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Publications


  • 3-April-2020

    English

    Behavioural Insights and Organisations - Fostering Safety Culture

    Behavioural insights (BI) has become widely used by public bodies around the world, mostly towards improving the way policies are implemented and influencing individual behaviour. As the field of BI evolves to tackle more complex policy issues, there is widespread perception that BI can and should go beyond the study of individual-level decision processes for higher impact. This report presents research on applying BI to changing the behaviour of organisations, with a focus on fostering elements of a safety culture in the energy sector. It presents comparative findings from experiments with energy regulators in Canada, Ireland, Mexico and Oman, as well as guidance for applying BI to safety culture going forward.
  • 2-April-2020

    English

    What drives consumption tax revenues? - Disentangling policy and macroeconomic drivers

    This paper decomposes consumption tax revenues in OECD countries into the implicit tax rate (ITR) and consumption relative to GDP, to identify how economic downturns affect consumption tax revenues. It further considers the impact of changes in VAT efficiency and VAT rates on ITRs. The analysis finds that the observed stability in consumption tax revenues results from offsetting changes in the ITRs and in consumption as a share of GDP, arising from both macroeconomic changes and intentional policy changes. During the economic crisis in 2007-2009, lasting changes in consumption patterns, notably increases in government spending and in private consumption of necessity goods, adversely affected the efficiency of VAT systems. These changes have not since been reversed, suggesting that consumption tax revenues are now less robust to economic shocks. Broadening the VAT base and narrowing the scope of reduced rates can help to stabilise consumption tax revenues during economic downturns.
  • 2-April-2020

    English

    Long-term low emissions development strategies - Cross-country experience

    The Paris Agreement invites signatory countries to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS). This report compares the experience of three developed countries that have communicated LT-LEDS within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): France (Stratégie National Bas-Carbone), Germany (Klimaschutzplan 2050) and the United Kingdom (Clean Growth Strategy). The report analyses the three stages of the LT-LEDS process in detail: a) the institutional and technical process to create the LT-LEDS; b) the document strategy resulting from the process; and c) the design of specific mechanisms to facilitate implementation of the LT-LEDS. While LT-LEDS will reflect countries own 'common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances', it is hoped that the lessons and messages included in this report can be useful to other developed and developing countries interested in creating and implementing LT-LEDS.
  • 31-March-2020

    English

    Occupational entry regulations and their effects on productivity in services: Firm-level evidence

    This paper assesses the possible dynamic effects of occupational entry regulations (OER) on productivity. It combines firm-level productivity data with a new cross-country policy indicator measuring the stringency of OER by the presence of administrative burdens, qualifications requirements, and mobility restrictions, for five professional and ten personal services. The evidence suggests that bold reforms easing OER, especially those concerning qualification requirements, could help increase the contribution of personal and professional services to aggregate productivity growth via two channels: the acceleration of their catch up to best global practices (within-firm channel), where firms in regulated sectors could gain up to 2.5 percentage points of productivity on average; and a higher contribution of labour reallocation to firms’ employment growth (between-firm channel), which could increase by up to 10 percent for the most productive firms.
  • 31-March-2020

    English

    Measuring occupational entry regulations: A new OECD approach

    This paper explores cross-country differences in the design and stringency of occupational entry regulations (OER) in five professional services, nine personal services and nurses, based on a new composite indicator. The indicator – which is available for a total of 18 OECD countries, India and South Africa, with Canada and the United States being covered at the province-level or state-level – provides a comparative source of information on the various approaches used across countries to regulate entry into services. It notably distinguishes between different areas of regulation (administrative, qualification and mobility requirements) and different types of regulation (licensing, a situation in which only supervisors require a license, and certification). According to these metrics, the stringency of OER varies significantly across occupations, with stark differences emerging between personal and professional services, which are typically subject to far stricter entry requirements.
  • 31-March-2020

    English

    The Circular Economy in Valladolid, Spain

    The transition to the circular economy for the city of Valladolid, Spain represents an opportunity for greater attractiveness and competitiveness, while providing responses to environmental challenges. The city of Valladolid aims to be a reference as a sustainable city, reducing waste, lowering the use of raw materials and increasing the use of renewable energy while stimulating economic growth and social well-being. This report aims to support Valladolid in developing a coherent circular economy strategy, on the basis of various initiatives already in place to finance circular economy projects, raise awareness and promote an entrepreneurial culture on the circular economy.
  • 31-March-2020

    English

    OECD Reviews of Public Health: Korea - A Healthier Tomorrow

    This review assesses Korea's public health system, highlights areas of strength and weakness, and makes a number of recommendations for improvement. The review examines Korea's public health system architecture, and how well policies are responding to population health challenges, including the growing burden of chronic disease, and resulting pressures on the health system. In particular, the review assesses Korea’s policies to prevent harmful alcohol use, and the risks and opportunities around public health genomics in Korea, which is both a growing field in the health sector, and a booming commercial industry. The review also examines Korea's exposure to public health emergencies, and capacity to respond to emergencies as and when they occur.
  • 31-March-2020

    English

    The Circular Economy in Umeå, Sweden

    This report aims to support the city of Umeå in becoming the leader in the circular economy as stated in its strategic plan for 2016-2028. Umeå’s population doubled over the last 50 years, making it one of Europe’s fastest growing cities in a sparsely populated region (Northern Sweden). By 2050, the city is expected to reach a population of 200 000 inhabitants, with consequences on housing, use of natural resources and waste production. As such, the local government is developing a model integrating environmental, social and economic aspects within a circular economy approach. This is in line with the Swedish Government’s objective to strengthen society’s transition to a resource-efficient, circular and bio-based economy.
  • 31-March-2020

    English

    The Circular Economy in Groningen, the Netherlands

    The City of Groningen is the biggest urban centre of a prevalently rural region and hosts the youngest population in the Netherlands. The presence of renowned universities, the high number of students and a fast growing start-up scene alongside a vibrant business and innovation environment, make Groningen a knowledge hub for the region. Since the Dutch national cabinet decided to phase out natural gas production by 2022, Groningen has intensified its regional leading role in the energy transition aiming to become energy neutral by 2035, according to which the energy demand is met entirely by renewables. In 2018, the Municipal Council took the unanimous decision of making the circular economy a priority for the city, identifying three priority areas: public procurement, waste and knowledge. This case study presents the state of the art of the circular economy in Groningen, the main challenges for designing a circular economy strategy and the ways forward for the city’s circular transition.
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