Publications


  • 6-October-2014

    English

    OECD Regional Outlook 2014 - Regions and Cities: Where Policies and People Meet

    Regions and cities are on the front lines of many challenges faced by OECD countries today, from education and jobs to health care and quality of life. Getting regions and cities “right”, adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work,  is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. This second edition of the OECD Regional Outlook aims to help countries do just that. Part I describes the main trends and challenges today. Part II has a special focus on cities, looking at public investment, urban framework policies, and rural-urban issues. Part III presents a Policy Forum on the future of cities, with five contributions from distinguished authors and policy makers. Part IV offers profiles of regional development in all 34 OECD countries.

  • 6-October-2014

    English

    Paying for Performance in Health Care - Implications for Health System Performance and Accountability

    The detailed analysis of these 10 case studies together with the rest of the analytical text highlight the realities of P4P programs and their potential impact on the performance of health systems in a diversity of settings. This book provides critical insights into the experience to date with P4P and how this tool may be better leveraged to improve health system performance and accountability.

  • 2-October-2014

    English

    How Was Life? - Global Well-being since 1820

    How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.

    The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.

  • 2-October-2014

    English

    Green Growth Indicators for Agriculture - A Preliminary Assessment

    An integral component of any green growth strategy is a highly-reliable set of measurement tools and indicators that would enable policy makers to evaluate how effective policies are, and to gauge the progress being achieved in shifting economic activity onto a greener path. These tools and indicators, which will need to be based on internationally comparable data, must also be embedded in a conceptual framework and selected according to a clearly-specified set of criteria.

    This report is a first step towards developing a framework to monitor progress on green growth in the agricultural sector in OECD countries. The goal is to identify relevant, succinct and measurable statistics to implement the OECD Green Growth Strategy Measurement Framework which provides a common basis for further developing green growth indicators in the agricultural sector in OECD countries.

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

    The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell division during or after exposure to the test substance. This Test Guideline allows the use of protocols with and without the actin polymerisation inhibitor cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B allows for the identification and selective analysis of micronucleus frequency in cells that have completed one mitosis, because such cells are binucleate. This Test Guideline also allows the use of protocols without cytokinesis block provided there is evidence that the cell population analysed has undergone mitosis.

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 310: Ready Biodegradability - CO2 in sealed vessels (Headspace Test)

    This Test Guideline is a screening method for the evaluation of ready biodegradability of chemicals.

    The test substance, normally at 20 mg C/L, as the sole source of carbon and energy, is incubated (during 28 days normally) in sealed bottles with aerobic condition containing a buffer-mineral salts medium, which has been inoculated with a mixed population of micro-organisms. In order to check the test procedure, a reference substance (aniline, sodium benzoate or ethylene glycol and 1-octanol) of known biodegradability should be tested in parallel. It is recommended that triplicate bottles be analysed after a sufficient number of time intervals. Also at least five test bottles (from test vessels, blank controls, and vessels with the reference substance) are analysed at the end of the test, to enable 95% confidence intervals to be calculated for the mean percentage biodegradation value. The CO2 evolution resulting from the ultimate aerobic biodegradation of the test substance is determined by measuring the Inorganic Carbon (IC) produced in the test bottles in excess of that produced in blank vessels containing inoculated medium only. The extent of biodegradation is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical maximum IC production (ThIC), based on the quantity of test substance added initially. Biodegradation >60% ThIC within the 10-d window in this test demonstrates that the test substance is readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions.

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 475: Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosomal Aberration Test

    The mammalian in vivo chromosome aberration test is used for the detection of structural chromosome aberrations induced by test compounds in bone marrow cells of animals, usually rodents (rats, mice and Chinese hamsters). Structural chromosome aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid.

    Animals are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) by an appropriate route of exposure (usually by gavage using a stomach tube or a suitable intubation cannula, or by intraperitoneal injection) and are sacrificed at appropriate times after treatment. Prior to sacrifice, animals are treated with a metaphase-arresting agent. Chromosome preparations are then made from the bone marrow cells and stained, and metaphase cells are analysed for chromosome aberrations. Each treated and control group must include at least 5 analysable animals per sex. The limit dose is 2000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment up to 14 days, and 1000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment longer than 14 days.

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 473: In Vitro Mammalian Chromosomal Aberration Test

    The purpose of the in vitro chromosome aberration test is to identify agents that cause structural chromosome aberrations in cultured mammalian somatic cells. Structural aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid.

    The in vitro chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) both with and without metabolic activation during about 1.5 normal cell cycle lengths. At least three analysable concentrations of the test substance should be used. At each concentration duplicate cultures should normally be used. At predetermined intervals after exposure of cell cultures to the test substance, the cells are treated with a metaphase-arresting substance, harvested, stained. Metaphase cells are analysed microscopically for the presence of chromosome aberrations.

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 474: Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test

    The mammalian in vivo micronucleus test is used for the detection of damage induced by the test substance to the chromosomes or the mitotic apparatus of erythroblasts, by analysis of erythrocytes as sampled in bone marrow and/or peripheral blood cells of animals, usually rodents (mice or rats).

    The purpose of the micronucleus test is to identify substances (liquid or solid) that cause cytogenetic damage which results in the formation of micronuclei containing lagging chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes. An increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in treated animals is an indication of induced chromosome damage. Animals are exposed to the test substance by an appropriate route (usually by gavage using a stomach tube or a suitable intubation cannula, or by intraperitoneal injection). Bone marrow and/or blood cells are collected, prepared and stained. Preparations are analyzed for the presence of micronuclei. Each treated and control group must include at least 5 analysable animals per sex. Administration of the treatments consists of a single dose of test substance or two daily doses (or more). The limit dose is 2000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment up to 14 days, and 1000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment longer than 14 days.

  • 23-September-2014

    English

    SME Policy Index: The Mediterranean Middle East and North Africa 2014 - Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe

    This report assesses the elaboration and implementation of SME policy in eight Middle East and North African economies of the southern Mediterranean shore. The assessment is structured according to the ten policy principles covered in the Small Business Act for Europe (the SBA). One of the main findings is that over the last five years there has been progress in SME policy elaboration and implementation in spite of the political and economic turmoil. However, that progress has been modest, incremental and uneven across economies and dimensions. Political and economic stability, as well as institutional development, had a major impact on policy performance.

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