Publications

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Assessing Measures of Energy Efficiency Performance and their Application in Industry

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (“MEEP”) and considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions.
    The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study

  • 16-December-2008

    English

    The Impact of Culture on Tourism

    The Impact of Culture on Tourism examines the growing relationship between tourism and culture, and the way in which they have together become major drivers of destination attractiveness and competitiveness. Based on recent case studies that illustrate the different facets of the relationship between tourism, culture and regional attractiveness, and the policy interventions which can be taken to enhance the relationship, this

  • 20-October-2008

    English

    CO2 Capture and Storage: A Key Carbon Abatement Option

    Oil, coal and natural gas will remain the world’s dominant sources of energy over the next decades, with resulting carbon dioxide emissions set to increase to unsustainable levels. However, technologies that help reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuels can reverse this trend. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is particularly promising. CCS takes CO2 from large stationary sources and stores it in deep

  • 27-August-2009

    English

    Development of Competitive Gas Trading in Continental Europe

    In its latest publication, Development of Competitive Gas Trading in Continental Europe, the IEA examines the history of major gas markets’ development in OECD Europe, and explores the possible expansion of trading through the mechanism of different hubs across the region. Lessons learned from North American markets on the benefits of regulatory convergence and investor-friendly legal framework are an important part of the

  • 2-February-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Netherlands 2008

    This comprehensive review analyses the energy challenges facing the Netherlands in 2008 and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It urges the government to provide policy continuity – such as in promotion regimes for renewable energy – to underpin a sustainable investment climate. It also highlights the need for closer co-ordination among national, regional and local authorities. 

  • 20-March-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Luxembourg 2008

    The Inernational Energy Agency's periodic review of Luxembourg's energy policies and programmes.  It analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements.

    Since the last review in 2004, Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors, has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the

  • 10-October-2008

    English

    Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and discusses how they should develop this role in the future. The key issues, approaches and trends

  • 2-February-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy 2009

    This 2009 IEA review of Italy's energy policies and programmes finds that the Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous

  • 17-July-2009

    English

    Clusters, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    This publication explores the success of major innovation and entrepreneurship clusters in OECD countries, the challenges they now face in sustaining their positions and the lessons for other places seeking to build successful clusters.  What are the key factors for cluster success?  What problems are emerging on the horizon? Which is the appropriate role of the public sector in supporting the expansion of  clusters and

  • 10-October-2008

    English

    Cucumbers

    This set of standards is published within the framework of the activities of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It comprises comments and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of standards in force and is therefore a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or

  • 5-May-2011

    English

    Multilateral Aid 2010

    More than 200 multilateral donors receive or serve as a channel for 40% of all aid. To help meet the challenge of ensuring effective and co-ordinated multilateral aid efforts, Multilateral Aid 2010 covers trends in and total use (core and non-core) of the multilateral system, with a special focus on trust funds from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank. It explores development perspectives of

  • 22-January-2009

    English

    Reducing Fishing Capacity - Best Practices for Decommissioning Schemes

    Too many fishing vessels chasing too few fish is a persistent problem in many countries. To address this, governments often turn to vessel decommissioning schemes as a means of adjusting fishing capacity to match available fish resources. This report presents a set of best practice guidelines on the design and implementation of decommissioning schemes. By drawing on case studies of decommissioning schemes from OECD and non-OECD

  • 19-March-2009

    English

    Globalisation and Emerging Economies - Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa

    OECD countries still dominate the world economy, but their share of world trade dropped from 73% in 1992 to 64% in 2005, and some of the world’s most important economies are not members of the OECD. Foremost among these are the so-called BRIICS: Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa.

    This book analyses key elements of the trade performance of the BRIICS in relation to the rest of the world, focusing on

  • 24-April-2009

    English

    Cleaner Coal in China

    China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental

  • 24-November-2008

    English

    Energy Policy Review of Indonesia

    This comprehensive review offers an analysis of Indonesia’s energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a

  • 3-November-2010

    English

    High-Growth Enterprises - What Governments Can Do to Make a Difference

    The spectacular success of several well-known new ventures in technological fields, which in little more than a decade have jumped from the state of start-ups to that of top international businesses, has pointed to innovation as a key factor in the high growth of firms.  These high-growth enterprises often drive job creation and innovation, so policy makers are increasingly making such companies a key focus. Specifically, how can

  • 18-November-2008

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers (Vol. 3) - Denmark, Finland, Ireland and the Netherlands

    Too many workers leave the labour market permanently due to health problems, and yet too many people with a disabling condition are denied the opportunity to work. This third report in the OECD series Sickness, Disability and Work explores the possible factors behind this paradox. It looks specifically at the cases of Denmark, Finland, Ireland and the Netherlands, and highlights the roles of institutions and policies. A range

  • 17-November-2008

    English

    2008 Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration - Making Aid More Effective by 2010

    This survey report which presents the results from the second, follow-up survey on monitoring the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, assesses progress in 55 developing countries and helps us understand the challenges in making aid more effective in advancing development. The findings are clear: progress is being made, but not fast enough. Unless they seriously gear up their efforts, developing countries and their external

  • 23-October-2008

    English

    Enhancing the Role of SMEs in Global Value Chains

    The globalisation of production processes characterises the current phase of globalisation. Participation in global value chains (GVCs) can bring stability to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and allow them to increase productivity and expand their business. This OECD report identifies the ways in which governments, the business community, and international organisations can facilitate SMEs’ gainful participation in global

  • 16-October-2008

    English

    Nuclear Energy Outlook 2008

    World energy demand continues to grow unabated and is leading to very serious concerns about security of supply, soaring energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. Nuclear energy is being increasingly seen as having a role to play in addressing these concerns. Responding to renewed interest in nuclear energy, this Nuclear Energy Outlook uses the most current data and statistics available and

  • 17-November-2009

    English

    Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation: Policy Guidance

    The negative impacts of climate change will hit poor people and poor countries disproportionately, and further compromise the achievement of their development objectives. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation provides essential information and advice on how to facilitate the integration of adaptation into development processes. The objectives of this policy guidance are to: i) promote understanding

    Also Available
  • 16-January-2009

    English

    The Changing Boundaries of Social Enterprises

    Social enterprises are entering a new phase of consolidation after overcoming various challenges over the last 10 years in their efforts to foster sustainable local development, help create local wealth and jobs, and fight social exclusion. This book contains recommendations for national and local policy makers and presents a set of international best practices based on new legislation that has been enacted, novel frontiers that have

    Also Available
  • 3-February-2010

    English

    Civil Society and Aid Effectiveness - Findings, Recommendations and Good Practice

    In the Accra Agenda for Action (2008), donors and developing country governments commit to deepening their engagement with civil society organisations (CSOs). Better aid requires a broader understanding of the aid effectiveness agenda and a place for CSOs as development actors in their own right and as aid donors, recipients and partners. This book is a resource for implementing the recommendations on civil society and aid

  • 20-October-2008

    English

    Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products - Fifth Edition

    The Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products is a world standard guide to the names of fish and fish products traded internationally. This fifth edition comprises 1187 items, with descriptions in English and French and the equivalents for the main headings in 18 other languages: Danish, Dutch, Finnish, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Croatian,

  • 22-December-2008

    English

    Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium

    This volume is the eleventh in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) “Chemical Thermodynamics” series. It is based on a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of thorium, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, initiated as part of the NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III). The database system developed at the OECD/NEA Data Bank ensures consistency not only within the recommended data sets of thorium,

  • 19-January-2009

    English

    Overcoming Border Bottlenecks - The Costs and Benefits of Trade Facilitation

    International trade has grown rapidly in recent years, thanks in part to the progressive reduction of tariffs and quotas through successive rounds of multilateral trade liberalisation. However, this progress brings to light one of the remaining weak links of international trade, which prevents countries from drawing full benefits from the advantages of open global markets: border bottlenecks generated by inefficient, outdated and

  • 5-May-2009

    English

    Flexible Policy for More and Better Jobs

    In today’s economic context, governments are required to take centre stage, helping workers to compete in the global market whilst also supporting employers so that they may retain jobs, increase productivity and offer better-quality employment at the local level. This book provides a new indicator for benchmarking labour-market policy, reviewing the flexibility available in its management throughout OECD countries. The research

  • 13-May-2009

    English

    Gadgets and Gigawatts : Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics

    By 2010 there will be over 3.5 billion mobile phones subscribers, 2 billion TVs in use around the world and 1 billion personal computers.This book examines how "smart" this equipment is from an energy efficiency perspective and what the potential is for energy savings.  It includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by

  • 28-September-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Spain 2009

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Spain and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It finds that since the last IEA in-depth review in 2005, Spain has made significant progress in improving its energy policy. In Europe, the country is now leading in gas diversification and LNG development. Together with Portugal, it has set up the common Iberian electricity market, MIBEL, and has strong

  • 8-September-2009

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Portugal 2009

    The International Energy Agency's 2009 review of Portugal's energy policies and programmes.  This edition finds that Portugal has made considerable efforts to strengthen its energy policy since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. A large number of IEA recommendations have been successfully implemented, including greater diversification of the energy mix and increased energy policy co-ordination. A new National Energy Strategy,

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Turkey 2009

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of Turkey's energy policies and programmes.  This 2009 edition finds that Turkey will likely see the fastest medium to long-term growth in energy demand among the IEA member countries. It has a young and urbanising population and energy use is still comparatively low. Therefore, ensuring sufficient energy supply to a growing economy remains the government’s main energy policy concern.

  • 13-April-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Canada 2009

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of Canada's energy policies and programmes.  This 2010 edition finds that Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: France 2009

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of France's energy policies and programmes.  This 2009 edition finds that the energy policy of France seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure.

    To meet these objectives, the French government in 2007 launched an

  • 4-March-2009

    English

    Natural Tracer Profiles Across Argillaceous Formations - The CLAYTRAC Project

    This technical report describes the results of the Nuclear Energy Agency's CLAYTRAC project, in which natural tracer data from nine sites was evaluated to assess potential impacts of disposal of radiological waste in geological repositories. It shows scientific information from numerous sites and applies robust analytical methods to improve the understanding of radionuclide migration and evolution of sites for deep geological

  • 4-March-2009

    English

    Stability and Buffering Capacity of the Geosphere for Long-term Isolation of Radioactive Waste - Application to Crystalline Rock

    Geological settings selected as potential host formations for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste are chosen for, among other assets, their long-term stability and buffering capacity against destabilising events and processes. These proceedings present the outcomes of a geosphere stability workshop, held in November 2007, that focused on crystalline and other types of hard, fractured rocks. The workshop underscored the

  • 7-April-2009

    English

    Considering Timescales in the Post-closure Safety of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is handling the long time frame over which the radioactive waste remains hazardous. The intrinsic hazard of the waste decreases with time, but some hazard remains for extremely long periods. This report reviews the current status and ongoing discussions of this issue, addressing such issues as ethical principles, the evolution

  • 7-April-2009

    English

    Strategic and Policy Issues Raised by the Transition from Thermal to Fast Nuclear Systems

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation and expanded interest in fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and

  • 5-June-2009

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in Japan

    The report looks at the evolution of Japanese agricultural policy over the last several decades, but maintains its analytical focus on policies currently in place. In addition to reporting a wide variety of statistics, much of which were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), use was made of the OECD PSE/CSE database and the OECD Policy Evaluation Model (PEM) for some of the analytical

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

    Electricity production is responsible for 32% of total global fossil fuel use, accounting for 132 EJ, and 41%, or 10.9 Gt of energy-related CO2 emissions. Improving the efficiency of electricity production therefore offers economic benefits and a significant opportunity for reducing dependence on fossil fuels, which helps to combat climate change and improve energy security.
    A set of indicators has been developed to

  • 13-October-2009

    English

    IEA Scoreboard 2009 - 35 Key Energy Trends over 35 Years

    Measuring and assessing how much has been done by member countries over the years to follow their underlying principles is not an easy task. Each country is unique in terms of economy, geography, climate, energy resources, etc. Taking into account some of these specificities, the IEA Scoreboard 2009 compares what has been achieved by member countries in diversifying their energy mix, in promoting non-fossil fuels and

  • 12-August-2009

    English

    Pears

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of pears in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade

  • 14-September-2009

    English

    Sectoral Approaches in Electricity - Building Bridges to a Safe Climate

    Electricity accounts for more than 40 % of global energy-related CO2 emissions. This issue is most pressing for developing countries where growth in power demand is particularly high, fueling the risk of irreversible investment in CO2-intensive capacity, the so-called “carbon lock-in”.

    Sectoral Approaches in Electricity – Building Bridges to a Safe Climate shows how the international

  • 14-September-2009

    English

    Energy Technology Transitions for Industry - Strategies for the Next Industrial Revolution

    Industry accounts for one-third of global energy use and almost 40% of worldwide CO2 emissions.  Achieving substantial emissions reduction in the future will require urgent action from industry.  What are the likely future trends in energy use and CO2 emissions from industry? What impact could the application of best available technologies have on these trends?  Which new technologies are needed if these

  • 26-October-2009

    English

    Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, this IEA review assesses Chile’s major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile’s long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the

  • 17-November-2009

    English

    Community Capacity Building - Creating a Better Future Together

    Community capacity building (CCB) is a fairly new term for an age-old good: enabling people to define their own destinies. This book presents and analyses some of the most interesting recent developments in the field of community capacity building, in a variety of OECD and non-OECD countries. The focus is on how CCB has effected change in three major areas: social policy (health, housing, community regeneration); local economic

  • 19-October-2009

    English

    Strengthening Regional Fisheries Management Organisations

    With the development and entry into force of the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement in 1995, the international community made a commitment to strengthen Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs), established to deal with the management of shared high seas resources. This study takes stock of the changes made in RFMOs, highlighting a gradual process of improvement that has translated into significant success stories.  While

  • 2-July-2009

    English

    Inshell Hazelnuts

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of inshell hazelnuts in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in

  • 16-November-2009

    English

    Designing Local Skills Strategies

    Higher-level skills are increasingly demanded by the knowledge-based economy. But with rising mobility and demographic change, it is no longer so simple to invest in a skilled workforce for the future. Actions are needed on a variety of fronts, including attracting and retaining talent, better integrating disadvantaged groups into the labour force, and upgrading the skills of low-paid workers. Much of the responsibility for these

  • 8-July-2009

    English

    Explorations in OEEC History

    Fifty years after it was launched, the Marshall Plan remains a major event of post World War II history. But what did it actually do for European reconstruction? To commemorate the opening of its historical archives to the public and their deposit at the European University Institute (EUI), the OECD invited a group of EUI historians to analyse the role played by the Marshall Plan and the Organisation for European Economic

  • 23-July-2009

    English

    Early and Ware Potatoes

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of potatoes in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade

  • 30-October-2009

    English

    Transport Energy and CO2 : Moving towards Sustainability

    Car ownership is set to triple by 2050, trucking activity will double and air travel could increase fourfold. This book examines how to enable mobility without accelerating climate change.  It finds that if we change the way we travel, adopt technologies to improve vehicle efficiency and shift to low-CO2 fuels, we can move onto a different pathway  where transport CO2 emissions by 2050 are far below current

  • 1-December-2009

    English

    Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 1 - Increasing Transparency through Legislation

    Lobbying can improve policy making by providing valuable insights and data, but it can also result in unfair advantages for vested interests if the process is opaque and standards are lax.‪‪ Lobbying is resource intensive. The financial services sector in the United States spent USD 3.4 billion lobbying the federal government between 1998 and 2008, principally promoting the deregulation of the financial sector. Legions of lobbyists

  • 19-November-2009

    English

    An Appraisal of the Chilean Fisheries Sector

    Chile is one of the major players in the world fishing scene. But during the past fifty years, Chile has had to face issues of over-investment, sharp declines in catch levels, disputes among stakeholders, fleet downsizing, and aquaculture diseases, among others. This report describes the challenging and complex learning process that the Chilean fisheries and aquaculture sector has undergone and the evolution of its policies and

    Also Available
  • 14-April-2010

    English

    Globalisation in Fisheries and Aquaculture - Opportunities and Challenges

    This overview of global markets for fish and fish products finds that they have changed considerably over the past few decades and continue to do so, with ever growing interactions across countries and continents. Change has brought substantial benefits to the world economy and a number of policy challenges for governments. To meet these challenges, without compromising the advantages of increasing market interactions, countries

  • 18-September-2009

    English

    Managing Risk in Agriculture - A Holistic Approach

    The sources of risk in agriculture are numerous and diverse, ranging from events related to climate and weather conditions to animal diseases; from changes in agriculture commodities prices to changes in fertilizer and other input prices; and from financial uncertainties to policy and regulatory risks. Agricultural risks are not independent, but rather are linked both to each other and as part of a system that includes all available

  • 15-April-2010

    English

    The Economics of Rebuilding Fisheries - Workshop Proceedings

    Rebuilding fisheries is a key challenge for many countries as some stocks are in a poor state while others are depleted.  In May 2009, economists, biologists, fisheries managers and policy makers participated in an OECD Workshop on the Economics of Rebuilding Fisheries. The workshop was designed to identify and analyse economic uncertainties, policy issues, biological conditions and information constraints, and to review the role

  • 16-October-2009

    English

    Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: are IEA Member Countries on Track?

    This book presents 25 energy efficiency recommendations from the IEA which could, if implemented globally without delay, reduce global CO2 emissions by 8.2 gigatonnes per year by 2030 – equivalent to roughly two-times the amount of current EU CO2 emissions.

    This innovative book provides the first assessment of IEA member countries’ progress on implementing energy efficiency policy.  Using a rigorous evaluation process, it

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Cogeneration and District Energy - Sustainable energy technologies for today... and tomorrow

    Combined heat and power and district heating and cooling (DHC) represent a series of proven, reliable and cost-effective technologies that are already making an important contribution to meeting global heat and electricity demand.
    This report follows the March 2008 report that hightlighted the energy, economic and environmental benefits of CHP and DHC (IEA, 2008). That report also provides a technical introduction to CHP/DHC and

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Empowering Variable Renewables – Options for Flexible Electricity Systems

    A number of renewable electricity technologies, such as wind, wave, tidal, solar, and run-of-river hydro share a characteristic that distinguishes them from conventional power plants: their output varies according to the availability of the resource.

    This is commonly perceived to be challenging at high shares, but there is no intrinsic, technical ceiling to variable renewables’ potential. Variability has to be looked at in the

  • 10-December-2009

    English

    Cities, Towns and Renewable Energy - Yes In My Front Yard

    Local governments have the power to influence the energy choices of their citizens. Many cities and towns have already encouraged energy efficiency measures. Even so, as demand for energy services continues to grow, the energy infrastructure that every city and town depends on will need to be expanded, upgraded or replaced. This provides the opportunity to increase the deployment of renewable energy technologies and decentralised

  • 8-October-2009

    English

    Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) have been developed and deployed to reduce the environmental impact of coal utilisation over the past 30 to 40 years. Initially, the focus was upon reducing emissions of particulates, SO2, NOX and mercury.
    The coal sector – producers, consumers and equipment suppliers – as well as governments and agencies in countries where coal is essential, have a long experience of stimulating clean coal

  • 1-December-2009

    English

    The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants

    Many countries have recognised that greater use of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, given the high capital cost and complexity of nuclear power plants, financing their construction often remains a challenge. This is especially true where such financing is left to the private sector in the context of competitive electricity markets. 

    This study examines the financial risks

  • 29-June-2010

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Israel 2010

    Israel’s agriculture is unique amongst developed countries in that land and water resources are nearly all state-owned and that agricultural production is dominated by co-operative communities. Israel is a world leader in agricultural technology, particularly in farming in arid conditions. This Review measures support provided to Israeli agriculture and evaluates the effectiveness of current agricultural policy measures.

    Also Available
  • 9-July-2010

    English

    Consumer Policy Toolkit

    The markets for goods and services have undergone significant changes over the past 20 years. Regulatory reform, global markets, new technologies and growth in the role of services in economic activity have driven the changes which, in many instances, have provided significant benefits to consumers. Relatively little attention has been paid to the challenges these developments have posed for consumers. More choice and more

  • 20-May-2010

    English

    SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation

    Small firms are playing an ever-increasing role in innovation, driven by changes in technologies and markets. Some spin-offs and high growth firms are having remarkable success. However, the broad bulk of small firms are not capitalising on their advantages. This book explores how government policy can boost innovation by improving the environment for entrepreneurship and small firm development and increasing the innovative

  • 23-July-2010

    English

    Poland: Key Issues and Policies

    The rapid growth of entrepreneurship and small firms has been one of the greatest successes in post-Communist transformation in Poland.  SMEs have greatly contributed to employment, investment and value added in the Polish economy.  However, key barriers to further growth remain in the business environment for SMEs and entrepreneurs.  This book sets out the current SME and entrepreneurship climate, reviews SME and entrepreneurship

    Also Available
  • 6-April-2010

    English

    Organising Local Economic Development - The Role of Development Agencies and Companies

    Development processes occur within a wider geographical area than local government, and in some cases encompass a broader scope than provincial or national governments. Thus substantial inter-governmental co-operation and public-private partnership are needed. This book identifies how development agencies and companies work, what they do and what constitutes success and value added. It explores international practices in a variety of

  • 9-February-2010

    English

    Towards Transparent, Proportionate and Deliverable Regulation for Geological Disposal

    These workshop proceedings highlight the significant amount of work accomplished over the past decade in delivering transparent, proportionate regulation for geological disposal, and identify important differences between national regulations even if these are not in contradiction with international guidance. They also underline the importance of R&D carried out on behalf of the regulator. In addition to the contributed papers, these

  • 15-March-2010

    English

    Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture

    Agriculture is the major user of water in most countries. It also faces the enormous challenge of producing almost 50% more food by 2030 and doubling production by 2050. This will likely need to be achieved with less water, mainly because of growing pressures from urbanisation, industrialisation and climate change. In this context, it will be important in future for farmers to receive the right signals to increase water use

  • 8-April-2010

    English

    Partnering for Long-Term Management of Radioactive Waste - Evolution and Current Practice in Thirteen Countries

    National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent

  • 18-October-2010

    English

    Citrus Fruits

    This publication provides comments and illustrations of standards in force regarding the classification, presentation and marking of citrus fruit in international trade under the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables set up by OECD in 1962. It is a valuable tool for both the Inspection Authorities and professional bodies responsible for the application of standards or interested in trade in

  • 11-March-2010

    English

    Quality Standards for Development Evaluation

    Based on a broad international consultative process, the DAC Quality Standards for Development Evaluation are a reference guide to good practice in development evaluation. With a view to improving the quality of evaluation processes and products, and facilitating collaboration, this reference guide lays out standards for each phase of a typical evaluation process: from defining purpose, to planning, designing, implementing, reporting,

    Also Available
  • 22-June-2010

    English

    Apricots

    This brochure is published within the framework of  the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of the apricots standard in force. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text and new trends in the international trade of apricots. It demonstrates the quality

  • 7-July-2010

    English

    Peaches and Nectarines

    This book provides a series of standards regarding the quality, sizing, presentation, and marking of peaches and nectarines in international trade.   It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of the standard in force and is is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. This

  • 13-April-2010

    English

    Bioheat, Biopower and Biogas - Developments and Implications for Agriculture

    This report complements earlier OECD work on liquid biofuels and provides information on biomass based heat and power, as well as on biogas. It discusses the heterogeneous portfolio of different biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies, and pathways of utilisation. It also shows that governments in many countries provide substantial support to the production and use of renewable energy in general, and bioenergy in particular;

  • 18-June-2010

    English

    Guidelines for Cost-effective Agri-environmental Policy Measures

    Improving the environmental performance of agriculture is a high priority in OECD and many non-OECD countries. This will be of increasing concern in the future given the pressure to feed a growing world population with scarce land and water resources. Policy has an important role to play where markets for many of the environmental outcomes from agriculture are absent or poorly functioning.   

    This study focuses on the design

  • 17-June-2010

    English

    Climate Change and Agriculture - Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation

    Climate change is likely to have significant impacts on the agricultural sector to which farmers will have to adapt. While agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, it is also a source of carbon storage in soils. This report examines the economic and policy issues related to the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation responses and to the mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture.

  • 23-June-2010

    English

    Nuclear Production of Hydrogen - Fourth Information Exchange Meeting, Oakbrook, Illinois, USA , 14-16 April 2009

    Hydrogen has the potential to play an important role as a sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy carrier in the 21st century. This report describes the scientific and technical challenges associated with the production of hydrogen using heat and/or electricity from nuclear power plants, with special emphasis on recent developments in high-temperature electrolysis and the use of different chemical thermodynamic processes.

  • 11-May-2010

    English

    Solar Photovoltaic Energy

    This energy technology roadmap envisions that by 2050, photovoltaic could provide 11% of global electricity production (4 500 TWh per year), corresponding to 3 000 gigawatts of cumulative installed photovoltaic capacity. In addition to contributing to significant greenhouse gas emission reductions, photovoltaic will deliver substantial benefits in terms of the security of energy supply and socio-economic development. This roadmap

  • 9-October-2009

    English

    Carbon Capture and Storage

    This energy technology roadmap on carbon capture and storage (CCS) identifies, for the first time, a detailed scenario for the technology’s growth from a handful of large-scale projects today to over three thousand projects by 2050. It finds that the next decade is a key “make or break” period for CCS; governments, industry and public stakeholders must act rapidly to demonstrate CCS at scale around the world in a variety of

  • 12-October-2009

    English

    Cement Technology Roadmap: Carbon Emissions Reductions up to 2050

    The cement energy technology roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the industry to make continued contributions towards a halving of global CO2 emissions by 2050. As part of this contribution, this roadmap estimates that the cement industry could reduce its direct emissions 18% from current levels by 2050. This roadmap is a first step. It is only attainable with a supportive policy framework, and appropriate financial

  • 7-May-2010

    English

    Concentrating Solar Power

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help chart the course to broad development and deployment of CSP.

  • 12-October-2009

    English

    Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    This energy technology roadmap focuses on electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV), presenting for the first time a detailed scenario for their evolution from annual production of a few thousand to over 100 million vehicles by 2050. It finds that the next decade is a key “make or break” period for EVs and PHEVs: governments, the automobile industry, electric utilities and other stakeholders must work together to roll out

  • 12-October-2009

    English

    Wind Energy

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the “new” renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This energy technology roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal.

  • 3-June-2010

    English

    Nuclear Energy

    Almost one quarter of global electricity could be generated from nuclear power by 2050, making a major contribution to cutting greenhouse gas emissions. This is the central finding of the Nuclear Energy Technology Roadmap, published today by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Such an expansion will require nuclear generating capacity to more than triple over the next 40 years, a target

  • 26-August-2010

    English

    Trade and Economic Effects of Responses to the Economic Crisis

    The dramatic collapse in world trade in 2009 is, this report shows, mainly due to: the drop in demand for highly traded products; the drying up of trade finance; and the vertically integrated nature of global supply chains. Contrary to expectations, protectionist measures were relatively muted and did not play a significant part. In fact, because of their sheer size, stimulus measures may have had more impact on trade than direct

  • 13-September-2010

    English

    Advancing the Aquaculture Agenda - Workshop Proceedings

    Aquaculture now provides more than 50% of the global supply of fisheries products for direct human consumption. This conference proceedings addresses key policy challenges of the aquaculture sector. Policy makers, academics, industry representatives, NGOs and international organisations gathered to discuss the critical economic, environmental and social aspects of aquaculture.  This publication presents a selection of key issues

  • 11-January-2011

    English

    Apples

    This brochure is published within the framework of  the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of the apples standard in force. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text (2009), new marketing practices and development in production. It illustrates the quality

  • 24-November-2010

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers - A Synthesis of Findings across OECD Countries

    Too many workers leave the labour market permanently due to health problems or disability, and too few people with reduced work capacity manage to remain in employment. This is a social and economic tragedy common to virtually all OECD countries. It also raises an apparent paradox that needs explaining: Why is it that the average health status is improving, yet large numbers of people of working age are leaving the workforce to

  • 4-January-2011

    English

    Challenges for Agricultural Research

    As the world has changed during the past 50 years, so has agriculture. And so has agricultural research, which continues to confront new challenges, from food security to ecological concerns to land use issues. Indeed, as Guy Paillotin, the former president of the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) has noted, agricultural research “has reached new heights in biology and is exploring other disciplines. It is

  • 30-July-2010

    English

    Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

    Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA enables member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to share research on breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants and to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes.

    Energy Technology Initiatives: Implementation

  • 28-January-2011

    English

    The Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change

    Climate change is becoming more evident and, as it increases, will alter the productivity of fisheries and the distribution of fish stocks. From an economic point of view, the changes will have impacts on fisheries and coastal communities in different ways. These expected changes require adaptable and flexible fisheries and aquaculture management policies and governance frameworks. However, the forms of future climate change and

  • 30-July-2010

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers: Canada - Opportunities for Collaboration

    Sickness and disability policy reform has been a priority for OECD countries wanting to improve employment and social outcomes in this domain. The recent recession and corresponding fall in labour demand is expected to hit marginalised workers, including workers with health problems or disability, harder than the broader working-age population. There is a pressing need for policy makers to address the recent “medicalisation” of labour

  • 18-August-2010

    English

    Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers: Sweden - Will the Recent Reforms Make It?

    Sickness and disability is a key economic policy concern for many OECD countries. Medical conditions, or problems labelled as such by societies and policy systems, are proving an increasing obstacle to raising labour force participation and keeping public expenditure under control. More and more people of working age rely on sickness and disability benefits as their main source of income, and the employment rates of those reporting

  • 28-May-2013

    English

    Resources to Reserves 2013 - Oil, Gas and Coal Technologies for the Energy Markets of the Future

    The availability of oil and gas for future generations continues to provoke international debate. In 2005, the first edition of Resources to Reserves found that the known hydrocarbon resources were sufficient to sustain likely growth for the foreseeable future. Yet the book also predicted that developing oil and gas resources – and bringing them to market – would become more technically demanding.

    Resources to Reserves 2013

  • 10-September-2010

    English

    Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by

  • 7-October-2010

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Czech Republic 2010

    The International Energy Agency's 2010 review of the Czech Republic's energy policies and programmes. It analyses the energy challenges facing the Czech Republic and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

    It finds that the Czech Republic, rich in coal resources, is the third-largest

  • 28-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: New Zealand 2010

    The International Energy Agency's periodic review of New Zealand's energy policies and programmes.  This edition finds that New Zealand’s strong commitment to liberalised energy markets has delivered a relatively high level of energy security and economic prosperity for consumers. Since the previous IEA review in 2006, the government has built on the success of existing policy mechanisms and implemented a number of far-reaching

  • 29-October-2010

    English

    Breaking Out of Policy Silos - Doing More with Less

    In the context of the economic recovery and public budget cuts, policy silos and fragmented short-term policy interventions have become luxuries that our economies can no longer afford. Government intervenes in a myriad of ways at the local level, and rarely are these interventions co-ordinated effectively. Most of us are familiar with policy “silos”. Such divisions are often taken for granted, blamed on historical working

  • 16-November-2010

    English

    Linkages between Agricultural Policies and Environmental Effects - Using the OECD Stylised Agri-environmental Policy Impact Model

    Improving the environmental performance of agriculture is a high priority for OECD countries. But measuring and evaluating the impact of agri-environmental policies on the environment can be challenging, as it requires linking economic and biophysical models in country-specific  contexts. 

    The OECD has developed the Stylised Agri-environmental Policy Impact Model (SAPIM), which can be adapted and applied by researchers and

  • 15-December-2010

    English

    Off to a Good Start? Jobs for Youth

    Promoting a smooth transition from school to work, and ensuring that youth are given the opportunities to move on in their careers and lives, have long been issues of fundamental importance for our economies and societies. Today, they are even more pressing challenges as the global economy emerges from the worst crisis of the past 50 years. Indeed, young people have borne much of the brunt of the recent jobs crisis. The youth

  • 13-December-2010

    English

    The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

    What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and

  • 27-October-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Greece 2011

    This 2011 review of energy policy in Greece finds that increasing competition and reducing the role of the state in the energy sector should add efficiency and dynamism to the economy.  This, in turn, should help generate self-sustained employment and prosperity for the country.  

    Reforming the electricity and gas markets is an economic and political imperative. In particular, regulatory authorities must be given the

  • 17-November-2010

    English

    The Economic Impact of Export Restrictions on Raw Materials

    Export restrictions on raw materials are applied to achieve a number of policy objectives. However, they can have a significant and negative impact on the efficient allocation of resources, international trade, and the competitiveness and development of industries in both exporting and importing countries.  

    By diverting exports to domestic markets, export restrictions raise prices for foreign consumers and importers. At the

  • 4-January-2011

    English

    Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF 10 - Workshop Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland 2-4 June 2010

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines, and are having an increasingly important impact on research, technology and daily life. Today they cover a wide range of applications including material science and medical applications. In recent years, requirements from new technological and research applications have emerged while the number of accelerator facilities in operation,

  • 14-February-2011

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in the United States

    The United States is one of the most important agricultural producers in the world. It has a very large domestic market and is the world’s largest exporter of agricultural products. Indeed, the share of US agricultural production exported is more than double that of any other US industry and the trade surplus in agricultural products acts as an important stimulus to the US economy. Thus, US agricultural policies exert a strong

  • 11-February-2011

    English

    Fisheries Policy Reform - National Experiences

    Much has been done over the years to improve fisheries management in OECD countries. Ongoing problems of over-fishing, overcapacity and the economic crisis intensify the need for reform. Although there is a general consensus on the importance of a successful fisheries management, the effort levels and effectiveness of policy reforms have differed among OECD countries. This study examines the factors that facilitate reform, as well as

  • 8-February-2011

    English

    Disaggregated Impacts of CAP Reforms - Proceedings of an OECD Workshop

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is an important policy for the European Union and accounts for about 40% of the EU budget. Ever since its inception in 1958, the CAP has been regularly reviewed and adjusted to improve its performance and adapt to changing circumstances. At a time when the post-2013 future of the CAP is being discussed and major challenges such as food security and climate change lay ahead, it is important to

  • 22-March-2010

    English

    Public Attitudes to Nuclear Power

    Public attitudes to nuclear power are critical in shaping nuclear policies in OECD/NEA countries and the latter will only be able to make use of this energy source if a well-informed public considers that its benefits outweigh its risks. This report provides a number of insights into public attitudes towards nuclear power. Support for nuclear energy is generally correlated with the level of experience of and knowledge about nuclear

  • 15-April-2010

    English

    More than Just Concrete Realities - The Symbolic Dimension of Radioactive Waste Management

    Key concepts of radioactive waste management, such as safety, risk, reversibility and retrievability, carry different meanings for the technical community and for non-technical stakeholders. Similarly, socio-economic concepts, including community, landscape and benefit packages, are interpreted differently by diverse societal groups. Opinions and attitudes are not simply a faithful reflection of decision making, actual events and

  • 31-August-2010

    English

    Comparing Nuclear Accident Risks with Those from Other Energy Sources

    Nuclear accident risks are raised frequently in discussions of the acceptability of nuclear power generation, often framed in the context of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. In reality, the safety record of nuclear power plants, by comparison with other electricity generation sources, is very good. This report describes how safety has been enhanced in nuclear power plants over the years, as the designs have progressed

  • 22-March-2010

    English

    Towards Greater Harmonisation of Decommissioning Cost Estimates

    Currently, the format, content and practice of cost estimation vary considerably both within and between countries, which makes it very difficult to compare estimates, even for similar types of facilities. The reasons are largely due to different legal requirements in different countries and to historical custom and practice, leading to variations in basic assumptions such as the anticipated decommissioning strategy and end state

  • 5-October-2010

    English

    Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants

    Global demand for electricity continues to grow and numerous new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being planned or constructed in NEA member countries. Most of these new NPPs will be of the third generation, and will be designed for as long as 80 years of operation. The successful design, construction and operation of these plants will depend broadly on appropriately implementing the lessons from experience accumulated to date.

  • 21-April-2010

    English

    Applying Decommissioning Experience to the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Power Plants

    Experience from decommissioning projects suggests that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants could be made easier if it received greater consideration at the design stage and during the operation of the plants. Better forward planning for decommissioning results in lower worker doses and reduced costs. When appropriate design measures are not taken at an early stage, their introduction later in the project becomes

  • 15-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Norway 2011

    The International Energy Agency's 2011 comprehensive review of Norways energy policies and programmes. The review finds that Norway has a unique twin role as a major oil and gas producer and a strong global advocate of climate change mitigation. As the third-largest exporter of energy in the world, it contributes to global energy security by providing reliable supplies to consuming countries. At the same time, the Norwegians highly

  • 2-March-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland 2011

    The International Energy Agency's comprehensive 2011 review Poland's energy policies and programmes.  The review finds that Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans

  • 21-February-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Denmark 2011

    Denmark is a leader among OECD member countries in terms of its well-designed policies for renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate change. The country is a forthright voice in international fora for climate policy and a strong advocate of tougher climate-change mitigation measures. A long history of consensus-based policy making and political stability has been leveraged to develop Denmarkfs far-reaching and comprehensive

  • 15-July-2011

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2011

    The International Energy Agency's 2011 review of Hungary's energy policies and programmes. The review finds that regional co-operation is a vital element of Hungary's energy market and energy security policy. Hungary, which shares borders with seven countries, is well placed to improve regional energy security by catalysing the development of closely integrated regional markets for electricity and natural gas.

    A country strongly

  • 23-March-2011

    English

    Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction - How Aid for Trade Can Help

    Trade promotes economic growth, alleviates poverty and helps countries reach their development goals. However, developing countries – in particular the least developed – face difficulties in making trade happen and turning trade into economic growth. The Aid for Trade Initiative – launched at the 2005 World Trade Organisation conference in Hong Kong – aims at helping these countries to take advantage of trade opportunities and to

  • 9-October-2009

    English

    Research and Test Facilities Required in Nuclear Science and Technology

    Experimental facilities are essential research tools both for the development of nuclear science and technology and for testing systems and materials which are currently being used or will be used in the future. As a result of economic pressures and the closure of older facilities, there are concerns that the ability to undertake the research necessary to maintain and to develop nuclear science and technology may be in jeopardy.

  • 13-July-2009

    English

    Work Management to Optimise Occupational Radiological Protection at Nuclear Power Plants

    Since 1992, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) has provided a forum for radiological protection professionals from nuclear power utilities and national regulatory authorities worldwide to discuss, promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings for the radiological protection of workers at nuclear power plants. The ISOE objective is to improve occupational exposure management at nuclear power

  • 17-May-2010

    English

    Cost Estimation for Decommissioning - An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements

    This report is based on a study carried out by the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) on decommissioning cost elements, estimation practices and reporting requirements. Its findings indicate that cost methodologies need to be updated continuously using cost data from actual decommissioning projects and hence, systematic approaches need to be implemented to collect these data. The study also concludes that changes in

  • 10-March-2010

    English

    National Programmes in Chemical Partitioning - A Status Report

    Many countries have been performing a wide range of research on the partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of minor actinides and fission products. The aim is to provide greater flexibility in terms of radioactive waste management strategies and deploying advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This report describes recent and ongoing national research programmes related to chemical partitioning in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Japan,

  • 26-July-2010

    English

    International Nuclear Law - History, Evolution and Outlook

    This publication commemorates the International School of Nuclear Law which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2010. The purpose of the publication is to provide an overview of the international nuclear law instruments, their background, content and development over the years and to present an outlook on future needs in the field of international nuclear law. Renowned experts in the nuclear law field have contributed scholarly

  • 3-February-2009

    English

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenario Studies - Status Report

    Future nuclear fuel cycles could effectively address radioactive waste issues with the implementation of partitioning and transmutation (P&T). Previous studies have defined the infrastructure requirements for several key technical approaches. While these studies have proven extremely valuable, several countries have also recognised the complex, dynamic nature of the infrastructure problem: severe new issues arise when attempting to

  • 24-November-2011

    English

    Food and Agriculture

    As part of the OECD Green Growth Strategy, this new series aims to provide in-depth reviews of the green growth issues faced by different sectors. The agriculture and fisheries sectors have an important role to play in contributing to greener growth, in particular through facilitating the uptake of green technologies and management practices and reducing waste in the food chain. This will involve a range of policies, including: the

  • 14-April-2011

    English

    Job-rich Growth in Asia - Strategies for Local Employment, Skills Development and Social Protection

    Jobs-rich Growth in Asia discusses some of the most pressing issues that countries in Southeast Asia are facing in regard to boosting local employment and skills development while advancing social protection strategies in emerging, fast-growing labour markets. A joint OECD/ILO initiative, this book analyses local approaches in Asia to modernise labour markets and skills strategies and shows how local recovery is taking place through a

  • 24-May-2011

    English

    Harnessing Variable Renewables - A Guide to the Balancing Challenge

    Power systems must be actively managed to maintain a steady balance between supply and demand. This is already a complex task as demand varies continually. But what happens when supply becomes more variable and less certain, as with some renewable sources of electricity like wind and solar PV that fluctuate with the weather? To what extent can the resources that help power systems cope with the challenge of variability in demand

  • 27-May-2011

    English

    Climate and Electricity Annual 2011 - Data and Analyses

    Electricity use is growing worldwide, providing a range of energy services: lighting, heating and cooling, specific industrial uses, entertainment, information technologies, and mobility. Because its generation remains largely based on fossil fuels, electricity is also the largest and the fastest-growing source of energy-related CO2 emissions, the primary cause of human-induced climate change. Forecasts from the IEA and

  • 20-June-2011

    English

    Competitiveness and Private Sector Development: Republic of Moldova 2011 - Fostering SME Development

    This report reviews the micro, small and medium-sized business sector in the Republic of Moldova, as well as governmental policies related to small and medium-sized enterprises, particularly regarding financing and innovation. 

  • 28-September-2011

    English

    Smart Rules for Fair Trade - 50 years of Export Credits

    On the 50th anniversary of the OECD, we examine the unique work the organisation performs in regulating and rationalising governments’ use of export credits in support of exports, jobs, economic growth and national interests more broadly. This work is part of a global post war effort to emphasise multilateral co operation and sound economic policies to promote co operation, efficiency and prosperity rather than destructive

  • 5-October-2011

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in the European Union

    This report provides an overview of the main characteristics and structure of the current Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its developments in the last 25 years in a changing environment within and outside the EU.

    Drawing on material presented at the OECD Workshop on the Disaggregated Impacts of CAP Reform, held on 10-11 March 2010, and model-based scenarios, it analyses the impacts of policy changes on production,

  • 2-March-2012

    English

    Agricultural Policies for Poverty Reduction

    With more than two-thirds of the world’s poor living in rural areas, higher rural incomes are a pre-requisite for sustained poverty reduction and reduced hunger. This volume sets out a strategy for raising rural incomes which emphasises the creation of diversified rural economies with opportunities within and outside agriculture. Agricultural policies need to be integrated within an overall mix of policies and institutional reforms

  • 20-October-2011

    English

    Globalisation, Comparative Advantage and the Changing Dynamics of Trade

    The effects of globalisation have been at the forefront of public debate in recent years, fuelled on the one hand by the large benefits of integrated markets, and on the other hand, by the detrimental adjustment effects often experienced by many economies as a result.  Knowing how trade has been evolving over time and the role policy has played in this evolution are critical to understanding the globalisation debate and grasping

  • 21-September-2011

    English

    Evaluation of Agricultural Policy Reforms in Turkey

    Turkey is an important producer and exporter of agricultural commodities on world markets and is estimated to be the world’s 7th-largest agricultural producer. Although the economic importance of agricultural sector relative to the industrial and service sectors has been declining, agriculture still remains a key part of Turkey’s society, employing about one quarter of the workforce and generating most of income and employment in

  • 8-April-2011

    English

    From War to Wealth - Fifty Years of Innovation

    This lavishly illustrated book tells the story of the development of the OECD from the founding of its predecessor organisation, the OEEC after World War II, to the transformation into the OECD in 1960, and its evolution since that time. Covering the stewardship of 6 Secretaries-General over a period of 50 years, the book describes what OECD does and how it does it.  An interesting chapter on a Day in the Life of a Chateau, tracks a

  • 21-June-2011

    English

    Italy: Review of Issues and Policies

    This report sets out the main analysis and recommendations of the tourism policy review of Italy. It  assesses the current state of tourism performance in Italy, its framework conditions and business environment, the existing set of tourism policies and programmes, especially in the area of statistics, promotion and education and training.  The report presents a series of policy recommendations intended to support policy and

    Also Available
  • 21-April-2011

    English

    Smart Grids

    The development of smart grids – which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users – is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing

  • 30-June-2011

    English

    Managing Risk in Agriculture - Policy Assessment and Design

    This book examines the implications of risk management for policy in agriculture.  Opening with a chapter on risk management principles and guidelines for policy design in agriculture, the book goes on to look at quantitative analysis of risk and then at policy in various countries.

  • 5-December-2011

    English

    Asparagus

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current asparagus standard. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text on asparagus. It demonstrates the quality parameters on high-quality photographs. Thus

  • 5-November-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Slovak Republic 2014

    This book provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues facing the educational evaluation and assessment framework, current policy initiatives, and possible future approaches in the Slovak Republic.

  • 27-June-2011

    English

    Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems - Workshop Proceedings, Karlsruhe, Germany, 15-17 March 2010

    The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a potential transmutation system option as part of partitioning and transmutation strategies for radioactive waste in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. These proceedings contain all the technical papers presented at the workshop on Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems held on 15-17 March 2010 in Karlsruhe, Germany. The workshop provided experts with a forum to present and discuss

  • 5-December-2011

    English

    Intellectual Assets and Innovation - The SME Dimension

    Intellectual Property Rights can be instrumental for SMEs to protect and build on their innovations; position themselves competitively vis-à-vis larger enterprises in global markets; gain access to revenues; signal current and prospective value to investors, competitors and partners; access knowledge markets and networks; open up new commercial pathways; or segment existing markets.  However, while there is increasing recognition of

  • 23-June-2011

    English

    Biofuels for Transport

    Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision.

    The roadmap describes the steps necessary to

  • 23-June-2011

    English

    Geothermal Heat and Power

    The technology roadmap for Geothermal Heat and Power offers a strategic plan to maximise deployment of these energy resources by 2050. It projects that 1 400 TWh of electricity per year could come from geothermal power by 2050, up from 67 TWh at present.

    Additionally, geothermal heat (not including ground-source heat pump technology) could contribute 5.8 EJ (1600 TWh) annually by 2050. In order to reach these targets, policy

  • 23-June-2011

    English

    Energy-efficient Buildings - Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and

  • 8-July-2011

    English

    Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Power

    This study assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalised electricity markets with either CO2 trading or carbon taxes. It uses daily price data for electricity, gas, coal and carbon from 2005 to 2010, which encompasses the first years of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the world’s foremost carbon trading framework. The study shows that even with modest carbon

  • 7-December-2011

    English

    Climate Change and Tourism Policy in OECD Countries

    Undertaken jointly with United Nations Environment Programme, the report analyses policies and issues related to climate change adaptation and mitigation in the tourism sector. It provides policy recommendations, with the objective to identify priority areas to be included in a framework for action in the area of climate change and tourism.  A review of the state of policy-making on this important issue clearly indicates that

  • 29-September-2011

    English

    Fisheries and Aquaculture Certification

    Concerns about sustainability and the effectiveness of fisheries management on the part of the public have resulted in demand from NGOs, retailers and consumers for assurances that the food they purchase has been sustainably produced. This has led to a number of private entities responding to this demand by establishing eco-labels and certification schemes that claim to provide credible information to the consumer. These labels

  • 16-November-2011

    English

    Thailand: Key Issues and Policies

    This book offers policy guidance to Thailand for fostering entrepreneurship and strengthening the performance of SMEs and their contribution to growth and development. It provides evidence-based analysis and policy recommendations on thematic issues such as access to finance for SMEs and entrepreneurs, SME participation in global markets, intellectual assets and innovation, high-growth SMEs and women’s entrepreneurship.

  • 31-October-2011

    English

    Strengthening Accountability in Aid for Trade

    At a time when aid budgets are under pressure and scrutiny, there is a need to improve accountability. This is especially true in the case of aid for trade, which has become an increasingly important priority in development co-operation.   Strengthening Accountability in Aid for Trade looks at what the trade and development community needs to know about aid-for-trade results, what past evaluations of programmes and projects

  • 2-October-2012

    English

    Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for

  • 17-January-2012

    English

    Sick on the Job? - Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work

    The costs of mental ill-health for the individuals concerned, employers and society at large are enormous. Mental illness is responsible for a very significant loss of potential labour supply, high rates of unemployment, and a high incidence of sickness absence and reduced productivity at work. In particular, mental illness causes too many young people to leave the labour market, or never really enter it, through early moves onto

  • 16-September-2011

    English

    Investing in Security - A Global Assessment of Armed Violence Reduction Initiatives

    Conservative estimates indicate that at least 740 000 men, women, youth and children die each year as a result of armed violence, most of them in low- and medium-income settings. The majority of these deaths occur in situations other than war, though armed conflicts continue to generate a high incidence of casualties.   Approaches to preventing and reducing these deaths and related suffering are becoming increasingly important on

  • 1-December-2011

    English

    Solar Energy Perspectives

    In 90 minutes, enough sunlight strikes the earth to provide the entire planet's energy needs for one year. While solar energy is abundant, it represents a tiny fraction of the world’s current energy mix. But this is changing rapidly and is being driven by global action to improve energy access and supply security, and to mitigate climate change. 

    Around the world, countries and companies are investing in solar

  • 19-October-2011

    English

    IEA Scoreboard 2011 - Implementing Energy Efficiency Policy: Progress and challenges in IEA member countries

    On the occasion of its 35th Anniversary in 2009, the International Energy Agency published the first edition of the Scoreboard focusing on 35 Key Energy Trends over 35 Years. In parallel, the IEA published Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: Are IEA Member Countries on Track?. Both publications found that although IEA member countries were making progress in implementing energy efficiency, more work was

  • 24-November-2011

    English

    Deploying Renewables - Best and Future Policy Practice

    The global energy system faces urgent challenges. Concerns about energy security are growing, as highlighted by the recent political turmoil in Northern Africa and the nuclear incident in Fukushima. At the same time, the need to respond to climate change is more critical than ever. Against this background, many governments have increased efforts to promote deployment of renewable energy – low-carbon sources that can strengthen

  • 4-September-2012

    English

    Mangoes

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current mango standard. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text on mangoes. It demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus it is

  • 24-April-2013

    English

    Innovation in Southeast Asia

    The Southeast Asian (SEA) region is one of the most dynamic in the world. It is in a period of transition as its national economies become strongly integrated into global knowledge networks. Science and technology (S&T) offer opportunities for countries to ‘move up the value chain’. A better understanding of existing capabilities helps enhance mutually beneficial S&T and innovation co-operation between SEA and OECD

  • 2-January-2012

    English

    Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels

    This publication provides preliminary, quantitative estimates of direct budgetary support and tax expenditures supporting the production or consumption of fossil fuels in selected OECD member countries. The information has been compiled as part of the OECD’s programme of work to develop a better understanding of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the

  • 6-August-2012

    English

    Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications

    The Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed to reduce emissions by 50% by the middle of the century. The roadmap focuses on five main industrial applications: high-purity CO2

  • 5-December-2011

    English

    Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels standard. This brochure illustrates the standard text on Inshell Hazelnuts and Hazelnut Kernels. It demonstrates the quality

  • 14-February-2012

    English

    Strategic Environmental Assessment in Development Practice - A Review of Recent Experience

    The principles of sustainable development play an integral role in making development assistance work at the level of policies, plans and programmes. In response to the  Paris Declaration call to “… develop and apply common approaches for ‘Strategic Environmental Assessment’ at sector and national levels” among donors and partners, the Guidance on Applying Strategic Environmental Assessment was endorsed in 2006 by members of the

  • 31-January-2012

    English

    China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050

    The report shows how China, already the world’s largest wind market, could reach 1,000 GW of wind power by the middle of the century, an achievement that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 gigatonnes per year, or roughly equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of Germany, France and Italy in 2009. The China Wind Energy Roadmap is the first national roadmap that has been developed by a country with IEA support, drawing from

  • 25-November-2011

    English

    Fostering Productivity and Competitiveness in Agriculture

    This report reviews economic concepts of innovation, research and development (R&D), productivity and competitiveness, and their linkages. It then discusses evidence on developments in productivity and competitiveness in the agricultural and food processing sectors and on the relationship between agricultural productivity and farm size, factor intensity, farm specialisation, human capital, consumer demand, the natural environment,

  • 13-February-2012

    English

    Improving Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems - OECD Conference Proceedings

    This conference proceedings from the OECD Conference on Agricultural Knowledge Systems (AKS), held in Paris, on 15-17 June 2011, discusses a large range of experiences and approaches to AKS  explores how to foster development and adoption of innovation to meet global food security and climate change challenges. The conference considered developments in institutional frameworks, public and private roles and partnerships, regulatory

  • 5-March-2012

    English

    Farmer Behaviour, Agricultural Management and Climate Change

    This study examines the broad range of factors driving farm management decisions that can improve the environment, including drawing on the experiences of OECD countries. It identifies policy options that would contribute to a sustainable and resilient agricultural sector in the context of climate change.

  • 2-March-2012

    English

    Agricultural Policies for Poverty Reduction - A Synthesis

    This book synthesizes the findings of a longer work which sets out a strategy for raising rural incomes. It emphasises the creation of diversified rural economies with opportunities within and outside agriculture. Agricultural policies need to be integrated within an overall mix of policies and institutional reforms that facilitate, rather than impede, structural change. By investing in public goods, such as infrastructure and

  • 13-June-2012

    English

    Compact City Policies - A Comparative Assessment

    This book examines the concept of the compact city and the implication of the current urban context for compact city policies. It explores their potential outcomes, particularly in terms of how it can contribute to Green Growth and looks at developing indicators to monitor compact city and track policy performance. It reviews compact city policies currently being implemented across the OECD in relation to the pursuit of Green

    Also Available
  • 25-January-2012

    English

    Greening Development - Enhancing Capacity for Environmental Management and Governance

    This policy guidance outlines a number of steps to be considered when building capacity for greening national development planning, national budgetary processes and key economic sector strategies. It identifies the key actors to be engaged in the decision making processes, outlines possible capacity needs and suggests how these can be addressed. This policy guidance is intended to support developing countries in their efforts to

  • 12-March-2012

    English

    Water Quality and Agriculture - Meeting the Policy Challenge

    Improving water quality is consistently ranked as a top environmental concern in OECD public opinion surveys. The key challenges for policy makers in addressing water quality issues in agriculture are to reduce water pollution while encourage benefits, such as maintaining aquatic life. This book examines linking policies, farm management and water quality. It looks at recent trends and prospects for water pollution from agriculture

  • 15-December-2011

    English

    Trends towards Sustainability in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Interest in expanding nuclear power to cope with rising demand for energy and potential climate change places increased attention on the nuclear fuel cycle and whether significant moves are being taken towards ensuring sustainability over the long term. Future nuclear power programme decisions will be increasingly based on strategic considerations involving the complete nuclear fuel cycle, as illustrated by the international joint

  • 21-June-2013

    English

    Skills Development and Training in SMEs

    The report discusses the results of the OECD “Leveraging Training and Skills Development in SMEs” (TSME) project which examines access to training by SMEs across seven regions in six OECD countries: New Zealand, Poland, Belgium, UK, Turkey and Canada. The book analyses the policy issues related to both low access by SMEs, and how to recognise the increasing importance of informal training and skills development methods. The book

  • 8-March-2012

    English

    Meeting the Water Reform Challenge

    The need to reform water policies is as urgent as ever. Water is essential for economic growth, human health, and the environment. Yet governments around the world face significant challenges in managing their water resources effectively. The problems are multiple and complex: billions of people are still without access to safe water and adequate sanitation; competition for water is increasing among the different uses and users; and

  • 30-May-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: United Kingdom 2012

    The United Kingdom is preparing for a deep decarbonisation of its energy system. The country has decided to halve its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2027 and to cut them by a total of 80% by 2050. For this to happen, significant private-sector investment in new energy infrastructure is needed. As it seeks concrete solutions to the low-carbon investment challenge, the United Kingdom is leading by example. The UK’s proposed

  • 12-July-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Ireland 2012

    The IEA's 2012 review of Ireland's energy policies and programmes finds that Ireland has suffered a significant economic downturn, but remains committed to its ambitious energy targets to bring the country towards a low-carbon economy.  Ireland’s location at the edge of the Atlantic Ocean ensures one of the best wind and ocean resources in Europe, and Ireland has set the ambitious target of producing 40% of its electricity from

  • 19-November-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Australia 2012

    The IEA's 2012 review of Australia's energy policies and programmes finds that Australia enjoys the benefit of abundant and diverse energy resources; it is the world’s ninth-largest energy producer and is one of only three net energy exporters in the OECD. Its substantial conventional energy resource base includes coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. The country also enjoys extensive wind, solar and geothermal resources as well as

  • 23-November-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The Republic of Korea 2012

    Korea, the world’s thirteenth-largest economy and the seventh-largest exporter, is an energy-intensive nation. In 2008, the country adopted a long-term “green growth” strategy to foster economic development by means of low-carbon technologies and clean energy; since then, the government has implemented many policies to support these goals.

    In 2012, Korea announced an emissions-trading scheme -- the first of its kind in Asia

  • 22-February-2012

    English

    Food and the Tourism Experience - The OECD-Korea Workshop

    Tourism is a major part of the contemporary experience economy, in which food plays an important role. Food is a key part of all cultures, a major element of global intangible heritage and an increasingly important attraction for tourists. The linkages between food and tourism also provide a platform for local economic development, which can be strengthened by the use of food experiences for branding and marketing destinations.

    Also Available
  • 6-February-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2012

    The Slovak Republic imports virtually all of its natural gas and crude oil from a single supplier, the Russian Federation. Energy security is therefore an overarching concern and priority in the Slovak Republicfs energy policy agenda. The government is taking steps to diversify supplies and build on lessons learned from the gas supply disruption in 2009. 

    Enhancing regional co-operation, particularly in the development of

  • 20-September-2012

    English

    Illegal Trade in Environmentally Sensitive Goods

    Illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods, such as threatened wildlife, timber, hazardous waste, and ozone-depleting substances, has been a long-standing issue in the international trade and environment agenda.  The nature of such illegal trade makes it difficult to fully understand its extent and impact on the environment.  Developing effective policies to reduce illegal trade requires a clear understanding of what drives this

  • 6-June-2012

    English

    Onions

    This brochure is published within the framework of  the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the common interpretation of the onions standard in force. This updated brochure illustrates the revised standard text (2012), new marketing practices and development in production. It illustrates the quality

  • 31-January-2013

    English

    Electricity in a Climate-Constrained World - Data and Analyses

    Electricity use is growing worldwide, providing a range of energy services: lighting, heating and cooling, specific industrial uses, entertainment, information technologies, and mobility. Because its generation remains largely based on fossil fuels, electricity is also the largest and the fastest-growing source of energy-related CO2 emissions, the primary cause of human-induced climate change. Forecasts from the IEA and

  • 9-July-2012

    English

    Rebuilding Fisheries - The Way Forward

    Many fisheries around the world are characterised by excessive fishing effort, low productivity and inadequate profitability.  Considerable benefits can be made from rebuilding such fisheries.  This publication analyses the issues and challenges governments face as they develop and implement plans to rebuild fisheries.  The focus is on the economic and institutional issues and builds on evidence from OECD fisheries.

  • 6-March-2013

    English

    Tax and Development - Aid Modalities for Strengthening Tax Systems

    Tax revenues provide governments with funds to invest in development, relieve poverty, deliver public services and build the physical and social infrastructure for long-term growth. Moreover, there are mutually beneficial links between taxation and good governance. Tax and Development: Aid Modalities for Strengthening Tax Systems highlights how taxation can have a positive effect on the quality of governance and a

  • 11-April-2012

    English

    Nuclear Education and Training - From Concern to Capability

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others

  • 20-April-2012

    English

    Thermodynamic Sorption Modelling in Support of Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Cases - NEA Sorption Project Phase III

    A central safety function of radioactive waste disposal repositories is the prevention or sufficient retardation of radionuclide migration to the biosphere. Performance assessment exercises in various countries, and for a range of disposal scenarios, have demonstrated that one of the most important processes providing this safety function is the sorption of radionuclides along potential migration paths beyond the engineered barriers.

  • 13-August-2012

    English

    Aid Effectiveness in the Health Sector - Progress and Lessons

    Aid plays an important role in reducing poverty and inequality, stimulating growth, building capacity, promoting human development and accelerating the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Effective aid is critical both to maximise the impact of aid and to achieve long-term, sustainable development.

    Aid to the health sector has increased substantially over the last 20 years from USD 5 billion in 1990 to USD 21.8

  • 21-August-2012

    English

    Livestock Diseases - Prevention, Control and Compensation Schemes

    This report is an overview of the management of risk due to livestock diseases, a potentially catastrophic type of risk that can have strong external effects given its links to the food chain and to human health. Animal disease, primarily in farmed livestock, has long been a policy concern for food safety reasons and the high economic losses it can engender. The globalisation of trade and human movement, and sensitivities to food

  • 3-December-2012

    English

    The Architecture of Development Assistance

    This book includes reports on Multilateral Aid, the Division of Labour and Aid Fragmentation, Aid Predictability to provide an overview of the key trends and developments in the architecture of aid.

  • 29-January-2013

    English

    Watermelons

    This book is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It provides explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current watermelons standard. This new brochure illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus it is a valuable tool for

  • 5-March-2013

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Norway

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Norway is the fourth in a series of reports looking at

  • 19-October-2012

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Indonesia 2012

    This Review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, assesses the performance of Indonesian agriculture over the last two decades, evaluates Indonesian agricultural policy reforms and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. The evaluation is based on the OECD Committee for Agriculture’s approach that agriculture policy should be evidence-based and carefully

  • 4-February-2013

    English

    Waiting Time Policies in the Health Sector - What Works?

    Over the past decade, many OECD countries have introduced new policies to tackle excessive waiting times for elective surgery with some success. However, in the wake of the recent economic downturn and severe pressures on public budgets, waiting times times may rise again, and it is important to understand which policies work.  In addition, the European Union has introduced new regulations to allow patients to seek care in other

  • 23-September-2013

    English

    Nuclear Energy Today (Second Edition)

    Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.

    Although nuclear energy currently

  • 24-August-2012

    English

    Evaluation of Agri-environmental Policies - Selected Methodological Issues and Case Studies

    Governments are increasingly aware of the importance of monitoring and evaluating their policies − including agri-environmental policies − and are devoting efforts to strengthening their monitoring and evaluation systems and capacities. They aim to improve their performance by establishing evidence-based policy-making, evidence-based management and evidence-based accountability, which will help to improve the design and implementation

  • 3-July-2012

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Switzerland 2012

    This 2012 IEA review of Swiss energy policies finds that Switzerland has taken bold decisions to gradually phase out nuclear power and to reduce by a fifth its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 with domestic measures only. These are challenging objectives, and the country now needs to identify the most viable ways to meet them at least cost and minimum risk to energy security.

    In the absence of nuclear power, maintaining

  • 23-May-2012

    English

    Policy Priorities for International Trade and Jobs

    Launched and co-ordinated by the OECD, the International Collaborative Initiative on Trade and Employment (ICITE) is a two-year old joint undertaking of ten international organisations. Under ICITE, a broad research agenda focusing on the interaction between trade and employment has been implemented. This book brings together some of the results of that research. 

    Opening with an overview chapter from the OECD, the book

  • 28-November-2012

    English

    Demographic Change and Local Development - Shrinkage, Regeneration and Social Dynamics

    This report highlights the issues faced by local areas against the backdrop of policies or planning models that have directed local development in the past decades (e.g. introduction of new industries such as information technology/bio-technology following the de-industrialisation of mining/manufacturing industries) but today appear less suitable than expected to ensure the sustainability of local development.

  • 10-August-2012

    English

    Solar Heating and Cooling

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050.  This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages

  • 30-October-2013

    English

    Cancer Care - Assuring Quality to Improve Survival

    More than five million new cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in OECD countries. Mortality rates are declining, but not as fast as for other big killers such as heart disease, and cancer survival rates show almost a four-fold difference across countries. In short, many countries are not doing as well as they could in the fight against cancer.

    Cancer Care: Assuring Quality to Improve Survival surveys the

  • 5-June-2013

    English

    Putting Green Growth at the Heart of Development

    Green growth is vital to secure a brighter, more sustainable future for developing countries. Developing countries will pay a high price for failing to tackle local and global environmental threats because they are more dependent on natural resources and are more vulnerable to resources scarcity and natural disasters.

    This book presents evidence that green growth is the only way to sustain growth and development over the

  • 15-September-2014

    English

    Accountability and Democratic Governance - Orientations and Principles for Development

    The ability of citizens to demand accountability and more open government is fundamental to good governance. There is growing recognition of the need for new approaches to the ways in which donors support accountability, but no broad agreement on what changed practice looks like. This publication aims to provide more clarity on the emerging practice. Based on four country studies Mali, Mozambique, Peru and Uganda, a survey of donor

  • 5-February-2013

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Sweden 2012

    This OECD Review of Innovation Policy for Sweden offers a comprehensive assessment of Sweden's  innovation system, focusing on the role of government. It provides concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation performance, including R&D policies, and identifies good practices from which other countries can learn.

  • 27-September-2012

    English

    Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles  including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG

  • 19-December-2013

    English

    Environment at a Glance 2013 - OECD Indicators

    This book includes key environmental indicators endorsed by OECD Environment Ministers and major environmental indicators from the OECD Core Set. These indicators reflect environmental progress made since the early 1990s and thus contribute to measuring environmental performance. Organised by issues such as climate change, air pollution, biodiversity, waste or water resources, they provide essential information for all those

  • 25-June-2013

    English

    OECD Compendium of Agri-environmental Indicators

    Agriculture can have significant impacts on the environment as it uses on average over 40% of water and land resources in OECD countries. The impacts occur on and off farm, including both pollution and degradation of soil, water and air. But agriculture also supplies ecosystem services, such as biodiversity, provides a sink for greenhouse gases, and contributes to flood control and the aesthetic value of landscapes.

    This

  • 29-April-2013

    English

    Mexico: Key Issues and Policies

    During the past decade, the Mexican government has put into place a strong policy framework for the promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurship.   It has created a sequence of policy support running from the development of new entrepreneurs, micro-enterprises, SMEs and gazelles  to the stimulation of linkages between SMEs and so-called 'tractor' firms.  New co-ordination arrangements have also been

    Also Available
  • 19-October-2012

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Ukraine 2012

    Ukraine’s energy sector faces unprecedented challenges, from a heavy reliance on expensive fossil-fuel imports to inefficient infrastructure and markets. Yet there is also potential for Ukraine to experience an energy revolution, one that could boost employment, lift economic growth and enhance energy security. Modernisation of Ukraine’s energy-supply sectors has only begun and will require investment on a huge scale, complemented

  • 29-January-2013

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Belgium

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Belgium is the first in a series of reports looking at

  • 28-January-2013

    English

    Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels 2013

    This Inventory is concerned with direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to fossil fuels, regardless of their impact or of the purpose for which the measures were first put in place. It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the international dialogue on fossil-fuel subsidy reform. For each of the 34 OECD countries covered, the Inventory provides a succinct summary of its

  • 18-December-2013

    English

    The Missing Entrepreneurs - Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship in Europe

    Entrepreneurship development is an important requirement for achieving of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It is also a means to respond to new economic challenges, to create jobs and to fight social and financial exclusion. The impact of the global financial and economic crisis calls for giving entrepreneurship and self-employment a stronger role in economic and social development policies.

    This book collects and

    Also Available
  • 7-November-2012

    English

    Nuclear Energy and Renewables - System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

    This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays”

  • 25-February-2013

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Denmark

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Denmark is the third in a series of reports looking at

  • 5-March-2013

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Sweden

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Sweden is the second in a series of reports looking at how

  • 26-March-2013

    English

  • 15-November-2012

    English

    Hydropower

    Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2 000 GW of global capacity and over 7 000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries.

    Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability,

  • 2-May-2013

    English

    Korea: Improving the Re-employment Prospects of Displaced Workers

    In Korea's dynamic labour market, job displacement (involuntary job loss due to firm closure or downsizing) affects many workers over the course of their working lives. Some workers are more vulnerable than others to this risk and may face long periods of unemployment/inactivity after displacement, particularly if their skills are not well-matched to emerging job opportunities. Even when they find new jobs, displaced workers tend

  • 28-May-2013

    English

    Interconnected Economies - Benefiting from Global Value Chains

    Global Value Chains (GVCs) have exploded in the past decade and refer to the international dispersion of design, production, assembly, marketing and distribution of services, activities, and products. Different stages in the production process are increasingly located across different economies, and intermediate inputs like parts and components are produced in one country and then exported to other countries for further production

    Also Available
  • 4-March-2013

    English

    Fragile States - Resource Flows and Trends

    By 2015, half of the world’s people living on less than USD 1.25 a day will be in fragile states. While poverty has decreased globally, progress on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 is slower in fragile states than in other developing countries. Fragile states are also off-track to meet the rest of the MDGs by 2015.

    Fragile situations became a central concern of the international development and security agenda in the 1990s.

  • 5-February-2013

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Sweden 2013

    Sweden has made progress in recent years towards a more secure, sustainable energy future. The Scandinavian nation already has an almost carbon-free electricity supply and has phased out oil use in residential and power sectors. It is increasingly integrated within the Nordic and Baltic electricity markets, and its joint renewable electricity certificate market with Norway offers a unique model for other countries.

    Now

  • 24-May-2013

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Germany 2013

    Since the IEA last reviewed Germany’s energy policies in 2007, the country has taken two fundamental policy decisions that will guide its energy policy in coming decades.  In September 2010, the federal government adopted the Energy Concept, a comprehensive new strategy for a long-term integrated energy pathway to 2050. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate the phase-out of

  • 23-May-2013

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Finland 2013

    Finland’s economy is highly industrialised. Yet with over one-third of its territory located above the Arctic Circle, the country is largely rural and sparsely populated, except for its southern tip. With its energy-intensive industries and its cold climate, Finland’s energy consumption per capita is the highest in the IEA. Finland is highly dependent on imported fossil fuels, and energy policy is at the heart of the government’s

  • 20-September-2013

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Estonia 2013

    This review of Estonia’s energy policies analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It finds that Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it

  • 7-October-2013

    English

    The OECD Handbook for Fisheries Managers - Principles and Practice for Policy Design

    The Fisheries Manager's Handbook is a compilation of OECD work designed to aid policy makers develop and implement good policies and management tools in fisheries.  Drawing upon years of OECD research, it demonstrates how an open policy design process with clear objectives, using market-based instruments and focussed on effective stock management can benefit all those involved in or concerned about the fisheries sector.  Of

  • 29-April-2013

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Kazakhstan 2013

    This Review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan and conducted within the framework of the OECD Eurasia Competitiveness Programme, assesses the performance of agriculture in Kazakhstan over the last two decades. It evaluates agricultural policy reforms in Kazakhstan and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. This analysis is based on the

    Also Available
  • 3-May-2001

    English

    The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture - An Evaluation of its Implementation in OECD Countries

    The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) was a turning point in the reform of the agricultural trade system. It imposed disciplines on trade-distorting domestic policies and established new rules in the areas of market access and export competition. How effective have the three disciplines contained in the URAA been in bringing about a reduction in the level of production-related support and protection? Which elements of

  • 12-February-2013

    English

    Addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting

    Base erosion constitutes a serious risk to tax revenues, tax sovereignty and tax fairness for many countries. While there are many ways in which domestic tax bases can be eroded, a significant source of base erosion is profit shifting. This report presents the studies and data available regarding the existence and magnitude of base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS), and contains an overview of global developments that have an

    Also Available
  • 19-June-2013

    English

    Global Food Security - Challenges for the Food and Agricultural System

    This study examines how changes to the functioning of the world’s food and agriculture system can contribute to reduced hunger and the attainment of global food security. The challenge is wide ranging and multi-faceted. While food production will respond to the demands of a rising and more affluent world population, effective government policies can stimulate productivity and contain upward pressure on food prices. They can also

  • 28-February-2013

    English

    Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry

    This roadmap outlines emissions reduction potential from all technologies that can be implemented in the Indian cement industry. Taking into account the specificities of the Indian context, markets and opportunities, this roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to support the global goal of halving CO 2 emissions by 2050.

  • 22-April-2013

    English

    Handbook on Residential Property Price Indices

    For most citizens, buying a residential property (dwelling) is the most important transaction during their lifetime. Residential properties represent the most significant component of households’ expenses and, at the same time, their most valuable assets. The Residential Property Prices Indices (RPPIs) are index numbers measuring the rate at which the prices of residential properties are changing over time. RPPIs are key statistics

  • 28-June-2013

    English

    Providing Agri-environmental Public Goods through Collective Action

    This study analyses the promotion of collective action for agri-environmental public goods and addresses externalities by reviewing the experience of various OECD member countries. Twenty-five cases from
    13 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) are examined. The study shows that collective action should be given

  • 2-September-2013

    English

    Water and Climate Change Adaptation - Policies to Navigate Uncharted Waters

    This report sets out the challenge for freshwater in a changing climate and provides policy guidance on how to navigate this new “waterscape”. It highlights the range of expected changes in the water cycle and the challenge of making practical, on-site adaptation decisions for water. It offers policymakers a risk-based approach to better “know”, “target” and “manage” water risks and proposes policy guidelines to prioritise action

  • 19-June-2013

    English

    Agricultural Innovation Systems - A Framework for Analysing the Role of the Government

    This report reviews recent trends in agricultural innovation systems (AIS) and discusses the impact of a wide range of policies on the creation and diffusion of innovation in the agricultural and agrifood sector. It suggests a framework for analysing the role of governments in fostering increased innovation, with a view to helping to identify practical actions that governments could take to improve productivity growth, sustainable

  • 28-April-2014

    English

    Energy Policy Highlights - In-Depth Energy Policy Reviews (IDRs) of 21st Century

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases what the 28 IEA member countries identified as key recent developments in their energy policies. Each country contribution covers a range of energy-related topics, with best practices and policy examples from their respective governments, including objectives, characteristics, challenges and successes, and shared lessons. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and

  • 22-May-2013

    English

    Succeeding with Trade Reforms - The Role of Aid for Trade

    Succeeding with Trade Reforms: The Role of Aid for Trade highlights the potential of aid for trade to boost economic growth and reduce poverty, while discussing the various reasons why it may not be realised. In so doing, this book draws lessons for the design of aid-for-trade projects and programmes and for increasing their effectiveness. Building on this analysis, the book also quantifies the binding constraints to trade in

  • 6-October-2014

    English

    OECD Regional Outlook 2014 - Regions and Cities: Where Policies and People Meet

    Regions and cities are on the front lines of many challenges faced by OECD countries today, from education and jobs to health care and quality of life. Getting regions and cities “right”, adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work,  is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. This second edition of the OECD Regional Outlook aims to help countries do just that. Part I describes the main trends and

  • 11-June-2013

    English

    Aid for Trade in Action

    History has shown that openness to trade is a key ingredient for economic success and for improved living standards. But simply opening the economy to international trade is not enough. Developing countries – especially the least developed – require help in building their trade-related capacities in terms of information, policies, procedures, institutions and infrastructure, so as to compete effectively in the global economy. Aid

  • 21-June-2013

    English

    Ageing and Employment Policies: Norway 2013 - Working Better with Age

    This report provides an overview of the substantial ageing and employment policy initiatives already implemented in Norway over the past decade and identifies areas where more should be done, covering both supply-side and demand-side aspects.

    To give better incentives to carry on working, the report recommends further reforms in the second-pillar pension schemes, particularly for public sector employees. On the side of

  • 25-November-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Turkey 2014 - Raising Standards

    Turkey underwent a very ambitious reform programme  in 2003, the so-called "Health Transformation Programme". Access to healthcare in Turkey has greatly increased with the attainment of Universal Health Coverage, as also demonstrated by improvement in health outcomes, most notably around maternal and child health and infectious diseases. However, despite these significant achievements, Turkey has a significant way to travel to

  • 28-October-2013

    English

    Gender and Statebuilding in Fragile and Conflict-affected States

    This publication provides an overview of the key issues, challenges and opportunities for ensuring more systematic consideration of gender issues in statebuilding in fragile and conflict-affected countries. It makes the case for gender-sensitive statebuilding based on the inherent value of gender equality as well as its contribution to better development outcomes and the achievement of peacebuilding and statebuilding goals. The

  • 19-July-2013

    English

    Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting

    Taxation is at the core of countries' sovereignty, but in recent years, multinational companies have avoided taxation in their home countries by pushing activities abroad to low or no tax jurisdictions.  The G20 asked OECD to address this growing problem by creating this action plan to address base erosion and profit shifting. This plan identifies a series of domestic and international actions to address the problem and sets

    Also Available
  • 3-December-2013

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: South Africa 2013

    This report is the first OECD review of South Africa’s environmental performance. It has been carried out as part of the OECD dialogue with South Africa as Key Partner. The report evaluates South Africa's progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on policies that provide incentives to protect South Africa's exceptionally rich biodiversity and promote more effective and efficient environmental

  • 6-November-2013

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Austria 2013

    This report is the third OECD review of Austria’s environmental performance. The report evaluates Austria's progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on chemicals management and climate change adaptation.

  • 27-June-2013

    English

    Transition to Sustainable Buildings - Strategies and Opportunities to 2050

    Buildings are the largest energy consuming sector in the world, and account for over one-third of total final energy consumption and an equally important source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Achieving significant energy and emissions reduction in the buildings sector is a challenging but achievable policy goal.

    Transition to Sustainable Buildings presents detailed scenarios and strategies to 2050, and demonstrates how

  • 10-December-2014

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Botswana 2014

    OECD's comprehensive review of investment policy in Botswana.  After an overview of the country, the review examines investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation as well as infrastructure in Botswana.

  • 23-April-2014

    English

    Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries - Measuring OECD Responses

    This publication identifies the main areas of weakness and potential areas for action to combat money-laundering, tax evasion, foreign bribery, and to identify, freeze and return stolen assets. It also looks at the role of development agencies and finds that the potential returns to developing countries from using ODA on issues like combating tax evasion or asset recovery are significant.  Finally, it identifies some opportunities

  • 14-October-2013

    English

    Policy Instruments to Support Green Growth in Agriculture

    This report synthesises the experience of OECD countries in developing and implementing policies, programmes and initiatives related to green growth in the agricultural sector, based primarily on material provided by governments. It discusses the overall approach that countries are taking towards establishing a green growth strategy in agriculture; the implementation of the OECD framework for monitoring progress towards green

  • 24-February-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Croatia 2013

    This OECD Review of Innovation Policy in Croatia offers a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of Croatia, focusing on the role of government. It suggests that EU integration opens a window of opportunity for strengthening Croatia's science, technology and innovation systems, and recommends that Croatia improve governance, rebalance the innovation mix and do more to foster business innovation.
     

  • 3-July-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Colombia 2014

    This review offers a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of Colombia, focusing on the role of government. It provides concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation performance, including R&D policies and identifies good practices from which other countries can learn.

    The Overall assessment and recommendations is also available in French and Spanish.

  • 23-January-2014

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Switzerland

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Switzerland is the fifth in a series of reports looking

  • 10-February-2014

    English

    Mental Health and Work: United Kingdom

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on the United Kingdom is the sixth in a series of reports

  • 5-June-2013

    English

    Crisis Communication: Facing the Challenges - Workshop Proceedings, Madrid, Spain, 9-10 May 2012

    As manifested by an increasingly globalised media, a nuclear accident anywhere quickly becomes a potential concern for people everywhere. It is therefore of prime importance that nuclear regulators’ communication strategies take into consideration the expectations and concerns of the public and provide sound information not only for the people of the affected country, but also for citizens worldwide. Public trust is a key element

  • 1-March-2013

    English

    Stakeholder Confidence in Radioactive Waste Management - An Annotated Glossary of Key Terms

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) Annotated Glossary is a review of concepts central to societal decision making about radioactive waste management. It records the evolution in understanding that has taken place in the group as the FSC has worked with these concepts over time. This should be a useful resource not only for new FSC participants but also for others: this annotated glossary

  • 24-September-2013

    English

    Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Future fuel cycle characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial for the continued development of nuclear energy, especially in the post-Fukushima context. Fuel cycle choices have both long- and short-term impacts, and a holistic assessment of their characteristics, cost and associated safety issues is of paramount importance. This report associates quantified impacts with foreseeable nuclear energy development in

  • 24-September-2013

    English

    Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4) - Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires

    The International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving national and international response arrangements for nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. Early INEX exercises focused on the national and international aspects of early phase management of nuclear

  • 29-April-2014

    English

    Innovation and Modernising the Rural Economy

    This publication is a result of the discussions from the OECD 8th Rural Development Policy Conference: "Innovation and modernising the rural economy" which took place in Krasnoyarsk, Russia on 3-5 October 2012. It provides an overview of the two themes of modernisation and innovation, focusing on identifying the attributes of the modern rural economy and showing how it differs from the traditional rural economy and from

  • 16-October-2013

    English

    Energy Efficiency - Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects

    Energy efficiency has been referred to as a “hidden fuel”, one that extends energy supplies, increases energy security, lowers carbon emissions and generally supports sustainable economic growth. Yet it is hiding in plain sight: in 2011, investments in the energy efficiency market globally were at a similar scale to those in renewable energy or fossil-fuel power generation.

    The Energy Efficiency Market Report

  • 28-March-2014

    English

    Pomegranate

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. This is the first OECD brochure which is based on a Codex Standard. It interprets the first international standard on pomegranates, which was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2013. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform

  • 11-June-2014

    English

    Ageing and Employment Policies: France 2014 - Working Better with Age

    People today are living longer than ever before, while birth rates are dropping in the majority of OECD countries. In such demographics, public social expenditures require to be adequate and sustainable in the long term. Older workers play a crucial role in the labour market. Now that legal retirement ages are rising, older workers will work longer and employers will have to retain them. But those older workers who have lost their

  • 28-April-2014

    English

    Secure and Efficient Electricity Supply - During the Transition to Low Carbon Power Systems

    Electricity shortages can paralyse our modern economies. All governments fear rolling black-outs and their economic consequences, especially in economies increasingly based on digital technologies.

    Over the last two decades, the development of markets for power has produced cost reduction, technological innovation, increased cross border trade and assured a steady supply of electricity. Now, IEA countries face the challenge

  • 28-April-2014

    English

    Energy Technology Initiatives 2013 - Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change cost-effectively are key global challenges. Tackling these issues will require efforts from stakeholders worldwide. To find solutions, the public and private sectors must work together, sharing burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes.

    Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA

  • 10-January-2014

    English

    Regulatory Policy and Behavioural Economics

    Over the past five years, behavioural economics has been rapidly propelled from the margins of economic analysis towards the policy mainstream. In this context, this study offers an international review of the initial applications of behavioural economics to policy, with a particular focus on regulatory policy. It describes the extent to which behavioural findings have begun to influence public policy in a number of OECD countries,

  • 24-July-2014

    English

    Tourism and the Creative Economy

    As the significance of the creative economy continues to grow, important synergies with tourism are emerging, offering considerable potential to grow demand and develop new products, experiences and markets.These new links are driving a shift from conventional models of cultural tourism to new models of creative tourism based on intangible culture and contemporary creativity. This report examines the growing relationship between

  • 3-February-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Australia

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Australia focuses on the role of local employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity. It looks at the role of Local Employment Coordinators, introduced by the Department of Employment to work in 20 "priority employment areas" which were identified as needing extra assistance following the global financial crisis. This report is part of a comparative OECD review

  • 27-March-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Ireland

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Ireland focuses on the role of local employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity. This report looks at the range of institutions and bodies involved in employment and skills policies, focusing on local activities in the Dublin and South East regions. It can help national, regional and local policy makers in Ireland build effective and sustainable partnerships

  • 26-February-2014

    English

    The Power of Transformation - Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems

    Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while

  • 16-April-2014

    English

    Ageing and Employment Policies: Netherlands 2014 - Working Better with Age

    Given the ageing challenges, there is an increasing pressure in OECD countries to further boost the employability of the working-age population over the coming decades. This report provides an overview of policy iniatives implemented over the past decade in the Netherlands and identifies areas where more should be done, covering both supply-side and demand-side aspects. To give better incentives to carry on working, the report

  • 10-April-2014

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Colombia 2014

    This report is the first OECD review of Colombia’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on waste and chemicals management and policies that promote more effective and efficient protection and sustainable use of biodiversity.

  • 7-January-2014

    English

    The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    The feasibility and costs of spent nuclear fuel management and the consequent disposal of ultimate waste continue to be the subject of public debate in many countries, with particular concern often expressed over the lack of progress in implementing final disposal. Uncertainties about back-end costs and the financial risks associated with management of the back end have also been singled out as possible deterrents to investment in

  • 7-January-2014

    English

    Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors - A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems

    A modern light water reactor (LWR) of 1 GWe capacity will typically discharge about 20-25 tonnes of irradiated fuel (spent fuel) per year of operation. Despite the low content of about 0.1-0.2% of minor actinides in spent fuel, these actinides can nonetheless contribute significantly to decay heat loading and neutron output, as well as to the overall radiotoxic hazard of spent fuel. For this reason, there has long been an interest

  • 7-January-2014

    English

    Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF-11 - Workshop Proceedings, Tsukuba, Japan, 11-13 September 2012

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines and are having an increasingly important impact on research, technology and daily life. Today, they have a wide range of applications in many areas including material science and medical applications. In recent years, new technological and research applications have helped to define requirements while the number of accelerator

  • 7-January-2014

    English

    Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Materials performance is critical to the safe and economic operation of any nuclear system. As the international community pursues the development of Generation IV reactor concepts and accelerator driven transmutation systems, it will be increasingly necessary to develop advanced materials capable of tolerating the more challenging environments of these new systems. The international community supports numerous materials research

  • 13-February-2014

    English

    Greener Skills and Jobs

    Green skills, that is, skills needed in a low-carbon economy, will be required in all sectors and at all levels in the workforce as emerging economic activities create new (or renewed) occupations. Structural changes will realign sectors that are likely to decline as a result of the greening of the economy and workers will need to be retrained accordingly. The successful transition to a low-carbon economy will only be possible if

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Seine Basin, Île-de-France, 2014: Resilience to Major Floods

    This study examines flood risk prevention of the Seine in the Ile-de-France region. It highlights the impacts a major flood, like the one in 1910, could have on the well-being of citizens, city management and the economy.

  • 31-March-2015

    English

    OECD Integrity Review of Tunisia´s Audit System - Managing Risk in Public Institutions

    This report, from the OECD-MENA Governance Programme, reviews the Tunisian government’s current public audit and risk management system. It acknowledges that Tunisia is already engaged in a discussion on reforms and considers available resources and existing operational structures in its recommendations. The report highlights priority areas for the reform process, presenting recommendations on how to progressively improve risk

  • 18-April-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

    This book focuses on the role of employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity in Northern Ireland. It explores how Northern Ireland is  implementing labour market and skills policy and putting measures in place at the local level to stimulate quality employment, inclusion and growth.

  • 21-May-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in the Czech Republic

    This review looks at a range of institutions and bodies involved in employment and skills policies in the Czech Republic, focusing on local strategies on the Ústí nad Labem and South Moravian regions.

  • 18-June-2014

    English

    Climate Change, Water and Agriculture - Towards Resilient Systems

    This report reviews the main linkages between climate change, water and agriculture as a means to identifying and discussing adaptation strategies for better use and conservation of water resources. It aims to provide guidance to decision makers on choosing an appropriate mix of policies and market approaches to address the interaction between agriculture and water systems under climate change.

  • 18-July-2014

    English

    Nanotechnology and Tyres - Greening Industry and Transport

    New nanomaterials offer promising avenues for future innovation, which can contribute towards the sustainability and resource efficiency of the tyre industry. Yet uncertainty over environmental health and safety (EHS) risks appears to be a main and continuous concern for the development of new nanomaterials in tyre production, even for those closest to market. Lack of sector-specific guidance represents a major gap.

    This

  • 3-April-2014

    English

    Making Development Co-operation More Effective - 2014 Progress Report

    In 2011 the international development community committed to make development co-operation more effective to deliver better results for the world’s poor. At the mid-point between commitments endorsed in the High-Level Forum in Busan, Korea in 2011 and the 2015 target date of the Millennium Development Goals,  this report takes stock of how far we have come and where urgent challenges lie.

    This report - a first snapshot of

  • 11-June-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Canada

    This report delivers evidence-based and practical recommendations on how to better support employment and economic development in Canada. It builds on sub-national data analysis and consultations with local stakeholders in four case study areas across Ontario and Quebec. It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in contributing to more and better quality jobs. The report can help federal,

  • 18-September-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in the United States

    How to stimulate growth and support job creation are two critical challenges that countries confront following the global financial crisis. The Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme of the OECD has developed international cross-comparative reviews on local job creation policies to examine the contribution of local labour market policy to boosting quality employment. Each country review examines the capacity of

  • 14-August-2014

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Uruguay - Volume 1: Initial Assessment

    Uruguay has made remarkable progress over the past decade. Stable macroeconomic policies and a favourable external environment have permitted brisk growth and the financing of social policies. Substantial improvements in several dimensions of human well-being have occurred during this period, alongside considerable reductions in external risks. The conditions ahead, however, may present challenges to maintaining performance.

    Also Available
  • 22-April-2014

    English

    Climate Resilience in Development Planning - Experiences in Colombia and Ethiopia

    Climate-related disasters have inflicted increasingly high losses on developing countries, and with climate change, these losses are likely to worsen. Improving country resilience against climate risks is therefore vital for achieving poverty reduction and economic development goals.

    This report discusses the current state of knowledge on how to build climate resilience in developing countries. It argues that

  • 9-April-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Austria 2014

    The International Energy Agency's 2014 review of Austria’s energy policy analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It finds that Austria's energy policy  rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.

    The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable

  • 2-February-2015

    English

    A Skills beyond School Review of Egypt

    Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. This report on Egypt examines what type of training is needed to meet the needs of a changing economy,  how programmes should be funded,  how theyshould be linked to academic and university programmes and how employers and unions can be engaged.  The country reports in this series look at these and other questions.

  • 21-May-2014

    English

    The Cost of Air Pollution - Health Impacts of Road Transport

    Outdoor air pollution kills more than 3 million people across the world every year, and causes health problems from asthma to heart disease for many more. This is costing societies very large amounts in terms of the value of lives lost and ill health. Based on extensive new epidemiological evidence since the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study, and OECD estimates of the Value of Statistical Life, this report provides evidence on

  • 22-April-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Netherlands 2014

    Since the last review in 2008, the Netherlands has attracted investment in oil and gas storage; coal, oil and gas import terminals; and efficient power plants. This additional capacity provides flexibility and energy security both in the Netherlands and across EU markets. However, the outlook for Europe’s second-largest producer of natural gas is challenging amid declining gas production and uncertain prospects for unconventional

  • 16-July-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Luxembourg 2014

    This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides recommendations for each sector. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future and the development of its 2030 energy strategy.

    It finds that since 2008, Luxembourg’s energy policy has focused on mitigating CO2 emissions in transport and industry and on supporting renewable energies and energy

  • 16-June-2014

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Russia 2014

    Russia holds among the world’s largest resources of gas, oil and coal. Its liquids production has reached historical highs, yet major additional upstream investments and technology upgrades will be needed to sustain these levels in the long term. Since the IEA’s last review of Russia’s energy policies in 2002, the power sector has also liberalised considerably. However, the Russian economy remains largely inefficient, with twice as

  • English

    Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2014

    As the supply revolution enters a new phase, oil’s role in the global energy mix is being redefined. More than ever, getting a handle on these developments is key to ensuring that energy security is maintained or enhanced, investment is appropriately targeted and resources are optimally leveraged. That makes the Medium-Term Oil Market Report's insights into the oil market for the next five years essential reading for

  • 28-March-2014

    English

    How2Guide for Wind Energy - Roadmap Development and Implementation

    This How2Guide for Wind Energy (Wind H2G) is designed to provide interested stakeholders from both government and industry with the necessary tools to plan and implement a roadmap for wind energy technology at the national or regional level.

  • 28-March-2014

    English

    Energy Storage

    This roadmap aims to increase understanding among a range of stakeholders of the applications that electricity and thermal energy storage technologies can be used for at different locations in the energy system. Emphasis is placed on storage technologies that are connected to a larger energy system (e.g. electricity grid), while a smaller portion of the discussion focuses on off-grid storage applications. This focus is complemented

  • 27-February-2015

    English

    Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure - Expanding Access to Clean Energy for Green Growth and Development

    This publication provides host country governments with guidance on the policy options that are available to make the most of investment opportunities in clean energy infrastructure, drawing on the expertise of climate and investment communities among others. It identifies key issues in investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, competition, financial markets, and public governance. It also addresses cross-cutting

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Netherlands 2014

    This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of the Netherlands, focusing on the role of government and including concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation and R&D performance.

     

     

  • 21-May-2014

    English

    Industry and Technology Policies in Korea

    The Korean innovation system is in many ways highly developed and has helped to underpin Korea’s rapid industrialisation. However, long-standing policy emphases on manufacturing and large firms are today in question. Structural problems - such as the relatively weak innovation performance of SMEs, a lagging services sector and limited domestic job creation among the industrial conglomerates - have led to a shift in policy

  • 9-December-2014

    English

    Shallots

    These guidelines published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. They include explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the Shallots Standard. This book illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. It therefore is a valuable tool for the

  • 7-July-2014

    English

    Melons

    This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the current melons standard. This new brochure illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. Thus, it is a valuable tool for

  • 24-November-2014

    English

    Science, Technology and Innovation in Viet Nam

    This book offers a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of Viet Nam, focusing on the role of government and providing concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation and R&D performance.

  • 18-June-2014

    English

    The 2012 Labour Market Reform in Spain - A Preliminary Assessment

    This report provides an initial evaluation of the comprehensive reform of the Spanish labour market undertaken in 2012. It describes the key components of the 2012 reform and places them in the context of the evolution of labour market institutions in other OECD member countries, with a particular focus on collective bargaining and employment protection legislation. The report also assesses the impact of the reform on the ability

  • 28-November-2014

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Sweden 2014

    This report is the third OECD review of Sweden’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on Sweden's longstanding commitment to mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases and its management of marine ecosystem services and water.
     

    Also Available
  • 18-November-2014

    English

    Italy: Key Issues and Policies

    This review underlines some important points of strength with respect to Italian SMEs and entrepreneurship, notably for medium-sized firms that very often excel in their market niches, have a strong propensity to business collaboration, as well as favourable access to finance. The review also looks at the challenges that lie ahead for Italy, hard hit by the global economic crisis, notably among micro and small firms. Recovery will

  • 4-September-2014

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Iceland 2014

    This report is the third OECD review of Iceland’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on the environmental aspects of Iceland's energy and tourism policies.

  • 27-November-2014

    English

    Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 3 - Implementing the OECD Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying

    This report takes stock of progress made in implementing the 2010 Recommendation on Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying – the only international instrument addressing major risks in the public decision-making process related to lobbying. The review process found that although there is an emerging consensus on the need for transparency to shed light on lobbying, new regulations are often scandal-driven instead of

  • 2-October-2014

    English

    How Was Life? - Global Well-being since 1820

    How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality.

  • 20-October-2014

    English

    Understanding National Accounts - Second Edition

    This second edition of Understanding National Accounts, that provides a comprehensive explanation of how national accounts are compiled, contains new data and new chapters, and is adapted to the new systems of national accounts, SNA 2008 and ESA 2010, that came into effect in September 2014. It approaches national accounts from a truly global perspective, with special chapters dedicated to international comparisons,

  • 13-November-2014

    English

    Skills beyond School - Synthesis Report

    Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. What type of training is needed to meet the needs of changing economies? How should the programmes be funded? How should they be linked to academic and university programmes? How can employers and unions be engaged? This report synthesises the findings of the series of  country reports done on skills beyond school.

    Also Available
  • 7-July-2014

    English

    Jobs for Immigrants (Vol. 4) - Labour Market Integration in Italy

    Until the mid-1990s, the share of migrants in Italy was relatively low in international comparison. With a persistent demand for foreign workers in low-skilled and low-paid jobs, the proximity of conflict areas and the enlargement of the European Union to Romania and Bulgaria in 2007, migration to Italy increased rapidly over the last 15 years. This report presents an overview of the skills and qualifications of immigrants in

    Also Available
  • 19-November-2014

    English

    Job Creation and Local Economic Development

    This publication highlights new evidence on policies to support job creation, bringing together the latest research on labour market, entrepreneurship and local economic development policy to help governments support job creation in the recovery. It  also includes  a set of country pages featuring, among other things, new data on skills supply and demand at the level of smaller OECD regions (TL3).

    This publication is the

  • 5-June-2014

    English

    Trade Policy in Asia: Higher Education and Media Services

    Education and media services both provide services that embody local cultures, in which there is extensive public sector participation and significant domestic regulation. At the same time, they are dramatically affected by the information and communication technology revolution. The production of information content now involves huge costs in terms of research and development or artistic talent, while the cost of making such

  • 17-July-2014

    English

    Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2014

    This volume contains data on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste. Complete data are available for 2011 and 2012 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e. 2013). Historical tables summarise data on production, trade and  final consumption. The book also includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Energy Balances of non-OECD Countries 2014

    This volume contains data for 2011 and 2012 on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances. Data are expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent for over 100 non-OECD countries.

    Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. These tables also include

  • 6-February-2015

    English

    Nuclear Energy Data 2014

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2014

    This volume contains data for 2011 and 2012 on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste for over 100 non-OECD countries. Historical tables summarise data on production, trade, final consumption and oil demand by product. These tables also include preliminary estimates of 2013 production (and trade when available) for natural gas, primary coal and oil. The

  • 10-December-2014

    English

    Revenue Statistics 2014

    Data on government sector receipts, and on taxes in particular, are basic inputs to most structural economic descriptions and economic analyses and are increasingly used in international comparisons. This annual publication presents a unique set of detailed and internationally comparable tax data in a common format for all OECD countries from 1965 onwards. It also gives a conceptual framework to define which government receipts

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Annual Report on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 2014 - Responsible Business Conduct by Sector

    This 14th annual report on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises describes the activities undertaken to promote the observance of the Guidelines during the implementation cycle of June 2013-June 2014. This includes work on due diligence in the financial and extractive sectors, as well as along agricultural supply chains, strengthened co-operation with non-adhering countries, the outcomes of the 2nd Global Forum

  • 11-July-2014

    English

    OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2014

    This twentieth edition of the Agricultural Outlook, and the tenth prepared jointly with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), provides market projections to 2023 for major agricultural commodities, biofuels and fish across 41 countries and 12 regions: OECD member countries (European Union as a region), key non-OECD agricultural producers (such as India, China, Brazil, Russian Federation and Argentina) and groups of

    Also Available
  • 3-September-2014

    English

    OECD Employment Outlook 2014

    The OECD Employment Outlook 2014 marks the 20th Anniversary of the OECD Jobs Strategy and includes chapters on recent labour market developments with a special section on earnings/wages, job quality, youth employment, unemployment and unemployment rates, and forms of employment and employment protection. As in previous editions, the 2014 OECD Employment Outlook monitors recent labour market developments in OECD

    Also Available
  • 12-November-2014

    English

    OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014

    The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policies, and performance in more than 45 economies, including OECD countries and major emerging economies. The report draws on the latest OECD work on science and innovation policy analysis and measurement.

    Following an overview of the STI global landscape and policy trends, key policy issues are

    Also Available
  • 11-July-2013

    English

    OECD Communications Outlook 2013

    Published every two years, the OECD Communications Outlook provides an extensive range of indicators for the development of different communications networks and compares performance indicators such as  revenue, investment, employment and prices for service throughout the OECD area. These indicators are essential for industry and regulators who use benchmarking to evaluate policy performance.

    This edition is based on data

  • 16-January-2015

    English

    Energy Prices and Taxes - Volume 2014 Issue 4

    This quarterly report contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main oil products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies

  • 8-January-2015

    English

    Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Volume 2015 Issue 1

    This publication provides detailed and up-to-date quarterly statistics on oil, natural gas, coal and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas and coal show supply and trade. Oil and coal import and export data are reported by origin and destination.

  • 17-July-2014

    English

    Oil Information 2014

    This comprehensive reference book on current developments in oil supply and demand provides  key data on world production, trade, prices and consumption of major oil product groups, with time series back to the early 1970s. It also provides more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil supply, demand, trade, production and consumption by end-user for each OECD country individually and for the OECD regions. Trade data are reported

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Natural Gas Information 2014

    This detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covers not only OECD countries but also the rest of the world. It contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices. The main part of the book, however, concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed gas supply and demand balance for each individual country and for the three OECD regions, as well as a breakdown of gas

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Coal Information 2014

    Coal Information provides a comprehensive review of the historical and current market trends in the world coal sector, including 2013 preliminary data. An introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides a review of the world coal market in 2013, while Part III provides a statistical overview of developments, which covers world coal production and coal

  • 17-July-2014

    English

    Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2014

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2011 and 2012 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2013). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic

  • 10-December-2014

    English

    Consumption Tax Trends 2014 - VAT/GST and excise rates, trends and policy issues

    Consumption Tax Trends provides information on Value Added Tax/Goods and Services Tax (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries. It also contains information about indirect tax topics such as international aspects of VAT/GST developments in OECD member countries as well as in selected non-OECD economies, and describes a range of taxation provisions such as the taxation of motor vehicles, tobacco and alcoholic

  • 17-August-2012

    English

    Trends in the Transport Sector 2012

    This publication presents data on global trends in the transport sector with up-to-date figures on the impact of the recent economic crisis. In addition to highlighting major trends in the transport sector, this brochure provides the reader with the latest statistics on transport markets and on road safety in the International Transport Forum member countries for the period 1970-2010 for all modes of transport.

  • 1-December-2014

    English

    International Migration Outlook 2014

    This flagship publication on migration analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and selected non-OECD countries. This edition also contains two special chapters on "The labour market integration of immigrants and their children: developing, activating and using skills" and "Managing labour migration: Smart policies to support economic growth". It also includes Country notes and a

    Also Available
  • 22-November-2010

    English

    OECD Information Technology Outlook 2010

    Information technology (IT) and the Internet are major drivers of research, innovation, growth and social change. The 2010 edition of the OECD Information Technology Outlook analyses the economic crisis and recovery, and suggests that the outlook for IT goods and services industries is good after weathering a turbulent economic period better than during the crisis at the beginning of the 2000s. The industry continues to

  • 9-December-2014

    English

    Latin American Economic Outlook 2015 - Education, Skills and Innovation for Development

    The Latin American Economic Outlook is the OECD Development Centre’s annual analysis of economic developments in Latin America. It is produced in partnership with the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) as well as CAF, the development bank of Latin America. Each edition includes a detailed macroeconomic overview as well as analysis of how the global context is shaping economic

    Also Available
  • 13-November-2014

    English

    World Energy Outlook 2014

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first

  • 10-September-2014

    English

    Uranium 2014 - Resources, Production and Demand

    Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the

  • 23-February-2015

    English

    Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries 2015 - Disbursements, Commitments, Country Indicators

    This publication provides comprehensive data on the volume, origin and types of aid and other resource flows to around 150 developing countries. The data show each country's intake of official development assistance and well as other official and private funds from members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), multilateral agencies and other key donors. Key development indicators are given for reference.

  • 9-September-2014

    English

    Education at a Glance 2014 - Highlights

    Education at a Glance 2014: Highlights summarises the OECD’s flagship compendium of education statistics, Education at a Glance. It provides easily accessible data on key topics in education today, including:
    • Education levels and student numbers: How far have adults studied, and how does early childhood education affect student performance later on?
    • Higher education and work: How many young people

  • 7-March-2014

    English

    OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2014

    This report provides comparative knowledge, both policy and data, through thematic chapters and country-specific policy and statistical profiles. The report highlights key tourism policy developments, focuses on issues that rank high on the policy agenda in the field of tourism and provides a broad overview and interpretation of tourism trends in the OECD area and beyond. The 2014 edition focuses on tourism and growth, and covers

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Electricity Information 2014

    Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector, including 2013 preliminary data.

    An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the world electricity developments in 2012 covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and

  • 12-May-2014

    English

    Energy Technology Perspectives 2014

    Starting from the premise that electricity will be an increasingly important vector in energy systems of the future, Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 (ETP 2014) takes a deep dive into actions needed to support deployment of sustainable options for generation, distribution and end-use consumption. In addition to modelling the global outlook to 2050 under different scenarios for more than 500 technology options,

  • 25-March-2010

    English

    Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2010

    This joint IEA/NEA report on electricity generating costs presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas (with and without carbon capture), nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power (CHP).  It provides levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) per MWh for almost 200 plants, based on data covering 21 countries

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Renewables Information 2014

    Renewables Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in OECD countries, including 2013 preliminary data. An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the development of renewables and waste in the world over the 1990 to 2012 period. A greater focus is given to the OECD countries with a review of

  • 11-February-2015

    English

    Main Economic Indicators - Volume 2015 Issue 2

    The monthly Main Economic Indicators (MEI) presents comparative statistics that provide an overview of recent international economic developments for the 34 OECD countries, the euro zone and a number of non-member economies. This indispensable and unique source of key short-term statistics is a vehicle for analysis for corporate planners, economists, academics, researchers and students. Using the most up-to-date,

  • 17-January-2014

    English

    Highlights of the International Transport Forum 2013 - Funding Transport: Session Summaries

    Demand for mobility around the globe is growing rapidly. Motorisation in emerging economies continues at breath-taking pace, with the number of motor vehicles on the world’s streets rising, according to some estimates, from just over 1 billion today to 2 billion in 2020. Air passenger travel could double, air freight could triple and container handling in ports could quadruple within the next 15 years or so, according to OECD

    Also Available
  • 1-December-2014

    English

    International Trade by Commodity Statistics - Volume 2014 Issue 5

    This reliable source of yearly data covers a wide range of statistics on international trade of OECD countries and provides detailed data in value by commodity and by partner country. Each of the first four volumes of International Trade by Commodity Statistics contains the tables for seven countries, published in the order in which they become available. The fifth volume contains the tables for the remaining six countries, OECD

  • 12-January-2015

    English

    Quarterly National Accounts - Volume 2014 Issue 3

    The OECD’s Quarterly National Accounts contains a selection of the accounts most widely used by economic analysts: GDP by expenditure and by industry, gross fixed capital formation by asset, gross fixed capital formation by institutional sector, and components of disposable income are all shown at both current and constant prices. Saving and Net lending and GDP by income at current prices are also provided as well as

  • 5-November-2014

    English

    CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2014

    In recognition of fundamental changes in the way governments approach energy-related environmental issues, the IEA has prepared this publication on CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. This annual publication was first published in 1997 and has become an essential tool for analysts and policy makers in many international fora such as the Conference of the Parties. The twentieth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate

  • 11-April-2014

    English

    National Accounts at a Glance 2014

    National Accounts at a Glance presents information using an "indicator" approach, focusing on cross-country comparisons. The aim being to make the national accounts more accessible and informative, whilst, at the same time, taking the opportunity to present the conceptual underpinning of, and comparability issues inherent in, each of the indicators presented.

    The range of indicators reflects the richness inherent

  • 24-September-2014

    English

    Key World Energy Statistics 2014

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful.

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources.

    The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Australian

  • 31-July-2014

    English

    National Accounts of OECD Countries - Volume 2014 Issue 2

    The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Detailed Tables includes, in addition to main aggregates including GDP, final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, household debt, simplified accounts for three main sectors: general government, corporations and households. Data are shown for 34 OECD countries and the Euro area back to 2005. Country tables are expressed in national currency. Data are based on the System

  • 3-April-2014

    English

    National Accounts of OECD Countries, Financial Balance Sheets 2013

    The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Financial Balance Sheets includes financial stocks (both financial assets and liabilities), by institutional sector (non-financial corporations, financial corporations, general government, households and non-profit institutions serving households, total economy and rest of the world) and by financial instrument.

    The data in this publication are also available in database

  • 6-May-2014

    English

    National Accounts of OECD Countries, General Government Accounts 2013

    The 2013 edition of National Accounts of OECD Countries: General Government Accounts is an annual publication, dedicated to government finance which is based on the System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 1993). It includes tables showing government aggregates and balances for the production, income and financial accounts as well as detailed tax and social contribution receipts and a breakdown of expenditure of general government by

  • 4-September-2014

    English

    Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2014 - OECD Countries

    This edition of Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation covers OECD member countries and is a unique source of up-to-date estimates of support to agriculture in the OECD area. It is complemented by country profiles on agricultural policy developments in OECD countries.

    This book finds that while overall producer support in the OECD area continues to slowly decline, differences in support levels across OECD countries

  • 8-July-2013

    English

    Aid for Trade at a Glance 2013 - Connecting to Value Chains

    This joint OECD-WTO publication puts a spotlight on aid for trade to assess what is happening, what is not, and where improvements are needed. The analysis is focused on trends in aid-for-trade policies, programmes and practices. It shows that the Aid-for-Trade Initiative is delivering tangible results in improving trade performance and bettering people’s lives, notably those of women, in developing countries.

    The report

  • 15-January-2015

    English

    OECD Institutional Investors Statistics 2014

    Institutional investors (investment funds, insurance companies and pension funds) are major collectors of savings and suppliers of funds to financial markets. Their role as financial intermediaries and their impact on investment strategies have grown significantly over recent years along with deregulation and globalisation of financial markets.

    This publication provides a unique set of statistics that reflect the level and

  • 14-November-2013

    English

    OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2013

    Productivity is a key source of economic growth and competitiveness and, as such, we need internationally comparable measures for assessing economic performance. The OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2013 presents a comprehensive overview of recent and longer term trends in productivity levels and growth in OECD countries. It also highlights some of the key measurement issues faced when compiling cross-country

  • 23-December-2013

    English

    OECD Review of Fisheries: Policies and Summary Statistics 2013

    This Review contains a General Survey of Policy Developments based on material submitted by OECD member countries, information gathered on observer and enhanced engagement countries, and an overview of recent activities of the Committee of Fisheries. Finally, it contains Country Notes on the state of fisheries in OECD and observer countries.

  • 6-November-2014

    English

    OECD Statistics on International Trade in Services - Volume 2014 Issue 2

    This OECD publication provides statistics on international trade in services by partner country for 32 OECD countries plus the European Union, the Euro area, and the Russian Federation as well as links to definitions and methodological notes. The data concern trade between residents and non-residents of countries and are reported within the framework of the Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services.

    This book

  • 15-July-2014

    English

    Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2014

    This fourth edition of Entrepreneurship at a Glance presents an original collection of indicators for measuring the state of entrepreneurship and its determinants, produced by the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme. The 2014 edition contains new indicators at the regional level, and a thematic chapter on innovation activities by firms of different size.

  • 27-November-2014

    English

    Health at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2014 - Measuring Progress towards Universal Health Coverage

    This third edition of Health at a Glance Asia/Pacific presents a set of key indicators of health status, the determinants of health, health care resources and utilisation, health care expenditure and financing and health care quality across 27 Asia/Pacific countries and economies. Drawing on a wide range of data sources, it builds on the format used in previous editions of Health at a Glance, and gives readers a better

  • 3-December-2014

    English

    Health at a Glance: Europe 2014

    This third edition of Health at a Glance: Europe presents a set of key indicators related to health status, determinants of health, health care resources and activities, quality of care, access to care, and health expenditure and financing in 35 European countries, including the 28 European Union member states, four candidate countries and three EFTA countries. The selection of indicators is based largely on the European Core

  • 27-February-2015

    English

    OECD Review of Fisheries: Country Statistics 2014

    This publication contains statistics on fisheries in OECD member countries (with the exception of Austria, Israel and Slovenia) and some non-member economies (Argentina, Colombia, Latvia, Chinese Taipei, Thailand) from 2006 to 2013. Data provided concern fishing fleet capacity, employment in fisheries, fish landings, aquaculture production, recreational fisheries, government financial transfers, and imports and exports of fish.

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2014 - An OECD Scoreboard

    Start-ups and small firms continue to face significant obstacles to fulfilling their potential to innovate, grow and create jobs, particularly when it comes to obtaining access to finance. With its 13 core indicators of debt, equity and general market conditions, complemented by a review of government policy measures, Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2014: An OECD Scoreboard documents these financing difficulties and

  • 11-June-2014

    English

    Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2014

    The IEA Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2014 gives a detailed analysis of demand, supply and trade developments as well as infrastructure investments to meet the 2.2% annual growth in gas demand expected through 2019. It investigates the important changes that will transform the industry: rising regional disparities between gas-hungry regions such as China and the Middle East against weakening growth in the Former Soviet

  • 28-August-2014

    English

    Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014

    The Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014 assesses market trends for renewables in the electricity, transport and heat sectors, identifying drivers and challenges to deployment, and making projections through 2020. The report presents for the first time an investment outlook for renewable power capacity, in addition to projections for renewable electricity technologies, a global biofuels supply forecast and extended

  • 15-December-2014

    English

    Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2014

    The Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2014 provides IEA forecasts on coal markets for the coming five years as well as an in-depth analysis of recent developments in global coal demand, supply and trade. The fourth annual report shows that, while China will continue to dominate global coal markets between now and the end of the decade, India and Southeast Asia will also drive coal demand growth, although on a smaller

  • 5-February-2015

    English

    OECD Insurance Statistics 2014

    This annual publication provides major official insurance statistics. The reader will find information on the diverse activities of this industry and on international insurance market trends. The data, which are standardised as far as possible, are broken down under numerous sub-headings, and a series of indicators makes the characteristics of the national markets more readily comprehensible.

  • 5-November-2013

    English

    How's Life? 2013 - Measuring Well-being

    Every person aspires to a good life. But what does “a good or a better life” mean? The second edition of How’s Life? provides an update on  the most important aspects that shape people’s lives and well-being: income, jobs, housing, health, work-life balance, education, social connections, civic engagement and governance, environment, personal security and subjective well-being. It paints a comprehensive picture of

    Also Available
  • 5-November-2013

    English

    Pensions at a Glance Asia/Pacific 2013

    Pensions are a major policy issue in developed and developing countries alike. However, pension reform is challenging and controversial because it involves long-term planning by governments faced with numerous short-term pressures. It often provokes heated debates and, sometimes, street protests.

    Countries can learn valuable lessons from others’ pension systems and their experiences of retirement-income reforms. However,

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2015 - Strengthening Institutional Capacity

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is an annual publication on Asia’s regional economic growth, development and regional integration process. It focuses on the economic conditions of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries  – Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam –, and also addresses relevant

  • 10-February-2015

    English

    Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2015

    The recent oil market sell‑off, brought on by deep imbalances after years of record-high prices, will likely prove a milestone in the history of oil.  However prices eventually evolve, markets may never be the same.  This edition of the Medium-Term Oil Market Report sizes up the magnitude of this transformation so far and sketches the oil landscape at the 2020 horizon.

    It is not just oil price signals that have

  • 2-October-2014

    English

    Road Safety Annual Report 2014

    The IRTAD Annual Report 2014 provides an overview of road safety indicators for 2012 in 38 countries, with preliminary data for 2013, and detailed reports for each country. The report outlines the crash data collection process in IRTAD countries, describes the road safety strategies and existing targets, and provides detailed safety data by road user, location and age together with information on recent trends in speeding,

  • 31-October-2014

    English

    Society at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2014

    This is the third edition of Society at a Glance Asia/Pacific, a regularly updated OECD overview of social indicators, which addresses the growing demand for quantitative evidence on social well-being and its trends. This report starts with an introductory chapter providing a guide to help readers understanding the OECD Social Indicator framework. Chapters 2 and three are special thematic chapters to address two

  • 5-June-2014

    English

    Energy Efficiency Indicators - Essentials for Policy Making

    Energy efficiency is widely recognised as the most cost-effective and readily available means to address numerous energy-related issues, including energy security, the social and economic impacts of high energy prices, and concerns about climate change. At the same time, energy efficiency increases competitiveness and promotes consumer welfare. In this context, it is important to develop and maintain well-founded indicators to

  • 5-June-2014

    English

    Energy Efficiency Indicators - Fundamentals on Statistics

    Energy efficiency is high on the political agenda as governments seek to reduce wasteful energy consumption, strengthen energy security and cut greenhouse gas emissions. However, the lack of data for developing proper indicators to measure energy efficiency often prevents countries from transforming declarations into actions.

    This manual identifies the main sectoral indicators and the data needed to develop these

  • 3-November-2014

    English

    Regional Perspectives on Aid for Trade

    Deepening economic integration via regional co-operation has emerged as a key priority in the reform strategies of most developing economies over the past decade. This is evidenced by the explosive growth in bilateral and regional trading agreements in which they now participate. Regional aid for trade can help developing countries spur regional economic integration, enhance competitiveness, and plug into regional production

  • 20-June-2014

    English

    Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining

    Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years. By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, this report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes committed primarily during the early

  • 25-June-2014

    English

    A Teachers' Guide to TALIS 2013 - Teaching and Learning International Survey

    This publication not only presents the main results of TALIS 2013, it also takes those findings and, backed by the research literature on education and the large body of OECD work on education, offers insights and advice to teachers and school leaders on how they can improve teaching and learning in their schools. It is both a guide through TALIS and a handbook for building excellence into teaching.

    Also Available
  • 23-October-2014

    English

    The Space Economy at a Glance 2014

    The space sector plays an increasingly pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development as the use of satellite technology gives rise to new applications, uses and markets. Space Economy at a Glance offers a statistical overview of the global space sector and its contributions to economic activity using data from over 40 countries with space programmes, and identifies new dynamics in the

  • 6-October-2014

    English

    How's Life in Your Region? - Measuring Regional and Local Well-being for Policy Making

    How’s life? The answer can depend on the region in which you live. Many factors that influence people’s well-being are local issues, such as employment, access to health services, pollution and security. Policies that take into account regional differences beyond national averages can therefore have a greater impact on improving well-being for the country as a whole.

    This report presents the OECD analytical framework for

  • 8-October-2014

    English

    Energy Efficiency Market Report 2014

    The evidence is clear: energy efficiency has played, and continues to play, a large and valuable role in the sustainable development of the global economy. The energy demand that is avoided as a result of steady improvements in the efficiency of energy-using stock such as buildings, cars and appliances is larger than the total final consumption from coal, oil or gas in IEA member countries.

    The market for energy efficiency

  • 19-August-2014

    English

    Energy Supply Security 2014 - Emergency Response of IEA Countries

    Ensuring energy security is a core responsibility of the International Energy Agency and a priority for its member countries. To this end, the ability to respond quickly and effectively in the event of a supply disruption is essential. Energy Supply Security 2014: The Emergency Response of IEA Countries provides an overview of the most recent oil and natural gas emergency policy reviews of the 29 IEA member countries as

  • 7-May-2015

    English

    All on Board - Making Inclusive Growth Happen

    All on Board: Making Inclusive Growth Happen puts forth a new approach to economic growth that goes beyond traditional monetary indicators and includes dimensions that reflect people's well-being. It introduces an analytical framework to assess economic growth based on a measurement of multidimensional living standards. The report also presents win-win policies that can deliver stronger growth and greater inclusiveness in

  • 16-July-2014

    English

    The Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator

    This regulatory guidance booklet describes the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator in terms of roles and responsibilities, principles and attributes. Each of the characteristics discussed in this report is a necessary feature of an effective nuclear safety regulator but no one characteristic is sufficient on its own. It is the combination of these characteristics that leads to the effectiveness of a nuclear

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Addressing the Tax Challenges of the Digital Economy

    The spread of the digital economy poses challenges for international taxation. This report sets out an analysis of these tax challenges. It notes that because the digital economy is increasingly becoming the economy itself, it would not be feasible to ring-fence the digital economy from the rest of the economy for tax purposes. The report notes, however, that certain business models and key features of the digital economy may

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Neutralising the Effects of Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements

    This report sets out recommendations for domestic rules to neutralise the effect of hybrid mismatch arrangements and includes changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention to address such arrangements. Once translated into domestic law, the recommendations in Part 1 of the report will neutralise the effect of cross-border hybrid mismatch arrangements that produce multiple deductions for a single expense or a deduction in one

    Also Available
  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Countering Harmful Tax Practices More Effectively, Taking into Account Transparency and Substance

    Preferential regimes continue to be a key pressure area in international taxation. The OECD’s 2013 BEPS report recognises that these need to be dealt with more effectively and the work of the Forum on Harmful Tax Practices (FHTP) needs to be refocused with an emphasis on substance and transparency. This is an interim report that sets out the progress made to date.

    Also Available
  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Preventing the Granting of Treaty Benefits in Inappropriate Circumstances

    This report includes proposed changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention to prevent treaty abuse. Countries participating in the BEPS Project have agreed on a minimum standard to prevent treaty shopping and other strategies aimed at obtaining inappropriately the benefit of certain provisions of tax treaties. The report also ensures that tax treaties do not inadvertently prevent the application of legitimate domestic anti-abuse rules.

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Guidance on Transfer Pricing Aspects of Intangibles

    This document contains revisions to the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines to align transfer pricing outcomes with value creation in the area of intangibles. The changes clarify the definition of intangibles and provide guidance for related parties; including transactions involving intangibles and the transfer pricing treatment of local market features and corporate synergies. Some transfer pricing issues relating to intangibles are

  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Guidance on Transfer Pricing Documentation and Country-by-Country Reporting

    This document contains revised standards for transfer pricing documentation and a template for country-by-country reporting of revenues, profits, taxes paid and certain measures of economic activity. These new reporting provisions, and the transparency they will encourage, will contribute to the objective of understanding, controlling, and tackling BEPS behaviours. Countries participating in the BEPS project will carefully review

    Also Available
  • 16-September-2014

    English

    Developing a Multilateral Instrument to Modify Bilateral Tax Treaties

    This report identifies the issues arising from the development of a multilateral instrument that modifies bilateral tax treaties. Without a mechanism for swift implementation, changes to model tax conventions only widen the gap between the content of these models and the content of actual tax treaties. Developing such a mechanism is necessary not only to tackle base erosion and profit shifting, but also to ensure the sustainability

  • 14-January-2015

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Myanmar - Volume 2. In-depth Analysis and Recommendations

    Building on an initial assessment of constraints to development in Myanmar (Volume 1), this second volume provides analysis and policy recommendations in three key areas: structural transformation, education and skills, and financing development. It finds that Myanmar faces a crucial few years to shape growth towards a higher, more sustainable and equitable trajectory. To succeed, it will require a transformation of the economy

  • 9-September-2014

    English

    Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency - A Guide to Quantifying the Value Added

    The traditional focus on energy savings as the main goal of energy efficiency policy has, at times, led to an underestimation of the full value of energy efficiency in both national and global economies. Energy efficiency can bring multiple benefits, such as enhancing the sustainability of the energy system, supporting strategic objectives for economic and social development, promoting environmental goals and increasing

  • 10-December-2014

    English

    Energy, Climate Change and Environment - 2014 Insights

    Policies that respond to climate change and other environmental issues will increasingly impact the development of the global energy sector. The transition to low-carbon economies will need to be carefully managed, as the provision of secure, affordable energy is critical for economic growth and social development. More than ever, there is a need for a fuller understanding of the opportunities to promote synergies between energy,

  • 8-December-2014

    English

    Measuring the Digital Economy - A New Perspective

    The growing role of the digital economy in daily life has heightened demand for new data and measurement tools. Internationally comparable and timely statistics combined with robust cross-country analyses are crucial to strengthen the evidence base for digital economy policy making, particularly in a context of rapid change. This report presents indicators traditionally used to monitor the information society and complements them

  • 9-December-2014

    English

    A Skills beyond School Review of Kazakhstan

    Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can workbased learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report on Kazakhstan looks at these and other questions.

  • 13-November-2014

    English

    A Skills beyond School Review of the Netherlands

    Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can workbased learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report on the Netherlands looks at these and other questions.

  • 24-August-2014

    English

    Nuclear Site Remediation and Restoration during Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations - A Report by the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes. Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This

  • 25-August-2014

    English

    R&D and Innovation Needs for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Nuclear decommissioning activities can greatly benefit from research and development (R&D) projects. This report examines applicable emergent technologies, current research efforts and innovation needs to build a base of knowledge regarding the status of decommissioning technology and R&D. This base knowledge can be used to obtain consensus on future R&D that is worth funding. It can also assist in deciding how to collaborate and

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Belize 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Belize.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Ghana 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Ghana.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Gibraltar 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Gibraltar.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal

  • 18-November-2014

    English

    OECD Rural Policy Reviews: Chile 2014

    This report looks at rural policy in Chile, examining the main trends in rural regions, policies and governance arrangements. It highlights the need to establish a national rural policy framework in Chile, in order to better coordinate the wide range of national policies and programmes currently targeting rural areas. It also investigates the evolving role of "rural" in development, highlighting the need to design rural policies in

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Grenada 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Grenada.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Israel 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Israel.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Russian Federation 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of the Russian Federation.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal

  • 29-October-2014

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of the Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on

  • 2-October-2014

    English

    Green Growth Indicators for Agriculture - A Preliminary Assessment

    An integral component of any green growth strategy is a highly-reliable set of measurement tools and indicators that would enable policy makers to evaluate how effective policies are, and to gauge the progress being achieved in shifting economic activity onto a greener path. These tools and indicators, which will need to be based on internationally comparable data, must also be embedded in a conceptual framework and selected

  • 24-October-2014

    English

    Tax Compliance by Design - Achieving Improved SME Tax Compliance by Adopting a System Perspective

    This study introduces the concept of “Tax Compliance by design”. It describes how revenue bodies can exploit developments in technology and the ways in which modern SMEs organise themselves to incorporate tax compliance into the systems businesses use to manage their financial affairs.

  • 24-October-2014

    English

    Measures of Tax Compliance Outcomes - A Practical Guide

    This study provides practical guidance to revenue bodies wishing to enhance and enrich their existing measures with timely measures of compliance outcomes. The study shares experiences of what has worked for revenue bodies, what challenges have been faced and how they might be overcome.

  • 24-October-2014

    English

    Working Smarter in Tax Debt Management

    Many revenue bodies have been developing strategies and approaches to improve the tax collection and recovery processes, so that they are more effective and cost less. Very promising and proven new practices have emerged, which can deliver spectacular improvements in performance in tax collection and recovery. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the best practices in tax debt management, with a particular emphasis on

  • 24-October-2014

    English

    Increasing Taxpayers' Use of Self-service Channels

    Building on prior work that resulted in the practical guide Managing Service Demand, this report explores the strategies revenue bodies can use to improve take-up of self-service channels in the context of a proposed future service experience for individuals, businesses and tax intermediaries.

  • 1-December-2014

    English

    Mental Health and Work: Netherlands

    Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on the Netherlands is the seventh in a series of reports

  • 28-October-2014

    English

    Critical Maths for Innovative Societies - The Role of Metacognitive Pedagogies

    How can mathematics education foster the skills that are appropriate for innovative societies? Mathematics education is heavily emphasised worldwide, nevertheless it is still considered to be a stumbling block for many students. While there is almost a consensus that mathematics problems appropriate for the 21st century should be complex, unfamiliar and non-routine (CUN), most of the textbooks still mainly include routine problems

  • 23-June-2011

    English

    The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes - The Path to Reliability

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes can delay or prevent important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99Mo-producing, research reactors and

  • 4-May-2012

    English

    Main Benefits from 30 Years of Joint Projects in Nuclear Safety

    One of the major achievements of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the knowledge it has helped to generate through the organisation of joint international research projects. Such projects, primarily in the areas of nuclear safety and radioactive waste management, enable interested countries, on a costsharing basis, to pursue research or the sharing of data with respect to particular areas or issues. Over the years, more than

  • 2-March-2012

    English

    International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations

    Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities can vary considerably in format, content and practice both within and across countries. These differences may have legitimate reasons but make the process of reviewing estimates complicated and the estimates themselves difficult to defend.  Hence, the joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European

  • 1-June-2012

    English

    Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation - Eleventh Information Exchange Meeting, San Francisco, California, USA, 1-4 November 2010

    In order to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P&T), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has been organising, since 1990, a series of biennial information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product P&T. These proceedings contain all the technical papers presented at the 11th Information Exchange Meeting, which was held on 1-4 November 2010 in San

  • 31-December-2012

    English

    Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Recycling of Transuranics in Fast Nuclear Reactors

    Fuel transuranics (TRU) multi-recycling is a mandatory feature if both the resource sustainability and the waste minimisation objectives for future fuel cycles are to be pursued. The resulting TRU transmutation can be implemented in fast neutron spectrum reactors according to two main options commonly referred to as the homogeneous and heterogeneous modes. In this study, the two alternatives have been compared in terms of reactor

  • 14-September-2012

    English

    Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review (Second Edition)

    Most of the current nuclear fuel safety criteria were established during the 1960s and early 1970s. Although these criteria were validated against experiments with fuel designs available at that time, a number of tests were based on unirradiated fuels. Additional verification was performed as these designs evolved, but mostly with the aim of showing that the new designs adequately complied with existing criteria, and not to

  • 21-September-2012

    English

    Challenges in Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants - Implications for Regulatory Bodies

    This document contains a compilation of consensus guidance for approval of long-term operation of nuclear power plants. This guidance is presented as fundamental and key principles that should govern decisions on authorisation for long-term operation. These principles allow for differences in national regulatory strategies and expectations while ensuring that safe performance can be achieved in long-term operation.

  • 18-June-2012

    English

    The Role of Nuclear Energy in a Low-carbon Energy Future

    This report assesses the role that nuclear energy can play in supporting the transition to a low-carbon energy system. It begins by considering the greenhouse gas emissions from the full nuclear fuel cycle, reviewing recent studies on indirect emissions and assessing the impact that nuclear power could make in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    The report provides estimates of the construction rates that would be needed to

  • 21-June-2012

    English

    Methods for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste - Outcomes of the NEA MeSA Initiative

    Safety assessment is an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the scientific understanding and performance assessment of safety functions as well as the hazards associated with a geological disposal facility. It forms a central part of the safety case, and the results of the safety assessments provide evidence to support decision making. The goals of the NEA project on “Methods for Safety Assessment for Geological Disposal

  • 7-May-2012

    English

    The Post-closure Radiological Safety Case for a Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden - An International Peer Review of the SKB License-application Study of March 2011

    Sweden is at the forefront among countries developing plans for a deep geological repository of highly radioactive waste. There is no such repository in operation yet worldwide, but Sweden, Finland and France are approaching the licensing stage. At the request of the Swedish government, the NEA organised an international peer review of the post-closure radiological safety case produced by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste

  • 31-December-2013

    English

    Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience - from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience

    This fifth report on nuclear power plant operating experience from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System covering the 2009-2011 period highlights important lessons learnt and is based on a review of the approximately 245 event reports received from the participating countries over this period.

  • 18-December-2012

    English

    The Long-term Radiological Safety of a Surface Disposal Facility for Low-level Waste in Belgium - An International Peer Review of Key Aspects of ONDRAF/NIRAS' Safety Report of November 2011 in Preparation for the License Application

    An important activity of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. This report provides an international peer review of the long-term safety strategy and assessment being developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, as part of the licence

  • 18-December-2012

    English

    The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes - Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convernt to using low-enriched uranium targetts for the production of 99Mo. This report describes the market impact of

  • 31-December-2012

    English

    Japan's Compensation System for Nuclear Damage - As Related to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, extraordinary efforts were undertaken in Japan to implement a compensation scheme for the proper and efficient indemnification of the affected victims. This publication provides English translations of key Japanese legislative and administrative texts and other implementing guidance, as well as several commentaries by Japanese experts in the field of third party

  • 19-December-2012

    English

    The Economics of Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce baseload power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched

  • 31-December-2012

    English

    Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin – Volume 12

    The Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin is based on a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of tin, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, carried out as part of NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III).  The database system developed at the OECD/NEA Data Bank ensures consistency not only within the recommended data sets of tin, but also among all the data sets published in this series.  This volume will be

  • 31-December-2012

    English

    Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS-2) - Workshop Proceedings, Daejon, Republic of Korea, 31 August-3 September 2010

    Materials research is a field of growing relevance for innovative nuclear systems, such as Generation IV reactors, critical and sub-critical transmutation systems and fusion devices. For these different systems, structural materials are selected or developed taking into account the pecificities of their foreseen operational environment. Since 2007, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has begun organising a series of workshops on

  • 3-October-2008

    English

    17th International ITF/OECD Symposium on Transport Economics and Policy: Benefiting from Globalisation - Transport Sector Contribution and Policy Challenges

    The opportunities for individuals and businesses to benefit from globalisation are increased by efficient, cost-effective transport networks. A competitive, responsive, well-organised transport sector facilitates trade, but creating the conditions for this poses policy challenges that must be tackled if transport is to contribute fully to globalisation. This was the main theme of the 17th ITF/OECD Symposium.

    These

  • 23-October-2008

    English

    Privatisation and Regulation of Urban Transit Systems

    Urban public transport services generally run at a large deficit. This has led public authorities to seek efficiencies, notably through private sector involvement. Support for the sector traditionally seeks to provide basic mobility services to all segments of society, including low-income users. Intervention is also required to manage the natural tendency towards concentration and market power in the provision of these transport

  • 17-December-2008

    English

    The Cost and Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions

    Transport sector policies already contribute to moderating greenhouse gas emissions from road vehicles. They are increasingly designed to contribute to overall societal targets to mitigate climate change. While abatement costs in transport are relatively high, there are plausible arguments in favour of further abatement in this sector. The empirical basis to decide upon combinations of fuel economy standards and fuel taxes,

  • 26-January-2009

    English

    Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health and Transport - Design with Everyone in Mind

    Cognitive impairment and mental health affect a large number of people, for whom the use of public transport can present a challenge. This book examines this neglected area, presenting various suggestions from transport staff training to better signage, clearer timetables, and increased staff presence to help build users' confidence.

  • 1-April-2009

    English

    Intermodal Transport - National Peer Review: Turkey

    Turkey’s continuing economic expansion depends on the diversification of its transport modes and especially on the development of efficient multimodal services. Its role as a hub for Europe, Asia, and the Middle East and as a facilitator of global exchange will be enhanced with a strategy and measures to support a range of intermodal logistic and transport services. This work analyses the current situation and sets forth some of the

  • 19-June-2009

    English

    Port Competition and Hinterland Connections

    This Round Table publication discusses the policy and regulatory challenges posed by the rapidly changing port environment. The sector has changed tremendously in recent decades with technological and organisational innovation and a powerful expansion of trade. Although ports serve hinterlands that now run deep into continents, competition among ports is increasingly intense and their bargaining power in the supply chain has

  • 28-April-2009

    English

    Terrorism and International Transport - Towards Risk-based Security Policy

    Security is critical to transport systems as they are often appealing targets for terrorist attacks. The significant costs of potential damage make effective security policies a key concern for transport decision makers. This Round Table examines the contribution economic analysis can make to improving security in aviation and maritime shipping by identifying methods for quantifying the benefits of security measures and

  • 4-May-2010

    English

    Improving Reliability on Surface Transport Networks

    Passengers and freight shippers alike want reliable transport services.  Surprisingly, little research has been undertaken in incorporating reliability into the assessment of transport projects despite the increasing importance of scheduling in economic activities.

    This report provides policy makers with a framework to understand reliability issues, to incorporate reliability into project assessment and to design reliability

  • 4-November-2009

    English

    Competitive Interaction between Airports, Airlines and High-Speed Rail

    How should airports be regulated to contain market power? This round table proceedings first examines whether they need to be regulated at all. It concludes that because regulation is inevitably imperfect and costly, policy makers should establish conditions for competition to emerge between airports in preference to comprehensive regulation, whenever possible.

    Economic regulation is sometimes necessary, such as when airports

  • 31-March-2010

    English

    Effective Transport Policies for Corporate Mobility Management

    Many companies and other large employers have put in place initiatives to address the traffic-related nuisances generated by their activities and, in particular, the traffic generated by their workers and customers. Such Corporate Mobility Management (CMM) initiatives are the focus of this report which investigates the success factors in individual best practice cases at the company level as well as the roles, if any, public

  • 26-February-2010

    English

    Integration and Competition between Transport and Logistics Businesses

    Some very large multinational transport and logistics firms have emerged to provide integrated transport services to shippers in the globalised economy. Do these firms escape regulatory oversight from national competition authorities because of their sheer scale? Do they pose additional threats to competition when they merge with or acquire other companies in the supply chain?

    The Round Table brought competition experts

  • 4-May-2010

    English

    The Future for Interurban Passenger Transport - Bringing Citizens Closer Together

    Economic growth, trade and the concentration of population in large cities will intensify demand for interurban transport services. Concurrently, the need to manage environmental impacts effectively will increase. How successful we are in coping with demand will depend on our ability to innovate, to manage congestion, and to improve the quality of transport services. Technological and regulatory innovation will shape the future of

  • 8-October-2010

    English

    Drugs and Driving - Detection and Deterrence

    Driving while impaired by drugs – whether licit or illicit – has emerged as an important road safety issue. This report provides a state-of-the-art review of the role and impact of drugs in road accident risk. It reviews the legislation, deterrence and roadside detection practices in member countries as well as preventative measures to combat drug use while driving. It provides recommendations on strategies to adopt in addressing

  • 4-October-2010

    English

    Safety and Regulatory Reform of Railways

    Does deregulation reduce rail safety? Many countries have envisaged or implemented pro-competitive regulatory reforms of their rail sectors. Concerns have been voiced regarding the impact of these reforms on rail safety performance, especially in cases of reforms that have privatised or deregulated state ownership and control of railways. This report addresses these concerns with a detailed investigation of pre- and post-reform rail

  • 31-August-2010

    English

    Implementing Congestion Charges

    Recent advances in the scientific understanding of urban traffic congestion have only strengthened the already solid case for congestion charges as an element of a successful urban transport policy. But examples of real-world congestion charging systems remain few and far between. What can be done to improve the chances of their more widespread adoption in practice? This report draws lessons from attempts to introduce congestion

  • 26-November-2010

    English

    Airport Regulation Investment and Development of Aviation

    Adequate airport capacity is crucial to allowing the global economy to grow. Present regulatory arrangements are not efficient because the airline and airport markets have changed enormously over recent years. There is scope to do much better.

    The challenge is to create conditions for efficient infrastructure development in a sector where in some circumstances some airports have market power and might abuse this position. It

  • 4-October-2010

    English

    Illustrated Glossary for Transport Statistics 4th Edition

    The Glossary for Transport Statistics was published for the first time in 1994 with the purpose of assisting member countries during the collection of data on transport using the Common Questionnaire developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the International Transport Forum and Eurostat.

    The Glossary is the result of continuing valuable co-operation between these three organisations

  • 19-April-2011

    English

    Moving Freight with Better Trucks - Improving Safety, Productivity and Sustainability

    This report identifies potential improvements in terms of more effective safety and environmental regulation for trucks, backed by better systems of enforcement, and  identifies opportunities for greater efficiency and higher productivity.

    The report is based on a review of literature, consultation among stakeholders, and research and analysis from working group members. It also presents the results of a comprehensive

  • 16-December-2010

    English

    Stimulating Low-Carbon Vehicle Technologies

    Governments around the world are increasingly intervening in automobile markets to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of CO2 from new vehicles. This report reviews the rationale for such intervention and examines measures for maximum effectiveness and minimum cost.

    The Round Table brought together economists, policy makers and auto engineers with the aim of advancing understanding of why car markets currently fail to

  • 6-April-2011

    English

    Improving the Practice of Transport Project Appraisal

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is indispensable for making good decisions on what transport projects to fund.  It essentially aims to figure out which projects offer the best value for money.  However, the practical relevance of CBA does not always live up to its appeal in principle.  One problem is that there is sometimes disagreement over what to include in CBA, both on the cost side and the benefits side of the analysis. As a

  • 17-May-2011

    English

    Better Economic Regulation - The Role of the Regulator

    Efficient provision of transport infrastructure is critical to economic growth. The long asset lives of much transport infrastructure indicates governance through regulation, rather than through contract or public ownership. This can ensure predictability in long-term relationships whilst preserving some flexibility to deal with changes in external circumstances.

    The transparency created by a fully independent regulator is

  • 13-August-2012

    English

    Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health

    Walking is the most natural form of mobility; however cities have not always evolved to accommodate the needs of pedestrians and walking has in many cases been neglected in the development of transport systems. Improving the pedestrian environment can contribute significantly to meeting the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health.

    This report aims to present decision-makers with hard evidence on the important

  • 8-November-2012

    English

    Sharing Road Safety - Developing an International Framework for Crash Modification Functions

    Each year about 1.3 million people are killed and another 50 million people are injured on roads worldwide. These road crashes cost countries between 1 and 3 percent of their GDP. Many of these crashes can be prevented by effective countermeasures. This report helps identify the most effective safety countermeasures.

    Policy makers need to justify expenditure on road safety in terms of effectiveness, competing for the scarce

  • 10-December-2013

    English

    ITF Transport Outlook 2013 - Funding Transport

    The ITF Transport Outlook 2013 presents and discusses global scenarios concerning the development of transport volumes through 2050. The analysis highlights the impact of alternative economic growth scenarios on passenger and freight flows and the consequences of rapid urbanisation outside the OECD . Under any scenario, transport volumes grow very strongly in non-OECD regions, and curbing negative side-effects (including

  • 26-September-2013

    English

    Better Regulation of Public-Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure

    Many governments seek to attract private finance for infrastructure through public-private partnerships (PPPs) in order to maintain investment at the same time as limiting public spending. Experience with PPPs has, however, been mixed. Some transport PPP projects have delivered major cost savings but many more have exceeded their budgets. PPPs are prone to overestimating revenues and when projects run into financial difficulty,

  • 23-December-2013

    English

    Long-run Trends in Car Use

    The growth of car use in several advanced economies has slowed down, stopped, or turned negative. The change can not be attributed to adverse economic conditions alone. Socio-demographic factors, including population ageing and changing patterns of education, working, and household composition matter. Rising urbanization and less car-oriented policies in some cities also reduce the growth of car use, perhaps combined with changing

  • 19-December-2013

    English

    Cycling, Health and Safety

    Many jurisdictions around the world are trying to retain or increase the share of cycling in urban traffic in order to benefit from the many health and transport efficiency benefits. Safety is a key concern and should be accounted for in these policies.
    This report of the International Transport Forum's Cycling Safety Working Group monitors international trends in cycling, safety and policy, and explores options that may help

  • 15-April-2014

    English

    Expanding Airport Capacity in Large Urban Areas

    Expanding airport capacity in large metropolitan areas is difficult. Community agreements on noise constrain growth at existing airports. Land prices can be prohibitive for relocating airports. Most new sites require extensive investment in surface transport links to city centres. In multi-airport regions, options for expansion at the airports are to an extent interdependent, complicating assessment of whether to build new

  • 7-October-2014

    English

    Development Co-operation Report 2014 - Mobilising Resources for Sustainable Development

    The Development Co-operation Report (DCR) is a yearly report by the Chair of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) that addresses important challenges for the international development community and provides practical guidance and recommendations on how to tackle them. Moreover, it reports the profiles and performance of DAC development co-operation providers and presents DAC statistics on official development

  • 19-December-2014

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: France 2014

    This report compares the performance of the French innnovation systems with that of other countries and presents the conclusions of interviews with 30 key actors in the French research and innovation system.  During the past ten years, this system has undergone profound changes, and the report highlights the governments plan to dynamise and reform the system.

     

  • 17-January-2014

    German

    Höhepunkte des Weltverkehrsforum 2013 - Finanzierungskonzepte für das Verkehrswesen : Zusammenfassung der Diskussionen

    Auf der ganzen Welt steigt der Mobilitätsbedarf rasant. Die Motorisierung der Schwellenländer schreitet in einem atemberaubenden Tempo voran. Bis 2020 soll die Anzahl der Kraftfahrzeuge weltweit einigen Schätzungen zufolge von mehr als 1 Milliarde auf gut 2 Milliarden anwachsen. In den nächsten 15 Jahren könnte sich, OECD-Prognosen zufolge, der Personenluftverkehr verdoppeln, die Luftfracht verdreifachen und das Containerhandling

    Also Available
  • 20-October-2014

    English

    Water Governance in Tunisia - Overcoming the Challenges to Private Sector Participation

    This report diagnoses the main governance and financing challenges to private sector participation in the water supply and wastewater sector of Tunisia, and provides ways forward to address these challenges. It been developed as part of a water policy dialogue conducted by the OECD jointly with the Global Water Partnership-Mediterranean (GWP-Med) in the context of the project labelled by the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM)

  • 4-June-2014

    English

    Water Governance in Jordan - Overcoming the Challenges to Private Sector Participation

    This report assesses the main governance and financing challenges to private sector participation (PSP) in the water supply and sanitation sector of Jordan, and provides ways forward to address them, based on international experience and OECD compendium of principles and good practices. Using the diagnostic analysis of the governance challenges to PSP in the Jordan water sector (Chapter 1), the report identifies ways forward to

  • 4-June-2014

    English

    Water Governance in Jordan - Overcoming the Challenges to Private Sector Participation

    This report assesses the main governance and financing challenges to private sector participation (PSP) in the water supply and sanitation sector of Jordan, and provides ways forward to address them, based on international experience and OECD compendium of principles and good practices. Using the diagnostic analysis of the governance challenges to PSP in the Jordan water sector (Chapter 1), the report identifies ways forward to

  • 1-October-2008

    English

    West African Mobility and Migration Policies of OECD Countries

    This publication reviews migration policies in the main OECD countries receiving West African migrants and analyses the recent discussions within Europe. This report lists common approaches undertaken in Europe, Africa and West Africa and aims to shed light on decision makers’ strategic thinking. It provides the greater public with an objective understanding of this recent dynamic.

  • 23-March-2009

    English

    Regional Challenges of West African Migration - African and European Perspectives

    This publication presents contributions by international experts on various aspects of West African migration. It provides a contrasting perspective to current debates which essentially focus on security issues. This rather non-institutional approach promotes a constant dialogue based on analyses of the actual situation: the authors encourage "win-win" mobility for all parties involved (Europe, North Africa and West Africa),

  • 20-December-2011

    English

    Literacy for Life - Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term.

    It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various settings – at home and at work – for the eleven countries participating in the first

  • 15-October-2014

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Korea

    With the rising economic importance of human resources and skills, employment and training agencies are now often expected to play a more important role in local strategies to support new creation, facilitate restructuring and increase productivity. The OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme has developed an international cross-comparative study examining the contribution of local labour market policy to

  • 28-October-2014

    English

    Social Cohesion Policy Review of Viet Nam

    This report examines the effects of recent economic growth in Viet Nam on social cohesion. It finds that recent rapid economic growth in Viet Nam has not resulted in an increase in overall inequality, but the level of inequality was already high. Growth was not particularly inclusive, benefiting most the middle class and the richest households, and favouring less households in the bottom 20th percentile. Income mobility was also

  • 1-June-2012

    English

    Supporting Partners to Develop their Capacity - Twelve Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

    Over the period 2006 to 2010 capacity development was treated as a special topic in a total of 19 peer reviews in recognition of its increasing importance in development co-operation. In addition, how DAC members work to support capacity development in their partner countries has been discussed in many other peer reviews under the heading of aid effectiveness. This booklet draws out some common themes or lessons regarding capacity

  • 11-September-2014

    English

    Few and Far - The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery

    Corruption has a devastating impact on developing and transition countries, with estimates of $20 billion to $40 billion per year stolen by public officials, a figure equivalent to 20 to 40 percent of official development assistance flows. The return of the proceeds of corruption— asset recovery—can have a significant development impact. Returns can be used directly for development purposes, such as improvements in the health and

  • 11-November-2014

    English

    Towards Green Growth in Southeast Asia

    Southeast Asia’s booming economy offers tremendous growth potential, but also large and interlinked economic, social and environmental challenges. The region’s current growth model is based in large part on natural resource exploitation, exacerbating these challenges. This report provides evidence that, with the right policies and institutions, Southeast Asia can pursue green growth and thus sustain the natural capital and

  • 17-November-2014

    English

    Open Government in Latin America

    Latin American governments have embarked upon substantial open government reforms in recent years. Working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), progress has been made. The OECD - as an official multilateral partner organisation of the OGP - has conducted a regional stocktaking exercise of open government strategies and practices. Its main findings are reflected in this report, allowing Latin American countries to compare and

    Also Available
  • 23-September-2014

    English

    SME Policy Index: The Mediterranean Middle East and North Africa 2014 - Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe

    This report assesses the elaboration and implementation of SME policy in eight Middle East and North African economies of the southern Mediterranean shore. The assessment is structured according to the ten policy principles covered in the Small Business Act for Europe (the SBA). One of the main findings is that over the last five years there has been progress in SME policy elaboration and implementation in spite of the political

  • 18-November-2014

    English

    A Skills beyond School Review of South Africa

    Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can workbased learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report on South Africa looks at these and other questions.

  • 12-May-2014

    English

    Budgeting Practices and Procedures in OECD Countries

    The OECD Budget Practices and Procedures Database provides detailed data on how budgets are made in OECD countries  from formulation, to approval, execution and reporting based on surveys conducted every four to five years. This publication presents the results of the latest survey, conducted in 2012, and compares this with the previous survey, conducted in 2007. It finds that fiscal sustainability is a key issue for countries

  • 22-October-2014

    English

    Africa Energy Outlook

    Sub-Saharan Africa' s energy sector can be improved to unlock a better life for its citizens.  This report describes one of the most poorly understood parts of the global energy system, offers an authoritative study of its future prospects - broken down by fuel, sector and sub-region - and shows how investment in the sub-Saharan energy sector can stimulate rapid economic and social development across the region.

    The

  • 8-December-2014

    English

    The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities

    Ports and cities are historically strongly linked, but the link between port and city growth has become weaker. Economic benefits often spill over to other regions, whereas negative impacts are localised in the port-city. How can ports regain their role as drivers of urban economic growth and how can negative port impacts be mitigated? Those are the questions that this report aims to answer.

  • 20-October-2014

    English

    Women in Business 2014 - Accelerating Entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Women in Business 2014 summarises the progress made by the OECD-MENA Women Business Forum (WBF) since the publication of its first Women in Business report in 2012. In 2012, five groups of actions had been identified as priorities to be carried out by governments, international stakeholders, financial and business support organisations, as well as statistical agencies. In two years, the WBF has developed inputs for three of these

  • 27-November-2014

    English

    Women in Public Life - Gender, Law and Policy in the Middle East and North Africa

    Public institutions play a critical role in promoting gender-sensitive policies and gender equality more broadly, in the MENA region and around the world. Advancing gender balance in public institutions and public life more generally, including the judiciary, parliaments, and the political executive constitutes a major step towards gender-responsive policies and non-discrimination and serves as a key milestone in promoting gender

  • 9-April-2010

    English

    Risk and Regulatory Policy - Improving the Governance of Risk

    We expect governments to protect citizens from the adverse consequences of hazardous events. At the same time it is not possible or necessarily in the best interest of citizens for all risks to be removed. A risk-based approach to the design and implementation of regulation can help to ensure that regulatory approaches are efficient, effective and account for risk/risk tradeoffs across policy objectives. Risk-based approaches to

  • 3-November-2014

    English

    International Regulatory Co-operation and International Organisations - The Cases of the OECD and the IMO

    The world is witnessing the progressive emergence of an open, dynamic, globalised economy, and the intensification of global challenges such as systemic risks, environmental protection, human health or safety. Against this background, governments are increasingly seeking to ensure greater co-ordination on regulatory objectives, processes and enforcement and to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and redundancies.

  • 5-May-2009

    English

    OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform: China 2009 - Defining the Boundary between the Market and the State

    China has made enormous progress in developing the modern legal and regulatory foundation for the market economy. The private sector is now the main driver of growth, and new laws have gone a long way toward establishing private property rights, competition, and mechanisms for entry and exit comparable to those of many OECD countries. At the same time important challenges remain, including further clarification of the scope of

  • 15-February-2010

    English

    OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform: Australia 2010 - Towards a Seamless National Economy

    This review of regulatory reform in Australia comes at the right time to capture the attention of the OECD community. Australia has successfully weathered the worst effects of the current economic crisis. The resilience of the Australian economy, in the face of the deepest and most widespread recession in over fifty years in OECD countries, can in part be attributed to Australia’s current and past regulatory

  • 9-February-2015

    English

    Mapping Channels to Mobilise Institutional Investment in Sustainable Energy

    What are the channels for investment in sustainable energy infrastructure by institutional investors (e.g. pension funds, insurance companies and sovereign wealth funds) and what factors influence investment decisions? What key policy levers and risk mitigants can governments use to facilitate these types of investments? What emerging channels (such as green bonds, YieldCos and direct project investment) hold significant promise

  • 2-October-2008

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Hungary 2008

    OECD's comprehensive review of Hungary's environmental programs and policies, covering air and water management, nature and biodiversity, sustainable development, the environment-economy interface, the environment-social interface, and international commitments. The review includes relevant statistical information as well as a series of recommendations for strengthening environmental infrastructure, implementing environmental

  • 27-November-2014

    English

    Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Norway 2014

    Norway is characterised by very high levels of migration from within the European Economic Area (EEA) and growing but small scale labour migration from countries outside the EEA. In this context, the challenge for managing discretionary labour migration is to ensure it complements EEA flows. High-skilled workers who come to Norway often leave, even if their employer would like to keep them. Norway has many international students,

  • 15-January-2015

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Italy 2014 - Raising Standards

    This report reviews the quality of health care in Italy, seeks to highlight best practices, and provides a series of targeted assessments and recommendations for further improvements to quality of care. Italy’s indicators of health system outcomes, quality and efficiency are uniformly impressive. Life expectancy is the fifth highest in the OECD. Avoidable admission rates are amongst the very best in the OECD, and case-fatality

  • 4-November-2014

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Morocco 2014

    The Kingdom of Morocco is over 90 % dependent on energy imports, so a major challenge is to develop indigenous resources. Topography and climate are favourable to wind, solar and additional hydropower. By 2020 Morocco aims to derive more than 40 % of its electrical capacity from these sources, strengthening both energy security and sustainability. At the same time, Rabat aims to retain its attractive investment conditions for oil

  • 1-December-2014

    English

    The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014 - Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship in Europe

    The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014 is the second edition in a series of annual reports that provide data and policy analysis on inclusive entrepreneurship, and on its barriers, by target social groups across the European Union. Inclusive entrepreneurship involves business start-ups and self-employment activities that contribute to economic growth and social inclusion - notably of youth, women, seniors, immigrants and the

    Also Available
  • 1-June-2014

    English

    Mainstreaming Cross-cutting Issues - Seven Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

    Gender equality and the environment are treated as cross-cutting issues in all DAC peer reviews in recognition of their importance in development co-operation. This report highlights some of the common themes and important lessons on mainstreaming gender equality and the environment based on DAC members’ practices as documented in peer reviews, a number of donor evaluations as well as wider work across the OECD.

     

  • 6-October-2014

    English

    Paying for Performance in Health Care - Implications for Health System Performance and Accountability

    The detailed analysis of these 10 case studies together with the rest of the analytical text highlight the realities of P4P programs and their potential impact on the performance of health systems in a diversity of settings. This book provides critical insights into the experience to date with P4P and how this tool may be better leveraged to improve health system performance and accountability.

  • 1-June-2012

    English

    Partnering with Civil Society - Twelve Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

    This report is about partnerships between DAC members and civil society organisations (CSOs) which can serve many purposes. These include supporting the vital role that CSOs play in enabling people to claim their rights, in promoting rights-based approaches, in shaping development policies and partnerships and in overseeing their implementation, in providing services in areas that are complementary to those provided by states and

  • 18-June-2013

    English

    Evaluating Development Activities - Twelve Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

    Evaluating development co-operation activities is one of the areas where the DAC’s influence on policy and practice can most readily be observed. Having an evaluation system that is well-established is one of the conditions of becoming a member of the DAC. Each peer review examines the set-up and management of the evaluation function, using the norms and standards developed by the DAC’s Network on Development Evaluation.

  • 28-November-2014

    English

    Compact City Policies: Korea - Towards Sustainable and Inclusive Growth

    This report examines Korea's urban policies and offers customised policy recommendations based on the OECD publication, Compact City Policies (2012). Some Korean policies, such as urban regeneration, new town development or multi-modal transfering centers, have implicitly implemented compact city polices to a certain degree. However, there are still issues - including urban sprawl, unbalanced socio-economic levels and

  • 2-December-2014

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Ireland 2014

    The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. This peer review of Ireland reviews its development policies and programmes. It assesses not just the performance of its development co-operation agency, but also policy and implementation. It takes an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian

  • 19-January-2015

    English

    Education Policy Outlook 2015 - Making Reforms Happen

    The Education Policy Outlook is designed to help education policy makers with reform choices. It addresses the need for improvement in education in a comparative manner, while taking into account the importance of national context. Through a review of different countries’ experiences in implementing education reform, the publication offers directions and strategies to facilitate future changes.

    Given different

  • 9-December-2014

    English

    New Insights from TALIS 2013 - Teaching and Learning in Primary and Upper Secondary Education

    The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) asks teachers and principals who they are, where they teach and how they feel about their work. The results on lower secondary schools were published in TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning. A few countries chose to also conduct the survey in primary and/or upper secondary education. This report presents the results of these options

  • 22-January-2015

    English

    Biosafety and the Environmental Uses of Micro-Organisms - Conference Proceedings

    Micro-organisms play a fundamental role in the environment. Yet their role is the result of complex biogeochemical processes by consortia of micro-organisms and the function of individual species is not clear in many cases.

    This publication provides an overview of the current situation and relevant developments in environmental microbiology, as well as its potential application, which covers: use of micro-organisms for

  • 27-January-2015

    English

    ITF Transport Outlook 2015

    The ITF Transport Outlook examines the development of global transport volumes and related CO2 emissions and health impacts through to 2050. It examines factors that can affect supply and demand for transport services and focuses on scenarios illustrating potential upper and lower pathways, discussing their relevance to policy making.

    This edition presents an overview of long-run scenarios for the development of global

  • 10-December-2014

    English

    The Distributional Effects of Consumption Taxes in OECD Countries

    The report examines the distributional effects of value-added tax (VAT) and excise tax systems in 20 OECD countries, and investigates the effectiveness of reduced VAT rates as a redistributional tool.

  • 4-October-2012

    English

    OECD Internet Economy Outlook 2012

    The Internet is now a fundamental infrastructure supporting the economy and is firmly in its 2nd stage of development, having evolved from a data network connecting PCs with wires to a much broader network of new portable devices from mobile phones to tablet computers. It is also on the cusp of a much larger expansion to objects that typically did not have communications capabilities: the “Internet of things” is projected to have

  • 1-December-2014

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Colombia 2014

    Regional development policy is a priority of Colombia’s government. The country has experienced sustained economic growth over the past decade; yet several territories still lack development opportunities. To promote growth in all regions the government has engaged in a series of reforms. For instance, it started allocating royalty payments generated by hydrocarbon resources to all departments and most municipalities, including

  • 2-December-2014

    English

    OECD Foreign Bribery Report - An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials

    This report endeavours to measure, and to describe, transnational corruption based on data from the 427 foreign bribery cases that have been concluded since the entry into force of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in 1999.

    Also Available
  • 24-November-2014

    English

    Engaging with the Public - Twelve Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

    This booklet highlights key lessons learned on engaging with the public based on DAC members’ practices as documented in peer reviews, DevCom’s reports and publications and wider work from across the OECD. It includes examples from DAC members’ experiences and sketches out challenges they continue to face as they move toward more strategic, effective and innovative engagement with citizens and taxpayers on development

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 413: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-day Study

    This revised Test Guideline has been designed to fully characterize test article toxicity by the inhalation route for a subchronic duration (90 days), and to provide robust data for quantitative inhalation risk assessments. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rodents are exposed 6 hours per day during a 90 day (13 week) period to a) the test article at three or more concentration levels, b) filtered air (negative control), and/or c)

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 230: 21-day Fish Assay - A Short-Term Screening for Oestrogenic and Androgenic Activity, and Aromatase Inhibition

    This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for certain endocrine active substances where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). This assay covers the screening of oestrogenic and androgenic activity, and aromatase inhibition. The assay was validated on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), the

  • 20-September-2012

    English

    Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 2 - Promoting Integrity through Self-regulation

    This second volume of OECD's study on lobbying examines regulation and self-regulation of lobbying. It includes chapters defining and examining lobbying, describing the role of professional lobbying associations, exploring various codes of conduct and examining specific codes in various countries, examining lobbyists' attitudes toward regulation and self-regulation, and exploring various options for enhancing transparency and

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Guidance Document on the Validation of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship [(Q)SAR] Models

    To keep (Q)SAR applications on a solid scientific foundation, an international effort to articulate principles for (Q)SAR technology and to develop a guidance document for use of (Q)SAR in regulatory applications. This document presents those principles and helpful guides for validating (Q)SAR technology for a variety of applications.

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Guidance on Grouping of Chemicals

    This guidance document is part of the OECD effort to provide guidance for assessing the hazards of chemical substances while gaining efficiencies and improving animal welfare. The approach described in this guidance document is to consider closely related chemicals as a group, or category, rather than as individual chemicals. In the category approach, not every chemical needs to be tested for every endpoint. Rather, the overall

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 223: Avian Acute Oral Toxicity Test

    This Test Guideline describes procedures designed to estimate the acute oral toxicity of substances to birds, and it provides three testing options: (1) limit dose test, (2) LD50-slope test, and (3) LD50-only test. The LD50-slope and LD50-only options are sequential testing procedures. The test method selected will depend on whether or not a definitive median dose (LD50) and slope of the dose-response curve are both needed. The

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment

    This Guideline is designed to assess the effects of prolonged exposure of chemicals to the life-cycle of the sediment-dwelling freshwater dipteran Chironomus sp. First instar chironomid larvae are exposed to five concentrations of the test chemical in sediment-water systems. The test substance is spiked into the water or alternatively the sediment, and first instar larvae are subsequently introduced into test beakers in which the

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 317: Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes

    This Test Guideline describes procedures designed to assess bioaccumulation of chemicals in soil oligochaetes. The parameters which characterise the bioaccumulation of a substance include the bioaccumulation factor (BAF), the uptake rate constant (ks) and the elimination rate constant (ke). The test consists of two phases: the uptake (exposure) phase and the elimination (post-exposure) phase. An elimination phase is always required

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 439: In Vitro Skin Irritation - Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro procedure that may be used for the hazard identification of irritant chemicals (substances and mixtures) in accordance with the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) Category 2.  It is based on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), which in its overall design closely mimics the biochemical and physiological properties of the upper parts of the human skin. Cell

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 442A: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: DA

    The Local Lymph Node Assay: DA (LLNA: DA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method, described in mouse (CBA/J strain), is based on measurement of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content by bioluminescence as an indicator of this proliferation. A minimum of four

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 442B: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA

    The Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method described in mouse (CBA/JN strain) is based on the use of measuring 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) content, an analogue of thymidine, as an indicator of this

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

    The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell

  • 17-March-2014

    English

    Water Governance in the Netherlands - Fit for the Future?

    This report assesses the extent to which Dutch water governance is fit for future challenges and sketches an agenda for the reform of water policies in the Netherlands. It builds on a one-year policy dialogue with over 100 Dutch stakeholders, supported by robust analytical work and drawing on international best practice.

  • 16-January-2012

    English

    Energy

    The OECD Green Growth Strategy aims to provide concrete recommendations and measurement tools, including indicators, to support countries’ efforts to achieve economic growth and development, while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which well-being relies. The strategy proposes a flexible policy framework that can be tailored to different country circumstances and stages of

  • 11-November-2012

    English

    OECD Integrity Review of Brazil - Managing Risks for a Cleaner Public Service

    Brazil’s agenda to enhance integrity and prevent corruption is particularly critical in order to address a number of challenges facing the country’s public administration. The challenges include managing risks associated with innovation in public service delivery, achieving value for money and minimising waste in government operations and meeting the expectations of citizens  regarding the conduct of public

  • 27-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 234: Fish Sexual Development Test

    This Test Guideline describes an assay that assesses early life-stage effects and potential adverse consequences of putative endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g. oestrogens, androgens and steroidogenesis inhibitors) on fish sexual development. In the test, fish are exposed, from newly fertilized egg until the completion of sexual differentiation at about 60 days post hatch, to at least three concentrations of the test substance

  • 27-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test

    This Test Guideline describes an acute immobilisation assay on chronomids and is designed to complement existing Test Guidelines for chironomid chronic toxicity assays (TG 218, 219 and 233). The test method is based on TG 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test. First instar Chironomus sp. larvae are exposed to a range of concentrations of the test substance in water-only vessels for a period of 48 hours. C. riparius is the

  • 27-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 443: Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study

    This Test Guideline is designed to provide an evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects that may occur as a result of pre- and postnatal chemical exposure as well as an evaluation of systemic toxicity in pregnant and lactating females and young and adult offspring. In the assay, sexually-mature males and females rodents (parental (P) generation) are exposed to graduated doses of the test substance starting 2 weeks before

  • 27-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 456: H295R Steroidogenesis Assay

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro screen for chemical effects on steroidogenesis, specifically the production of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T). The human H295R adreno-carcinoma cell line, used for the assay, expresses genes that encode for all the key enzymes for steroidogenesis. After an acclimation period of 24 h in multi-well plates, cells are exposed for 48 h to seven concentrations of the test chemical in at

  • 27-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 488: Transgenic Rodent Somatic and Germ Cell Gene Mutation Assays

    This Test Guideline describes an in vivo assay that detects chemicals that may induce gene mutations. In this assay, transgenic rats or mice that contain multiple copies of chromosomally integrated plasmid or phage shuttle vectors are used. The transgenes contain reporter genes for the detection of various types of mutations induced by test substances. A negative control group and a minimum of 3 treatment groups of

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 109: Density of Liquids and Solids

    This Test Guideline lists methods for determining the density of liquids and solids, giving only a succinct description of them. The density of a substance is the quotient of its mass and its volume and is expressed in SI units as kg/m3 at a specified temperature. Several methods are for liquid substance only: hydrometer, immersed body method (both are buoyancy methods) and oscillating densitometer. These methods are applicable to

  • 28-March-2012

    English

    OECD Best Practice Guidelines for Biological Resource Centres

    These best practice guidelines are intended to serve as a target for the quality management of biological resource center collections. They are the result of discussions held by OECD member countries together with a number of key partner countries under the auspices of an expert Task Force established by the OECD Working Party on Biotechnology.   They were developed in extensive consultation with the scientific community.

  • 22-February-2012

    English

    Institutional and Financial Relations across Levels of Government

    As financial markets put more and more pressure on governments to reduce their deficits and debts, sub-central  levels of government are a key player in the implementation of national strategies. The room for manoeuvre to implement consolidations strategies coordinated across levels of government highly depends on the institutional structure of intergovernmental relations, and the effectiveness of their multi-level governance

  • 15-January-2012

    English

    Measuring Regulatory Performance - A Practitioner's Guide to Perception Surveys

    Now more than ever, OECD countries are investing significant resources in regulatory policies and reforms. At the same time, governments are under increasing pressure to explain such reforms and their benefits to the public. Perception surveys are an important part of this process and they are being used by OECD members to measure how citizens and businesses view regulation in their countries. 

    This guide helps officials

  • 11-July-2012

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Slovenia 2012

    This review of innovation policy in Slovenia offers a comprehensive assessment of Slovenia's innovation system, focusing on the role of government. It provides concrete recommendations and identifies good practices.

  • 10-April-2012

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Colombia 2012

    This Investment Policy Review examines Colombia's achievements in developing an open and transparent investment regime and its efforts to reduce restrictions on international investment. The Review  shows  that, in the past few years, Colombia has made tremendous progress in promoting investment liberalisation and improving its investment policy framework. Colombia has also recently undertaken important policy reforms in many of

  • 28-March-2012

    English

    Related Party Transactions and Minority Shareholder Rights

    Related party transactions involve parties who can control the terms of a transaction in their favor potentially at the cost of the company. They include management, board members and controlling shareholders. The publication reviews provisions covering related party transactions and the protection of minority shareholder rights  in 31 jurisdictions, both OECD and non-OECD. In addition, the regulatory and legal systems that have

  • 17-May-2012

    English

    Knowledge Networks and Markets in the Life Sciences

    Around the OECD countries and beyond, there is a proliferation of initiatives in the life sciences to bring together disperse elements of global research and establish an effective virtual infrastructure for open innovation. Their common goal is to leverage innovative capacity by creating interconnected webs of knowledge and exploiting external expertise.
    Some such initiatives have as their goal the monetisation and trading

  • 19-March-2012

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Zambia 2012

    OECD's review of investment policy in Zambia reviews the country's investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, trade and competition policy, tax policy, corporate governance, policies for promoting responsible business conduct, infrastructure development and other aspects of the policy framework for investment.

  • 6-June-2012

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Slovenia 2012

    This first review of Slovenia's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in sustainable development, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. It addresses green growth, environmental management, climate change and air pollution, and waste management issues.

  • 20-March-2012

    English

    OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Korea 2012 - Raising Standards

    At a time when ever more information is available about the quality of health care, the challenge for policy makers is to better understand the policies and approaches that sit behind the numbers. Korea is the first country report in a new OECD series evaluating the quality of health care across OECD countries – whether care is safe, effective and responsive to patients’ needs. OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality examine

    Also Available
  • 27-September-2012

    English

    OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform: Indonesia 2012 - Strengthening Co-ordination and Connecting Markets

    The OECD Review of Regulatory Reform in Indonesia focuses on the administrative and institutional arrangements for ensuring that regulations are effective and efficient. It covers the medium term macroeconomic linkages with regulatory policy; of institutional and procedural arrangements for regulatory policy and governance; non-tariff barriers and behind the border constraints to market openness; competition policy in relation to

  • 21-November-2012

    English

    Water Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean - A Multi-level Approach

    This report addresses multilevel governance challenges in water policy in the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) and identifies good practices for co-ordinating water across ministries, between levels of government, and across local and regional actors.  Based on the OECD Multilevel Governance Framework and a survey on water governance, the report i) maps the allocation of roles and responsibilities in 13 LAC

    Also Available
  • 29-March-2012

    English

    Identification and Quantification of the Proceeds of Bribery - Revised edition, February 2012

    This study focuses on the identification and quantification of the proceeds of active bribery in international business transactions. Public and private organisations alike have long recognised that bribery of public officials is harmful to good governance, economic development and competitive conditions. Confiscation and recovery of the proceeds derived from foreign bribery are key elements in the international framework to fight

  • 15-May-2012

    English

    Evaluating Laws and Regulations - The Case of the Chilean Chamber of Deputies

    This report focuses on international practices of ex post evaluation, and particularly on the current efforts to conduct ex post evaluation of laws in Chile. It is divided in two main parts.

    The first part of the report provides information and guidance, examples of practice and references on the subject of ex post evaluation in OECD countries, particularly in the Legislative area. It looks at the different definitions of,

    Also Available
  • 14-November-2012

    English

    Public Sector Compensation in Times of Austerity

    Austerity drives are leading governments to reduce operational cuts through the wage bill and staffing levels. A big lesson from past experience suggests that when pay cuts and freezes are necessary, it is essential to assess the savings relative to the costs – the loss of institutional knowledge if key contributors retire or resign, the time lost by managers and employees who have to deal with the issues related to vacancies and

  • 20-August-2012

    English

    A Framework for Financing Water Resources Management

    A lack of finance for water resources management is a primary concern for most OECD countries. This is exacerbated in the current fiscal environment of tight budgets and strong fiscal consolidation, as public funding provides the lion’s share of financial resources for water management.

    The report provides a framework for policy discussions around financing water resources management that are taking place at local, basin,

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 114: Viscosity of Liquids

    This Test Guideline describes methods to measure the viscosity of liquids. Most of the methods listed are appropriate for the investigation of Newtonian liquids. The measurement of non-Newtonian liquids is possible with the rotational viscometer. Viscosity measurements are carried out according to five methods: the capillary viscometer, the flow cup, the rotational viscometer, the rolling ball viscometer and the drawing ball

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test

    The test method described in this Test Guideline assesses the effect of chemicals on the reproductive output of Daphnia magna Straus. To this end, young female Daphnia are exposed to the test substance added to water at a range of concentrations (at least five). For semi-static tests, at least 10 animals at each test concentration and for flow-through tests, 40 animals divided into four groups of 10 animals at each test

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 229: Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay

    This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for fish reproduction where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). The short term reproduction assay was validated in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and this is the recommended species. The assay is run with three test chemical concentrations and the

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 305: Bioaccumulation in Fish: Aqueous and Dietary Exposure

    This Test Guideline describes a procedure for characterising the bioconcentration potential of substances in fish, using an aqueous (standard and minimised tests) or dietary exposure, under flow-through conditions (but semi-static regimes are permissible). Independent of the chosen exposure method, the bioconcentration fish test test consists of two phases: exposure (uptake) and post-exposure (depuration). During the uptake phase

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 405: Acute Eye Irritation/Corrosion

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to test substance (liquids, solids and aerosols) by application on the eye. This Test Guideline is intended preferably for use with albino rabbit. The test substance is applied in a single dose in the conjunctival sac of one eye of each animal. The other eye, which remains untreated, serves as a control. The initial test uses an animal; the dose level

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 443: Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study

    This Test Guideline is designed to provide an evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects that may occur as a result of pre- and postnatal chemical exposure as well as an evaluation of systemic toxicity in pregnant and lactating females and young and adult offspring. In the assay, sexually-mature males and females rodents (parental (P) generation) are exposed to graduated doses of the test substance starting 2 weeks before

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 455: Performance-Based Test Guideline for Stably Transfected Transactivation In Vitro Assays to Detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists

    This Performance-Based Test Guideline (PBTG) describes in vitro assays, which provides the methodology of Stably Transfected Transactivation to detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists (ER TAs). It comprises mechanistically and functionally similar test methods for the identification of estrogen receptor agonists and should facilitate the development of new similar or modified test methods. The two reference test methods that provide the

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 457: BG1Luc Estrogen Receptor Transactivation Test Method for Identifying Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro assay, which provides concentration-response data for substances with in vitro ER agonist and antagonist activity. The test system utilises the BG1Luc4E2 cell line derived from a human ovarian adenocarcinoma and stably transfected with a ER responsive luciferase reporter gene. This cell line can evaluate TA mediated by ER alpha and ER beta. The cells are plated into 96-well plate and

  • 1-October-2012

    English

    Test No. 460: Fluorescein Leakage Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro assay that may be used for identifying water soluble ocular corrosives and severe irritants as defined by the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling, Category 1. The assay is performed in a well where a confluent monolayer of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) is used as a separation between two chambers. It uses a fluorescein dye as marqueur. The test substance has the

  • 11-December-2012

    English

    Activating Jobseekers - How Australia Does It

    This report on the recent Australian experience with activation policies contains valuable lessons for other countries that need to improve the effectiveness of employment services and control benefit expenditure. It provides overview and assessment of labour market policies in Australia including the main institutions, benefit system, training programmes, employment incentives, and disability employment

  • 17-December-2012

    English

    Grade Expectations - How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students' Ambitions

    While enrolment in tertiary education has increased dramatically over the past decades, many university-aged students do not enrol, nor do they expect to earn a university degree. While it is important to promote high expectations for further education, it is equally important to ensure that students’ expectations are well-aligned with their actual abilities. Grade Expectations: How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students'

  • 14-May-2013

    English

    Strengthening Health Information Infrastructure for Health Care Quality Governance - Good Practices, New Opportunities and Data Privacy Protection Challenges

    Health data constitutes a significant resource in most OECD countries that could be used to improve population health, the quality of health care and the performance of health systems. Rising levels of chronic diseases; concerns about the quality and safety of patient care; the need to assure value for investments in health care; and the need to allocate health resources wisely; are all too important to be left without good

  • 21-May-2013

    English

    Review of Recent Developments and Progress in Labour Market and Social Policy in Israel - Slow Progress Towards a More Inclusive Society

    This report presents the OECD's assessment of recent developments in Israel in the area of labour market and social policy. It focuses on recent trends in poverty and employment outcomes and policy development to improve employment opportunities, especially for the Arab and Haredi communities.

  • 24-June-2014

    English

    Green Growth Indicators 2014

    The OECD Green Growth Strategy supports countries in fostering economic growth and development while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which well-being relies. Policies that promote green growth need to be founded on a good understanding of the determinants of green growth and need to be supported with appropriate indicators to monitor progress and gauge

  • 15-November-2013

    English

    World Social Science Report 2013 - Changing Global Environments

    Produced by the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and UNESCO, and published by the OECD, the 2013 World Social Science Report represents a comprehensive overview of the field gathering the thoughts and expertise of hundreds of social scientists from around the world.

    This edition focuses on the transformative role of the social sciences in confronting climate and broader processes of environmental change, and in

  • 9-April-2014

    English

    Investing in Youth: Brazil

    This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth labour market and education system in Brazil. It takes an international comparative perspective, offering policy options to help improve school-to-work transitions. It also provides an opportunity for other countries to learn from the innovative measures that Brazil has taken to strengthen the skills of youth and their employment outcomes.

  • 15-July-2014

    English

    Connecting People with Jobs - Activation Policies in the United Kingdom

    This report examines recent activation policies in the United Kingdom aimed at moving people back into work. It offers insight into how countries can improve the effectiveness of their employment services and also control spending on benefits. The United Kingdom's policies have helped limit the rise in unemployment during the crisis. It has been at the forefront of reform efforts by OECD countries to transform and modernise

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    ‘Outsourcing' of Inspection Functions by Glp Compliance Monitoring Authorities

    This document is a statement of policy set by the 1989 Council Decision-Recommendation on Compliance with Good Laboratory Practice [C(89)87(Final). It reiterates the decisions and the recommendations related to the role and responsibilities of governments, national GLP compliance monitoring authorities and inspectors set out in that Act and its Annexes and states current practices. The Working Group on GLP
    is of the opinion

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Chemicals Used in Oil Well Production

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in petroleum production at oil wells. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to oil production chemicals.

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Water Based Washing Operations at Industrial and Institutional Laundries

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals to be used in water washing machines at industrial and institutional laundries. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to chemicals used in water washing machines in laundries.

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Metalworking Fluids

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document provides information on the sources, use patterns and potential release pathways of chemicals used in metalworking fluids. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposure to  chemicals ussed in metalworking fluids.


     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Radiation Curable Coating, Inks and Adhesives

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the radiation curable products
    industry, specifically during application of radiation curable coatings, inks, and adhesives. The document focuses primarily on ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) curable products and presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Blending of Fragrance Oils into Commercial and Consumer Products

    The scope of this Emissions Scenario Document includes the blending of fine and functional fragrance oils into consumer and commercial products. The manufacture of aroma chemicals and the formulation of fragrance oil are outside the scope of this scenario. However, these industrial operations are discussed in this section as an introduction to the fragrance industry as a whole. The following life-cycle diagram demonstrates the

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Chemicals Used in the Electronics Industry

    This report constitutes an emission scenario document (ESD) for chemicals used in the
    electronics industry. It provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during various processing techniques relevant to this varied industry sector, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. Therefore, it will assist in the development of exposure scenarios and risk characterisation and assessment,

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Transport and Storage of Chemicals

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during their transport and storage in a wide range of industries, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. This ESD covers the transport and storage of chemicals either as pure chemicals or as components of finished products. However, it does not consider the following: mixed waste streams,

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Pulp, Paper and Board Industry

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the pulp, paper and board industry, in order to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. This ESD covers the use of chemicals in the making of paper and board and the recycling of paper and board. The main processes considered are paper-making and paper recycling

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Coating Industry (Paints, Lacquers and Varnishes)

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the
    sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the coatings industry (paints,
    lacquers and varnishes), to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals into the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Formulation of Radiation Curable Coatings, Inks and Adhesives

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the radiation curable products industry, specifically during formulation of radiation curable coatings, inks, and adhesives. The document focuses primarily on ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) curable products and presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Adhesive Formulation

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the adhesive formulation industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in adhesive formulations. These approaches are intended to provide conservative, screening-level

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Insecticides, Acaricides and Products to Control Other Arthropods for Household and Professional Uses

    This Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information to be used for risk
    assessment for active substances and products used as biocidal (i.e. non agricultural) insecticides, acaricides and products to control other arthropods (in the EU, product type 18 [PT18] c).

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Metal Finishing

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the finishing of metals, to assist in
    the estimation of releases of chemicals into the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Automotive Spray Application

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the
    sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in automotive refinishing industry. The information can be used to estimate releases of chemicals to the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Lubricants and Lubricant Additives

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in lubricants to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals into the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Photoresist Use in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in photoresist formulations.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Leather Processing

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, production processes, pathways and use patterns of chemicals used as additives in plastics to assist in the
    estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Textile Finishing

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in textile finishing industry to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Rubber Additives

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used as additives in rubber industry to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Photographic Industry

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in photographic industry to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Water Treatment Chemicals

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the
    sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the treatment of water in a number of areas to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Plastic Additives

    This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used as additives in plastics to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Wood Preservatives

    This Emission Scenario Document (ESD) presents an approach to estimate the emissions of
    substances used in wood preservatives (EU Product Type 8) from two stages of their life cycle: 1) application (industrial applications / in situ applications by professionals and amateurs) and storage of treated wood prior to shipment, and 2) treated wood-in service.
     

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    MRL Calculator: Users Guide and White Paper

    This document incorporates two parts, an MRL Calculator User Guide and an MRL Calculator White Paper which discusses the methodology used in the User Guide.

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Report of the OECD Seminar on Risk Reduction through Prevention, Detection and Control of the Illegal International Trade in Agricultural Pesticides

    This document is the report of the OECD Seminar on Risk Reduction through Prevention, Detection and Control of the Illegal International Trade in Agricultural Pesticides that took place on 19 May, 2010 at OECD, Paris, France, and was chaired by Dr. Wolfgang Zornbach of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection. After a series of presentations on governments‟ and other stakeholders‟ approaches and

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Report of the OECD workshop on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - Strategies for the adoption and Implementation of IPM in Agriculture Contributing to the Sustainable Use of Pesticides and to Pesticide Risk Reduction

    This document is the report of the “OECD Workshop on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) -
    Strategies for the adoption and implementation of IPM in agriculture contributing to the sustainable use of
    pesticides and to pesticide risk reduction”, that took place on 16 19 October 2011, in Berlin, Germany, and
    was chaired by Dr. Wolfgang Zornbach of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and
    Consumer

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    OECD Issue Paper on Microbial Contaminants Limits for Microbial Pest Control Products

    This document examines the establishment of acceptable limits of microbiological contamination in microbial pest control products.

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    OECD Guidance to the Environmental Safety Evaluation of Microbial Biocontrol Agents

    This document dealing with biological pesticides provides guidance to both industry and regulatory authorities, in the context of applications for the approval of microbial biological control agents (mBCAs), and for the registration of microbial biological control products (mBCPs).

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    OECD Guidance Document on Defining Minor Uses of Pesticides

    Minor use is the use of chemical pesticides or non-chemical means of crop protection where the potential use is on a scale not sufficiently large to justify registration of that use from an applicant’s perspective alone. Typically minor uses involve crops grown on a small scale (minor crops) and often are high value specialty crops. Additionally minor uses can involve uses within major crops in terms of controlling minor pests and

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Guidance Document on Regulatory Incentives for the Registration of Pesticide Minor Uses

    This document provides guidance to national regulatory authorities in providing greater incentives to encourage applicants (manufacturers/registrants) to register agricultural pesticides (including both synthetically and naturally derived products) for minor uses.

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Guidance on Developing Safety Performance Indicators For Public Authorities and Communities/Public

    This Document was designed to serve as a tool to assist industrial enterprises, public authorities, and communities near hazardous installations world-wide develop and implement a means to assess the success of their chemical safety activities. The guidance does not define a precise methodology, but rather provides guidance on how to develop and use safety performance indicators including the general elements of Safety Performance

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Guidance on Developing Safety Performance Indicators For Industry

    This Guidance on Developing Safety Performance Indicators (“Guidance on SPI”) was prepared to assist enterprises that wish to implement and/or review Safety Performance Indicator Programmes. The three chapters in this Guidance are designed to help enterprises better understand safety performance indicators, and how to implement SPI Programmes. Specifically, Chapter 1 provides important background information on the Guidance and on

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    OECD Guidance on Pesticide Compliance and Enforcement Best Practices

    This Best Practices Guidance addresses compliance and enforcement issues as they relate to pesticides and associated health and environmental risks. The objective of this document is to provide guidance for promoting and monitoring compliance and for assessing and mitigating risks of non-compliance. It is targeted primarily at pesticide regulators, but may also interest policy makers as well as regulated parties (i.e. pesticide

  • 8-December-2014

    English

    Mortality Assumptions and Longevity Risk - Implications for pension funds and annuity providers

    Pension funds and annuity providers need to effectively manage the longevity risk they are exposed to. Individuals receiving a lifetime income may live longer than expected or accounted for in the actuarial calculations to provision for these liabilities. Mismanaged longevity risk can deteriorate finances, cause bankruptcy and expose individuals to the risk of losing their retirement income. To safeguard against this risk, pension

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 473: In Vitro Mammalian Chromosomal Aberration Test

    The purpose of the in vitro chromosome aberration test is to identify agents that cause structural chromosome aberrations in cultured mammalian somatic cells. Structural aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid.

    The in vitro chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) both

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 474: Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test

    The mammalian in vivo micronucleus test is used for the detection of damage induced by the test substance to the chromosomes or the mitotic apparatus of erythroblasts, by analysis of erythrocytes as sampled in bone marrow and/or peripheral blood cells of animals, usually rodents (mice or rats).

    The purpose of the micronucleus test is to identify substances (liquid or solid) that cause cytogenetic damage which results in the

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 475: Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosomal Aberration Test

    The mammalian in vivo chromosome aberration test is used for the detection of structural chromosome aberrations induced by test compounds in bone marrow cells of animals, usually rodents (rats, mice and Chinese hamsters). Structural chromosome aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid.

    Animals are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) by an appropriate route of exposure (usually by gavage using a

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

    The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell

  • 26-September-2014

    English

    Test No. 310: Ready Biodegradability - CO2 in sealed vessels (Headspace Test)

    This Test Guideline is a screening method for the evaluation of ready biodegradability of chemicals.

    The test substance, normally at 20 mg C/L, as the sole source of carbon and energy, is incubated (during 28 days normally) in sealed bottles with aerobic condition containing a buffer-mineral salts medium, which has been inoculated with a mixed population of micro-organisms. In order to check the test procedure, a reference

  • 10-November-2014

    English

    OECD Quarterly International Trade Statistics - Volume 2014 Issue 2

    This reliable and up-to-date source of statistics on international trade of OECD countries provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Data are broken down by economic groupings, by country and by region. The series shown cover data for the last eight quarters and two years available. This quarterly publication is divided into three parts: I.

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 226: Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess the effects of chemical substances in soil on the reproductive output of the soil mite species Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer Canestrini (Acari: Laelapidae). It can be used for water soluble or insoluble substances, but not with volatile substances.

    Adult females of similar age are exposed to a range of concentrations of the test substance mixed into 20 g dry mass

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 316: Phototransformation of Chemicals in Water – Direct Photolysis

    This Test guideline describes studies on phototransformation in water to determine the potential effects of solar irradiation on chemicals in surface water, considering direct photolysis only.

    It is designed as a tiered approach. The Tier 1 is based on a theoretical screen. The rate of decline of a test chemical in a direct photolysis study is generally assumed to follow pseudo first-order kinetics. If the maximum possible

  • 27-July-2011

    English

    Test No. 201: Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test

    The purpose of this test is to determine the effects of a substance on the growth of freshwater microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Exponentially growing test organisms are exposed to the test substance in batch cultures over a period of normally 72 hours.

    The system response is the reduction of growth in a series of algal cultures exposed to, at least, five concentrations of a test substance. Three replicates at each test

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 209: Activated Sludge, Respiration Inhibition Test (Carbon and Ammonium Oxidation)

    This Test Guideline is designed to assess the effects of a substance on micro-organisms from activated sludge of waste-water treatment plants by measuring their respiration rate (carbon and/or ammonium oxidation) as oxygen consumption. The test results may also serve as an indicator of suitable non-inhibitory concentrations of test substances to be used in biodegradability tests. The test allows the determination of ECx and/or NOEC

  • 14-July-2014

    English

    Main Science and Technology Indicators - Volume 2014 Issue 1

    This biannual publication provides a set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of the efforts undertaken by OECD member countries and seven non-member economies (Argentina, China, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Chinese Taipei) in the field of science and technology. These data include final or provisional results as well as forecasts established by government authorities. The indicators cover the

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 315: Bioaccumulation in Sediment-dwelling Benthic Oligochaetes

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess bioaccumulation of sediment-associated chemicals in endobenthic oligochaetes worms. It applies to stable, neutral organic chemicals having log Kow values between 3.0 and 6.0, superlipophilic substances that show a log Kow of more than 6.0, or stable metallo-organic compounds which tend to associate with sediments.

    The test consists of two phases. During the uptake phase,

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 403: Acute Inhalation Toxicity

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from short-term exposure to a test article (gas, vapour or aerosol/particulate test article) by inhalation.

    The revised Test Guideline describes two studies: a traditional LC50 protocol and a Concentration x Time (C x t) protocol. It can be used to estimate a median lethal concentration (LC50), non-lethal threshold concentration (LC01) and slope, and to

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 407: Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents

    This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to test substance via oral administration. The method is based on the repeated oral administration of the substance of interest during one limited period (one dose level daily during 28 days). This Guideline is intended primarily for use with rodents (rat preferably). At least 10 animals (5 female and 5 male) should be used for each dose level. Three

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 412: Subacute Inhalation Toxicity: 28-Day Study

    This revised Test Guideline 412 (TG 412) has been designed to fully characterize test article toxicity
    by the inhalation route following repeated exposure for a limited period of time (28 days), and to provide data for quantitative inhalation risk assessments.

    Groups of at least 5 male and 5 female rodents are exposed 6 hours per day for 28 days to a) the test article at three or more concentration levels, b)

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 417: Toxicokinetics

    This Test Guideline describes in vivo studies that provide information on mass balance, absorption, bioavailability, tissue distribution, metabolism, excretion, and basic toxicokinetic parameters [e.g. AUC], as well as supplemental approaches that may provide useful information on toxicokinetics. Information from toxicokinetic studies helps to relate concentration or dose to the observed toxicity and to understand its mechanism of

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and-Down Procedure

    The method permits estimation of an LD50 with a confidence interval and the results allow a substance to be classified for acute toxicity according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of chemicals.

    It is easiest to apply to materials that produce death within couple of days. This Test Guideline is intended for use with rodents (rat female preferably). There are a limit test and a main test. The

  • 22-July-2010

    English

    Test No. 429: Skin Sensitisation - Local Lymph Node Assay

    The basic principle underlying the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) in mouse is that sensitizers induce a primary proliferation of lymphocytes in the auricular lymph nodes draining the site of chemical application. This proliferation is proportional to the dose applied and provides a measurement of sensitisation. The method described is based on the use of radioactive labelling to measure cell proliferation. A minimum of four animals

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 451: Carcinogenicity Studies

    The objective of a long-term carcinogenicity study is to observe test animals for a major portion of their life span for the development of neoplastic lesions during or after exposure to various doses of a test substance by an appropriate route of administration.

    This Test Guideline is intended primarily for use with rats and mice, and for oral administration. Both sexes should be used. Each dose group and concurrent

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 452: Chronic Toxicity Studies

    The objective of these chronic toxicity studies is to characterize the profile of a substance in a mammalian species (primarily rodents) following prolonged and repeated exposure.
    The Test Guideline focuses on rodents and oral administration. Both sexes should be used. For rodents, at least 20 animals per sex per group should normally be used at each dose level, while for non-rodents a minimum of 4 per sex per group is

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 453: Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies

    The objective of a combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study is to identify carcinogenic and the majority of chronic effects, and to determine dose-response relationships following prolonged and repeated exposure.

    The rat is typically used for this study. For rodents, each dose group and concurrent control group intended for the carcinogenicity phase of the study should contain at least 50 animals of each sex,

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 436: Acute Inhalation Toxicity – Acute Toxic Class Method

    The method described by this Test Guideline provides information that allows hazard assessment for short-term exposure to a test article by inhalation, and allows the substance to be classified according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The test method is based on a stepwise procedure, each step using 3 animals of each sex (the preferred species is rat). Animals are exposed in 

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 229: Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay

    This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for fish reproduction where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). The short term reproduction assay was validated in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and this is the recommended species. The assay is run with three test chemical concentrations and the necessary

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 232: Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil

    This Test Guideline is designed for assessing the effects of chemicals on the reproduction of collembolans in soil. The parthenogenetic Folsomia candida is the recommended species for use, but an alternative species such as sexually reproducing Folsomia fimetaria could also be used if they meet the validity criteria. This Guideline can be used for testing both water soluble and insoluble substances but it is not

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 437: Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

    The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability test method (BCOP) is an in vitro test method that can be used to classify substances as 'ocular corrosives and severe irritants'. The BCOP uses isolated corneas from the eyes of cattle slaughtered for commercial purposes, thus avoiding the use of laboratory animals. Each treatment group (test substance, negative/positive controls) consists of a minimum of three eyes where the

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 438: Isolated Chicken Eye Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

    The Isolated Chicken Eye  (ICE) test method is an in vitro test method that can be used to classify substances as “ocular corrosives and severe irritants”. The ICE method uses eyes collected from chickens obtained from slaughterhouses where they are killed for human consumption, thus eliminating the need for laboratory animals. The eye is enucleated and mounted in an eye holder with the cornea positioned horizontally. The

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 441: Hershberger Bioassay in Rats - A Short-term Screening Assay for (Anti)Androgenic Properties

    The Hershberger Bioassay is an in vivo short–term screening test. It evaluates the ability of a chemical to elicit biological activities consistent with androgen agonists, antagonists or 5 á-reductase inhibitors. The current bioassay is based on the changes in weight of five androgen-dependent tissues in the castrate-peripubertal male rat: the ventral prostate, seminal vesicle (plus fluids and coagulating glands), levator

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 455: The Stably Transfected Human Estrogen Receptor-alpha Transcriptional Activation Assay for Detection of Estrogenic Agonist-Activity of Chemicals

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro assay, which  provides mechanistical information, and can be used for screening and prioritization purposes. The test system utilises the hERalpha-HeLa-9903 cell line derived from a human cervical tumor and stably transfected. This cell line can measure the ability of a test chemical to induce hERalpha-mediated transactivation of luciferase gene expression. The cells are exposed to

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 509: Crop Field Trial

    Crop field trials are conducted to determine the magnitude of the pesticide residue in or on raw agricultural commodities, including feed items, and should be designed to reflect pesticide use patterns that lead to the highest possible residues.

    Objectives of crop field trials are to: (1) quantify the expected range of residue(s) in crop commodities following treatment according to the proposed or established good

  • 2-September-2014

    English

    Guidance Document on the Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Brood test Under Semi-field Conditions

    The method described in this guidance document assesses the effects of plant protection products (PPPs), and has been validated using the active Fenoxycarb, which is known to act as an insect growth regulator (IGR), to the honey bee brood (Apis mellifera L.) under semi-field conditions (tunnel conditions followed by field conditions). The method can be used to address concerns regarding the impact on the brood development in honey

  • 8-December-2014

    English

    OECD Pensions Outlook 2014

    This 2014 edition of the OECD Pensions Outlook examines the ever-changing pensions landscape. It looks at pension reform, the role of private pensions and retirement savings. Population ageing and longevity risk is examined as are the means of increasing coverage and providing automatic enrolment. The volume is rounded out by a chapter on default retirement strategies.

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 231: Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay

    This Test Guideline describes an amphibian metamorphosis assay intended to screen substances which may interfere with the normal functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis. The assay was validated with the species Xenopus laevis, which is recommended for use in the Guideline. The assay uses three test chemical concentrations and the necessary controls, including a carrier control if necessary. The assay starts

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 228: Determination of Developmental Toxicity of a Test Chemical to Dipteran Dung Flies(Scathophaga stercoraria L. (Scathophagidae), Musca autumnalis De Geer (Muscidae))

    This Test Guideline describes a method to estimate the developmental toxicity of a test chemical to the dung dwelling life stages of dung-dependent dipteran species. Two test species can be used. The test chemical is mixed with bovine faeces, to which either 10 eggs of Scathophaga stercoraria or 10 larvae of Musca autumnalis are added. The test will be terminated 5 days after emergence of the last adult in the

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 314: Simulation Tests to Assess the Biodegradability of Chemicals Discharged in Wastewater

    This Test Guideline describes a method to assess the extent and kinetics of primary and ultimate biodegradation of organic chemicals whose route of entry into the environment begins with their discharge to wastewater. It consists of five simulation tests in a) sewer systems, b) activated sludge, c) anaerobic digester sludge, d) treated effluent in the mixing zone of surface water, and e) untreated wastewater that is directly

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 508: Magnitude of the Pesticide Residues in Processed Commodities

    This Test Guideline describes how to plan and carry out processing studies, i.e. determine residue levels in primary processed commodities following pesticide application on raw agriculture commodities (RAC) under conditions likely to lead to maximum residues. It provides the distribution of residues (active ingredient, and/or metabolites, degradation products), and preferential accumulation in various processed products resulting

  • 15-October-2008

    English

    Test No. 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test

    The test method described in this Test Guideline assesses the effect of chemicals on the reproductive output of Daphnia magna Straus. To this end, young female Daphnia are exposed to the test substance added to water at a range of concentrations (at least five). For semi-static tests, at least 10 animals at each test concentration and for flow-through tests, 40 animals divided into four groups of 10 animals at each test

  • 7-September-2009

    English

    Test No. 302C: Inherent Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (II)

    This Test Guideline describes the modified MITI test (II). This test permits the measurement of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and the analysis of residual chemicals in order to evaluate the inherent biodegradability of chemical substances which have been found by the Standard MITI Method (I) to be low degradable.

    An automated closed-system oxygen consumption measuring apparatus (BOD-meter) is used. Chemicals to be

  • 16-December-2014

    English

    Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Austria 2014

    Austria has low levels of labour migration from non-EU/EFTA countries. At the same time, intra-EU free mobility has grown significantly and since 2011, overall migration for employment is above the OECD average. It recently reformed its labour migration system, making it more ready to accept labour migrants where they are needed, especially in medium-skilled occupations in which there were limited admission possibilities

  • 31-March-2015

    English

    Achieving Public Sector Agility at Times of Fiscal Consolidation

    Agility is a tool that can help governments to not only maintain but even improve public services in a time of fiscal consolidation. Financial uncertainty is not the only challenge governments face today. Changing demographics, globalisation, climate change, risk of potential large-scale disasters are among the many others. Agility can help governments meet these challenges as well. It's also not enough to be "agile". Governments

  • 9-March-2011

    English

    Corporate Governance in Asia 2011 - Progress and Challenges

    In 2003, the Asian Roundtable on Corporate Governance produced recommendations to improve corporate governance in Asia, based on the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. This report summarises the results of a stocktaking exercise to determine progress made to date and the challenges remaining in the implementation of these recommendations. Included in this book are valuable insights into corporate governance rules and

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The United States 2014

    Since the last IEA review of the United States was published in 2008, the country’s energy policy landscape has fundamentally changed. In many aspects there have been significant improvements, and the country is in a strong position to deliver a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable energy system.

    The most obvious change has been the renaissance of oil and gas production: the growth in unconventional gas

  • 1-December-2014

    English

    Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2014 Review

    In October 2014, the European Union (EU) set ambitious climate and energy targets for 2030, confirming its global leadership on climate change. But while the targets are in place, the legal framework to implement them is yet to be developed. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union – 2014 provides recommendations on how the targets can be reached in a cost-effective and integrated way, while fostering the

  • 24-December-2014

    English

    Major Transport Infrastructure Projects and Economic Development

    This report discusses the state of the art in understanding the economic effects of major transport infrastructure projects. It examines the limits of socio-economic cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and reviews the development of complementary and alternative approaches to assessing the benefits of investment in large, transformative projects. In particular, his report focuses on practical appraisal tools developed for assessment of the

  • 25-May-2011

    English

    Towards Green Growth: Monitoring Progress - OECD Indicators

    This book provides measurement tools, including indicators, to support countries’ efforts to achieve economic growth and development, while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which well-being relies. The strategy proposes a flexible policy framework that can be tailored to different country circumstances and stages of development. This report accompanies the synthesis report

  • 24-December-2014

    English

    The Economics of Investment in High-Speed Rail

    High-speed trains can compete successfully with road, air and conventional rail services on densely trafficked routes where willingness to pay is sufficient at the relatively elevated fare levels needed to cover costs. High-speed rail investments can also relieve congestion on the conventional rail network, and the capacity for high-speed rail to provide fast city centre to city centre services creates new possibilities for

  • 17-December-2014

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: United Kingdom 2014

    This review of the development co-operation efforts of the United Kingdom examines its policies, performance and implementation. It takes an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian assistance activities of the member under review.

  • 21-November-2013

    English

    Health at a Glance 2013 - OECD Indicators

    This seventh edition of Health at a Glance provides the latest comparable data on different aspects of the performance of health systems in OECD countries. It provides striking evidence of large variations across countries in the costs, activities and results of health systems. Key indicators provide information on health status including suicide and life expectancy, the determinants of health, health care activities and

  • 18-December-2014

    English

    Eurostat-OECD Methodological Guide for Developing Producer Price Indices for Services - Second Edition

    The International Producer Price Index Manual, Theory and Practice (PPI Manual) published by the IMF in 2004 consituted a landmark for international standards on price measurement and contains detailed, comprehensive information for the compilation of producer price indices as well as an extensive coverage of the conceptual and theoretical issues. This second edition of the Methodological Guide for Developing Producer Price Indices

  • 22-December-2014

    English

    Kazakhstan: Review of the Central Administration

    This review examines the functioning, structure and organisation of the central government and line ministries in Kazakhstan, as well as their capacities to implement national objectives and priorities, outlined in the Kazakhstan’s Vision 2050. It also focuses on tools, strategic management and accountability frameworks in the Government of Kazakhstan, in line with the strategic management principles outlined in the General

  • 19-January-2015

    English

    Back to Work: Japan - Improving the Re-employment Prospects of Displaced Workers

    Job displacement (involuntary job loss due to firm closure or downsizing) affects many workers over the course of their working lives. Displaced workers may face long periods of unemployment and, even when they find new jobs, tend to be paid less and have fewer benefits than in the jobs they held prior to displacement. Helping displaced workers get back into good jobs quickly should be a key goal of labour market policy. This

  • 6-January-2015

    English

    OECD Urban Policy Reviews: Mexico 2015 - Transforming Urban Policy and Housing Finance

    In parallel to a sweeping structural reform agenda, Mexico announced in 2013 a new approach to housing and urban policy. Calling for a more explicit qualitative focus on housing and the urban environment, the policy shift is a welcome development. Mexico urbanised more rapidly than most OECD countries in the past half-century, in part as a result of the expansion of housing finance led by INFONAVIT and facilitated by policies

  • 5-June-2009

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Finland 2009

    OECD's comprehensive review of Finland's environmental programs and policies covers air and water management, nature and biodiversity, sustainable development, the environment-economy interface, the environment-social interface, and international commitments. The review includes relevant statistical information as well as a series of recommendations for strengthening environmental infrastructure, implementing environmental policy and

  • 31-March-2010

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Luxembourg 2010

    OECD's 2010 review of Luxembourg's environmental conditions and progress in air, water, waste and materials management; nature and biodiversity; the environment-economy interface; the environment-social interface; and international commitments and co-operation.  The analyses presented are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data and include recommendations for further environmental and sustainable development

  • 21-April-2010

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Ireland 2010

    This 2009 review of Ireland's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in reducing the pollution burden, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. The analyses presented are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data.

  • 16-November-2010

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Japan 2010

    This 2010 review of Japan's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in reducing the pollution burden, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. It includes coverage of policy for greening growth, implementation of environmental policies, climate change, waste management and the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), and nature and

  • 11-April-2011

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Portugal 2011

    This report presents the OECD review of Portugal’s environmental policy performance for 2011. It finds that environmental policies have been consolidated and strengthened since the last review in 2001, but that meeting the post-Kyoto targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions will be challenging. With energy and climate policies being closely related, the report points out that with less than 50% of hydro capacity currently

  • 19-May-2011

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Norway 2011

    This report presents the third OECD review of Norway’s environmental policy performance. Previous reviews were published in 2001 and 1993. Topics covered in this report include greening growth, implementation of environmental policies, international cooperation, climate change, waste management and the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), and nature and biodiversity.

  • 8-November-2011

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Israel 2011

    This 2011 review of Israel's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in sustainable development, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. This report is the first OECD review of Israel’s environmental policy performance.

  • 27-January-2015

    English

    Drinking Lives Away - Harmful Alcohol Use and the Economics of Public Health

    Alcoholic beverages, and their harmful use, have been familiar fixtures in human societies since the beginning of recorded history. Worldwide, alcohol is a leading cause of ill health and premature mortality. It accounts for 1 in 17 deaths, and for an even larger proportion of disabilities, especially in men. In OECD countries, alcohol consumption is about twice the world average. Its social costs are estimated in excess of 1% of

  • 16-December-2014

    English

    OECD Research and Development Expenditure in Industry 2014 - ANBERD

    This 2014 edition of OECD Research and Development Expenditure in Industry provides statistical data on R&D expenditure broken down by industrial and service sectors. Data are presented in current and constant USD PPP values by main activity and product field. Coverage is provided for 28 OECD countries and four non-member economies. The coverage of ANBERD includes multiple sectors, with extended coverage of service sectors

  • 2-March-2015

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Switzerland 2015

    This report examines agricultural policies in Switzerland and makes recommendations concerning the role of regulations, reducing trade barriers and export subsidies, reducing direct payments to farmers and increasing incentives to produce high quality products at competitive prices, implementing regionally differentiated policies, and addressing sustainability of resources and animal welfare.

  • 15-January-2015

    English

    Hungary: Towards a Strategic State Approach

    This report presents the findings and recommendations from analysis conducted by the OECD as part of the OECD-Hungary Strategic Partnership for Public Administration Reform. Through this initiative, the OECD has supported the government of Hungary in putting in place some of the key building blocks of a “strategic state”. The report’s recommendations can be expected to contribute to strengthening the efficiency, effectiveness,

  • 2-March-2015

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Spain 2015

    The OECD Environmental Performance Review Programme provides independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving their domestic and international environmental policy commitments, together with policy relevant recommendations. This report is the third OECD review of Spain’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on biodiversity and the environmental

  • 15-January-2015

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Austria 2015

    This periodic review (roughly every five years) of the individual development co-operation efforts of Austria assesses the performance of Austria's programme, not just that of its development co-operation agency, and examines both policy and implementation. It takes an integrated, system-wide perspective.

  • 24-December-2014

    English

    Valuing Convenience in Public Transport

    The experience of transport systems users, in terms of comfort, reliability, safety and above all convenience, is critical in determining demand for transport services, at least when there is a choice of alternative ways to travel. Convenience is one of the strongest attractions of the private car for passenger transport. For users of public transport, convenience is also clearly important but not always clearly defined and not

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Current Approaches in the Statistical Analysis of Ecotoxicity Data - A guidance to application (annexes to this publication exist as a separate document)

    This document describes the main statistical methods used for analysis of data from ecotoxicological studies .

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Detailed Review Paper on the Use of Metabolising Systems for In Vitro Testing of Endocrine Disruptors

    Increasing incidents of disorders such as obesity/diabetes/metabolic syndrome, reproductive dysfunction, and neuro-developmental abnormalities in some human populations have raised concern that disruption of key endocrine-signaling pathways by exposure to environmental chemicals may be involved. This Detailed Review Paper describes some endocrine pathways that have been shown to be susceptible to environmental endocrine disruption

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Detailed Review Paper on the State of the Science on Novel In Vitro and In Vivo Screening and Testing Methods and Endpoints for Evaluating Endocrine Disruptors

    This document describes some endocrine pathways that have been shown to be susceptible to environmental endocrine disruption and whose disruption could contribute to increasing incidents of some disorders in humans and wildlife populations, such as obesity/diabetes/metabolic syndrome, reproductive dysfunction, and neuro-developmental abnormalities. Assays and endpoints are described that could be used in new or existing OECD Test

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Guidance Document on Standardised Test Guidelines for Evaluating Chemicals for Endocrine Disruption

    This document is a tool to support regulatory authorities’ decisions on the hazard of specific chemicals when they receive test results from a Test Guideline (TG) or draft TG for the screening/testing of chemicals for endocrine disrupting properties. The contexts for these decisions will vary, depending on local legislation and practice, so the advice is worded in such a way as to permit flexible interpretation. It provides

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Fish Toxicity Testing Framework

    This document presents a review of fish toxicity testing for the regulatory purpose of chemical safety. The main focus is on fish toxicity, but fish bioaccumulation is also considered where relevant. A review of regulatory needs for fish tests under various jurisdictions in OECD countries is provided in Chapter 2, followed by a review of statistical issues and general test considerations in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. The

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation Initiated by Covalent Binding to Proteins

    This document describes the state of knowledge of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitisation initiated by covalent binding to proteins, assesses the weight-of-evidence supporting the AOP, identifies the key events, and identifies databases containing test results related to those key events. AOPs can be incorporated into chemical categories-based assessments or integrated approaches for testing and assessment.

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    Detailed Review Paper (DRP) on Molluscs Life-cycle Toxicity Testing

    This paper reviews what is known about the responses of molluscs to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), to consider whether it would be desirable and feasible to standardise mollusc-based partial- and full-lifecycle tests that are sensitive to EDCs and to other chemicals, and if so, to recommend suitable methods for optimisation and validation.

  • 3-September-2014

    English

    The Guidance Document for Using the OECD (Q)SAR Application Toolbox to Develop Chemical Categories According to the OECD Guidance on Grouping Chemicals

    This document provides guidance on how to use the OECD (Q)SAR Application Toolbox to build chemical categories according to the OECD Guidance on Grouping of Chemicals. It is part of an overall effort to provide guidance on the use of the (Q)SAR Application Toolbox.
     

  • 2-January-2015

    English

    Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology

    The peer review process can lead to changes in the interpretation of the slides and the reported results, and potentially the outcome and conclusions of the study. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented and reported in order to meet GLP expectations

  • 10-March-2015

    English

    Skills for Social Progress - The Power of Social and Emotional Skills

    Today’s children will need a balanced set of cognitive, social and emotional skills in order to succeed in modern life. Their capacity to achieve goals, work effectively with others and manage emotions will be essential to meet the challenges of the 21st century. While everyone acknowledges the importance of socio-emotional skills such as perseverance, sociability and self-esteem, there is often insufficient awareness of “what

  • 5-November-2014

    English

    OECD Economic Surveys: Slovak Republic 2014

    OECD's 2014 Economic Survey of the Slovak Republic examines recent economic developments, policies and prospects. Special chapters cover reforming the public sector and spurring growth in lagging regions.

  • 12-March-2015

    English

    OECD Review of Agricultural Policies: Colombia 2015

    This review assesses the performance of Colombian agriculture over the last two decades, evaluates Colombian agricultural policy reforms and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. The evaluation is based on the approach that agriculture policy should be evidence-based and carefully designed and implemented to support productivity, competitiveness and sustainability, while avoiding unnecessary distortions

  • 23-April-2015

    English

    OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Poland 2015

    The OECD Environmental Performance Review Programme provides independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving their domestic and international environmental policy commitments, together with policy relevant recommendations. They are conducted to promote peer learning, to enhance governments’ accountability to each other and to the public, and to improve countries’ environmental performance, individually and collectively.

  • 6-June-2011

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Russian Federation 2011

    The OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Russian Federation offers a comprehensive assessement of the innovation system of the Russian Federation, focusing on the role of government. It provides concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation performance, including R&D policies. It also identifies good practice from which other countries can learn.

  • 27-March-2015

    English

    Ageing and Employment Policies: Poland 2015

    People today are living longer than ever before, while birth rates are dropping in the majority of OECD countries. Such demographics raise the question: are current public social expenditures adequate and sustainable? Older workers play a crucial role in the labour market. Now that legal retirement ages are rising, fewer older workers are retiring early, but at the same time those older workers who have lost their job after the age

  • 3-February-2015

    English

    Dementia Research and Care - Can Big Data Help?

    OECD countries are developing strategies to improve the quality of life of those affected by dementia and to support long-term efforts for a disease-modifying therapy or cure. The OECD jointly hosted an international workshop in Toronto with the Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) and the Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation (IHPME), University of Toronto on 14-15 September 2014. The aim of the workshop was to advance

  • 21-July-2009

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Korea 2009

    This report assesses the current status of Korea’s innovation system and policies, and identifies where and how the government should focus its efforts to improve the country’s innovation capabilities. It finds that Korea has one of the highest rates of spending on R&D in the world, much of which is performed by private firms. It also has a highly educated labour force – as signalled by its impressive PISA performance and

  • 18-February-2015

    English

    Governing the City

    How do cities govern themselves as they grow bigger? The answer can shape the competitiveness and quality of life in those cities and depends on a number of factors, ranging from the country's institutional framework to the cities' specific socioeconomic dynamics. This report presents a typology of metropolitan governance arrangements observed across OECD countries and offers guidance for cities seeking for more effective

  • 20-March-2015

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Flanders, Belgium

    This report delivers evidence-based and practical recommendations on how to better support employment and economic development in Flanders, Belgium. It builds on sub-national data analysis and consultations with local stakeholders in two case study areas (Antwerp and Limburg). It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in contributing to more and better quality jobs. The report can help national,

  • 18-February-2015

    English

    The Metropolitan Century - Understanding Urbanisation and its Consequences

    The report provides an outline of recent and likely future urbanisation trends and discusses the consequences. The world is in the middle of an urbanisation process that will cause urbanisation rates to rise from low double digit rates to more than 80% by the end of the century. It argues that this is both a great opportunity and a great challenge, as decisions taken today will affect the lifes of people for a long time to come.

  • 26-March-2015

    English

    States of Fragility 2015 - Meeting Post-2015 Ambitions

    This 2015 OECD report on fragility contributes to the broader debate to define post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), and argues that addressing fragility in the new framework will be crucial if strides in reducing poverty are to be made. It argues in favour of proposed SDG 16 – promoting peaceful and inclusive societies - which aims to reduce violence of all forms. It differs markedly from previous years as it seeks to

  • 24-February-2015

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in England, United Kingdom

    This report delivers evidence-based and practical recommendations on how to better support employment and economic development in England. It builds on sub-national data analysis and consultations with local stakeholders in Nottingham and North Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands as well as Hull and Scarborough in Yorkshire and the Humber. It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in

  • 20-February-2015

    English

    Governing the Metropolitan City of Venice

    Prepared at the request of the City of Venice, this report explores the implications for Venice of the adoption in 2014 of new legislation on the governance of metropolitan cities. It builds on the analysis of the OECD Territorial Review of Venice (2010), analysing a number of different "functional geographies" of the larger urban region centred on Venice. The report argues that, although the new legislation offers some

  • 30-March-2015

    English

    Employment and Skills Strategies in Sweden

    This report delivers evidence-based and practical recommendations on how to better support employment and economic development in Sweden. It builds on sub-national data analysis and consultations with local stakeholders in Galve and Stockholm. It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in contributing to more and better quality jobs. The report can help national and local policy makers in Sweden

  • 20-March-2015

    English

    ISCED 2011 Operational Manual - Guidelines for Classifying National Education Programmes and Related Qualifications

    This operational manual is designed to assist in the classification and mapping of national education systems according to ISCED 2011. It provides guidelines and explanatory notes for the interpretation of the revised classification, and includes country examples of programmes and qualifications that have been classified to ISCED 2011. This ISCED 2011 Operational Manual: Guidelines for classifying national education programmes

  • 17-February-2015

    English

    Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Indonesia 2015

    Indonesia can claim many economic and political achievements over the last 15 years: the country posted consistently high economic growth rates, joined the G20, stabilised its young democracy, and devolved budgetary power and decision making. Extending this track record further depends on Indonesia’s ability to deliver sustainable and sufficient energy supply to markets and ultimately to consumers.

    Even though it remains a

  • 5-February-2015

    English

    Test No. 442C: In Chemico Skin Sensitisation - Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA)

    The present Test Guideline addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS).

    This Test Guideline provides an in chemico procedure (Direct Peptide

  • 5-February-2015

    English

    Test No. 442D: In Vitro Skin Sensitisation - ARE-Nrf2 Luciferase Test Method

    The present Test Guideline addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS).

    This Test Guideline (TG) provides an in vitro procedure (the ARE-Nrf2

  • 6-February-2015

    English

    Guide for International Peer Reviews of Decommissioning Cost Studies for Nuclear Facilities

    Peer reviews are a standard co-operative OECD working tool that offer member countries a framework to compare experiences and examine best practices in a host of areas. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has developed a proven methodology for conducting peer reviews in radioactive waste management and nuclear R&D. Using this methodology, the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee’s Working Party on Decommissioning and

  • 12-February-2015

    English

    Material Resources, Productivity and the Environment

    Improving resource productivity and ensuring a sustainable resource and materials management building on the principle of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) is a central element of green growth policies. It helps to improve the environment, by reducing the amount of resources that the economy requires and diminishing the associated environmental impacts, and sustain economic growth by securing adequate supplies of materials and

  • 10-March-2015

    English

    Investing in Youth: Tunisia - Strengthening the Employability of Youth during the Transition to a Green Economy

    This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth labour market in Tunisia, including a focus on vocational education and training and entrepreneurship, and within the context of Tunisia's transition to a green economy. The report takes an international comparative perspective, offering policy options to help improve school-to-work transitions. It also provides an opportunity for other countries to learn from the innovative

  • 4-March-2015

    English

    Fit Mind, Fit Job - From Evidence to Practice in Mental Health and Work

    The costs of mental ill-health for individuals, employers and society at large are enormous. Mental illness is responsible for a very significant loss of potential labour supply, high rates of unemployment, and a high incidence of sickness absence and reduced productivity at work. Following an introductory report (Sick on the Job: Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work) and nine country reports, this final synthesis

  • 12-February-2015

    English

    STAN: OECD Structural Analysis Statistics 2014

    This STAN: OECD Structural Analysis Statistics 2014 provides analysts and researchers with a comprehensive tool for analysing industrial performance across countries. It includes annual measures of production, value added (at current and constant prices), gross fixed capital formation, number engaged and labour compensation. Data are in national currency for current price data i.e. in Euros for EMU countries; in terms of the

  • 19-March-2015

    English

    OECD Public Governance Reviews: Estonia and Finland - Fostering Strategic Capacity across Governments and Digital Services across Borders

    This publication examines public governance arrangements in Finland and Estonia in two key areas: whole-of-government strategy steering and digital governance. This integrated review reflects the fact that the two countries face common challenges in setting and co-ordinating the implementation of whole-of-government strategies.

  • 15-April-2015

    English

    National Climate Change Adaptation - Emerging Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation

    Developing countries are increasingly moving towards more strategic national policies and plans, the effectiveness of which will depend upon proper assessment of a given country’s vulnerability to climate change. This report draws upon emerging monitoring and evaluation practices across developed and developing countries to identify four tools that countries can draw upon in their own assessment frameworks: 1) climate change risk

  • 5-March-2015

    English

    The ABC of Gender Equality in Education - Aptitude, Behaviour, Confidence

    This fascinating compilation of the recent data on gender differences in education presents a wealth of data, analysed from a multitude of angles in a clear and lively way. In particular it looks at underperformance among boys, lack of self confidence among girls and family, school and societal influences before addressing policies to help boys and girls reach their full potential.

  • 16-April-2015

    English

    Water Resources Allocation - Sharing Risks and Opportunities

    Water resources allocation determines who is able to use water resources, how, when and where. It directly affects the value (economic, ecological, socio-cultural) that individuals and society obtain from water resources. This report overviews how allocation works in a range of countries and how the performance of allocation arrangements can be improved to adjust to changing conditions.

    Capturing information from 27 OECD

  • 10-March-2015

    English

    Implementing Good Regulatory Practice in Malaysia

    This report examines Malaysia's early experience of implementing regulatory impact analysis (RIA) to support evidence-based rule making. The introduction of RIA is a key element of Malaysia's National Policy on the Development and Implementation of Regulations, launched in 2013. Malaysia has put in place the institutional infrastructure for implementing RIA at a rapid pace, learning from the experiences of a number of OECD

  • 23-April-2015

    English

    State-Owned Enterprises in the Development Process

    This publication is a first response of the OECD to the issue of what role is, or can be, assigned to SOEs as part of national development strategies. The first part of the publication overviews the experiences of five countries (Brazil, China, India, Singapore and South Africa) with using SOEs, and other government-controlled entities as agents of their development strategies. The second part reviews the growing

  • 20-March-2015

    English

    OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015

    China needs a new model of urbanisation to match the shift to a new model of growth. For decades, both urbanisation and growth have been based on robust export demand, cheap labour, cheap land and artificially low pricing of environmental externalities. None of these can support growth or urban development in the future. This review examines the major challenges associated with the shift to a new model of urbanisation, looking at a

  • 25-March-2015

    English

    Consequences of Corruption at the Sector Level and Implications for Economic Growth and Development

    This report provides an analysis of the impact of a range of corrupt practices on economic growth and development in four key sectors: utilities and infrastructure, extractive industries, health and education. As quantification of the impact of corruption on economic growth at a macro level remains challenging, this report presents evidence at the micro and sectoral level to capture the various consquences of this phenomenon.

  • 13-March-2015

    English

    OECD Territorial Reviews: The Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration, Russian Federation

    Bringing together the city of Krasnoyarsk and six adjacent smaller cities and rural districts, the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration is increasingly emerging as the main economic hub of Eastern Siberia. Its relative weight in both population and economic activity continues to grow. This review examines the Agglomeration’s performance and potential, particularly with reference to such critical challenges as internal and external

  • 26-March-2015

    English

    Education in Indonesia - Rising to the Challenge

    Having made impressive progress in widening access to basic education, Indonesia must now consolidate these gains and develop an education system that will support better the needs of a rapidly emerging economy in its transition towards high-income status. This report provides guidance on how Indonesia can rise to this challenge. It highlights three main policy directions which, pursued together, would help Indonesia advance on the

  • 30-March-2015

    English

    Building Tax Culture, Compliance and Citizenship - A Global Source Book on Taxpayer Education

    Now more than ever, governments are striving to mobilise greater tax revenue domestically. To do so, they are increasingly reaching out to inform and engage today’s – and future – taxpayers. They aim to foster an overall “culture of compliance” based on rights and responsibilities, in which citizens see paying taxes as an integral aspect of their relationship with their government. Taxpayer education is the bridge linking tax

  • 17-March-2015

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: El Salvador 2015 - Phase 1: Legal and Regulatory Framework

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and

  • 17-March-2015

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Mauritania 2015 - Phase 1: Legal and Regulatory Framework

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and

  • 17-March-2015

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Aruba 2015 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Aruba.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 17-March-2015

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Cook Islands 2015 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of the Cook Islands.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal

  • 17-March-2015

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Curaçao 2015 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Curaçao.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 17-March-2015

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Hungary 2015 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Hungary.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 17-March-2015

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Portugal 2015 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Portugal.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 17-March-2015

    English

    Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Uruguay 2015 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

    This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Uruguay.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

    The

  • 30-March-2015

    English

    Securing Livelihoods for All - Foresight for Action

    The world has made good progress in improving global livelihoods. More than two billion people have emerged from extreme poverty over the last four decades. Other notable improvements include real increases in wages for unskilled workers, better life expectancy, greater gender equality and more widespread literacy. However, a number of daunting challenges threaten to undo this progress, particularly on the demographic and

  • 19-December-2014

    English

    An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel - Geography, Economics and Security

    The Sahara-Sahel has seen recurrent episodes of instability. However, the recent Libyan and Malian crises have intensified the level of violence. These episodes have restructured the geopolitical and geographical dynamics of the region. Cross-border or regional, these contemporary crises require new institutional responses. How can countries sharing this space -  Algeria, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Chad and Tunisia