an important segment in its own right, aided by a growing range of financial products. We document the growing scale and diversity of energy efficiency products and actors.Finally, this report reviews national energy efficiency market developments in various jurisdictions around the world, including Canada, China, the European Union, India and Italy. These case studies provide snapshots of specific energy efficiency sub-markets, and insights into how these markets may evolve in the coming years.
  • 6-October-2014

    English

    How's Life in Your Region? - Measuring Regional and Local Well-being for Policy Making

    How’s life? The answer can depend on the region in which you live. Many factors that influence people’s well-being are local issues, such as employment, access to health services, pollution and security. Policies that take into account regional differences beyond national averages can therefore have a greater impact on improving well-being for the country as a whole.This report presents the OECD analytical framework for measuring well-being at the regional level, as well as internationally comparable indicators on 9 well-being dimensions for 362 regions across 34 OECD countries. It also sets out guidance for all levels of government in using well-being measures to better target policies at the specific needs of different communities. Drawing on a variety of practical experiences from OECD regions and cities, the report discusses methodological and political solutions for selecting regional well-being outcome indicators, monitoring the progress of regional well-being performance over time, and implementing a process of multi-stakeholder engagement to promote social change.
  • 6-October-2014

    English

    OECD Regional Outlook 2014 - Regions and Cities: Where Policies and People Meet

    Regions and cities are on the front lines of many challenges faced by OECD countries today, from education and jobs to health care and quality of life. Getting regions and cities 'right', adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work,  is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. This second edition of the OECD Regional Outlook aims to help countries do just that. Part I describes the main trends and challenges today. Part II has a special focus on cities, looking at public investment, urban framework policies, and rural-urban issues. Part III presents a Policy Forum on the future of cities, with five contributions from distinguished authors and policy makers. Part IV offers profiles of regional development in all 34 OECD countries.
  • 6-October-2014

    English

    Paying for Performance in Health Care - Implications for Health System Performance and Accountability

    The detailed analysis of these 10 case studies together with the rest of the analytical text highlight the realities of P4P programs and their potential impact on the performance of health systems in a diversity of settings. This book provides critical insights into the experience to date with P4P and how this tool may be better leveraged to improve health system performance and accountability.
  • 2-October-2014

    English

    How Was Life? - Global Well-being since 1820

    How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.
  • 2-October-2014

    English

    Green Growth Indicators for Agriculture - A Preliminary Assessment

    An integral component of any green growth strategy is a highly-reliable set of measurement tools and indicators that would enable policy makers to evaluate how effective policies are, and to gauge the progress being achieved in shifting economic activity onto a greener path. These tools and indicators, which will need to be based on internationally comparable data, must also be embedded in a conceptual framework and selected according to a clearly-specified set of criteria.This report is a first step towards developing a framework to monitor progress on green growth in the agricultural sector in OECD countries. The goal is to identify relevant, succinct and measurable statistics to implement the OECD Green Growth Strategy Measurement Framework which provides a common basis for further developing green growth indicators in the agricultural sector in OECD countries.
  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

    The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell division during or after exposure to the test substance. This Test Guideline allows the use of protocols with and without the actin polymerisation inhibitor cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B allows for the identification and selective analysis of micronucleus frequency in cells that have completed one mitosis, because such cells are binucleate. This Test Guideline also allows the use of protocols without cytokinesis block provided there is evidence that the cell population analysed has undergone mitosis.
  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 310: Ready Biodegradability - CO2 in sealed vessels (Headspace Test)

    This Test Guideline is a screening method for the evaluation of ready biodegradability of chemicals.The test substance, normally at 20 mg C/L, as the sole source of carbon and energy, is incubated (during 28 days normally) in sealed bottles with aerobic condition containing a buffer-mineral salts medium, which has been inoculated with a mixed population of micro-organisms. In order to check the test procedure, a reference substance (aniline, sodium benzoate or ethylene glycol and 1-octanol) of known biodegradability should be tested in parallel. It is recommended that triplicate bottles be analysed after a sufficient number of time intervals. Also at least five test bottles (from test vessels, blank controls, and vessels with the reference substance) are analysed at the end of the test, to enable 95% confidence intervals to be calculated for the mean percentage biodegradation value. The CO2 evolution resulting from the ultimate aerobic biodegradation of the test substance is determined by measuring the Inorganic Carbon (IC) produced in the test bottles in excess of that produced in blank vessels containing inoculated medium only. The extent of biodegradation is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical maximum IC production (ThIC), based on the quantity of test substance added initially. Biodegradation >60% ThIC within the 10-d window in this test demonstrates that the test substance is readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions.
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