8-October-2009

English

Assessing Measures of Energy Efficiency Performance and their Application in Industry

This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (“MEEP”) and considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions.
The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study

20-October-2008

English

CO2 Capture and Storage: A Key Carbon Abatement Option

Oil, coal and natural gas will remain the world’s dominant sources of energy over the next decades, with resulting carbon dioxide emissions set to increase to unsustainable levels. However, technologies that help reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuels can reverse this trend. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is particularly promising. CCS takes CO2 from large stationary sources and stores it in deep

27-August-2009

English

Development of Competitive Gas Trading in Continental Europe

In its latest publication, Development of Competitive Gas Trading in Continental Europe, the IEA examines the history of major gas markets’ development in OECD Europe, and explores the possible expansion of trading through the mechanism of different hubs across the region. Lessons learned from North American markets on the benefits of regulatory convergence and investor-friendly legal framework are an important part of the

2-February-2009

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Netherlands 2008

This comprehensive review analyses the energy challenges facing the Netherlands in 2008 and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It urges the government to provide policy continuity – such as in promotion regimes for renewable energy – to underpin a sustainable investment climate. It also highlights the need for closer co-ordination among national, regional and local authorities. 

20-March-2009

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Luxembourg 2008

The Inernational Energy Agency's periodic review of Luxembourg's energy policies and programmes.  It analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements.

Since the last review in 2004, Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors, has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the

2-February-2010

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy 2009

This 2009 IEA review of Italy's energy policies and programmes finds that the Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous

24-April-2009

English

Cleaner Coal in China

China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental

24-November-2008

English

Energy Policy Review of Indonesia

This comprehensive review offers an analysis of Indonesia’s energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a

16-October-2008

English

Nuclear Energy Outlook 2008

World energy demand continues to grow unabated and is leading to very serious concerns about security of supply, soaring energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. Nuclear energy is being increasingly seen as having a role to play in addressing these concerns. Responding to renewed interest in nuclear energy, this Nuclear Energy Outlook uses the most current data and statistics available and

22-December-2008

English

Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium

This volume is the eleventh in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) “Chemical Thermodynamics” series. It is based on a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of thorium, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, initiated as part of the NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III). The database system developed at the OECD/NEA Data Bank ensures consistency not only within the recommended data sets of thorium,

13-May-2009

English

Gadgets and Gigawatts : Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics

By 2010 there will be over 3.5 billion mobile phones subscribers, 2 billion TVs in use around the world and 1 billion personal computers.This book examines how "smart" this equipment is from an energy efficiency perspective and what the potential is for energy savings.  It includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by

28-September-2009

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Spain 2009

This review analyses the energy challenges facing Spain and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It finds that since the last IEA in-depth review in 2005, Spain has made significant progress in improving its energy policy. In Europe, the country is now leading in gas diversification and LNG development. Together with Portugal, it has set up the common Iberian electricity market, MIBEL, and has strong

8-September-2009

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Portugal 2009

The International Energy Agency's 2009 review of Portugal's energy policies and programmes.  This edition finds that Portugal has made considerable efforts to strengthen its energy policy since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. A large number of IEA recommendations have been successfully implemented, including greater diversification of the energy mix and increased energy policy co-ordination. A new National Energy Strategy,

23-July-2010

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Turkey 2009

The International Energy Agency's periodic review of Turkey's energy policies and programmes.  This 2009 edition finds that Turkey will likely see the fastest medium to long-term growth in energy demand among the IEA member countries. It has a young and urbanising population and energy use is still comparatively low. Therefore, ensuring sufficient energy supply to a growing economy remains the government’s main energy policy concern.

13-April-2010

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Canada 2009

The International Energy Agency's periodic review of Canada's energy policies and programmes.  This 2010 edition finds that Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential

23-July-2010

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: France 2009

The International Energy Agency's periodic review of France's energy policies and programmes.  This 2009 edition finds that the energy policy of France seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure.

To meet these objectives, the French government in 2007 launched an

4-March-2009

English

Natural Tracer Profiles Across Argillaceous Formations - The CLAYTRAC Project

This technical report describes the results of the Nuclear Energy Agency's CLAYTRAC project, in which natural tracer data from nine sites was evaluated to assess potential impacts of disposal of radiological waste in geological repositories. It shows scientific information from numerous sites and applies robust analytical methods to improve the understanding of radionuclide migration and evolution of sites for deep geological

4-March-2009

English

Stability and Buffering Capacity of the Geosphere for Long-term Isolation of Radioactive Waste - Application to Crystalline Rock

Geological settings selected as potential host formations for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste are chosen for, among other assets, their long-term stability and buffering capacity against destabilising events and processes. These proceedings present the outcomes of a geosphere stability workshop, held in November 2007, that focused on crystalline and other types of hard, fractured rocks. The workshop underscored the

7-April-2009

English

Considering Timescales in the Post-closure Safety of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

A key challenge in the development of safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is handling the long time frame over which the radioactive waste remains hazardous. The intrinsic hazard of the waste decreases with time, but some hazard remains for extremely long periods. This report reviews the current status and ongoing discussions of this issue, addressing such issues as ethical principles, the evolution

7-April-2009

English

Strategic and Policy Issues Raised by the Transition from Thermal to Fast Nuclear Systems

The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation and expanded interest in fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and

8-October-2009

English

Energy Efficiency Indicators for Public Electricity Production from Fossil Fuels

Electricity production is responsible for 32% of total global fossil fuel use, accounting for 132 EJ, and 41%, or 10.9 Gt of energy-related CO2 emissions. Improving the efficiency of electricity production therefore offers economic benefits and a significant opportunity for reducing dependence on fossil fuels, which helps to combat climate change and improve energy security.
A set of indicators has been developed to

13-October-2009

English

IEA Scoreboard 2009 - 35 Key Energy Trends over 35 Years

Measuring and assessing how much has been done by member countries over the years to follow their underlying principles is not an easy task. Each country is unique in terms of economy, geography, climate, energy resources, etc. Taking into account some of these specificities, the IEA Scoreboard 2009 compares what has been achieved by member countries in diversifying their energy mix, in promoting non-fossil fuels and

14-September-2009

English

Sectoral Approaches in Electricity - Building Bridges to a Safe Climate

Electricity accounts for more than 40 % of global energy-related CO2 emissions. This issue is most pressing for developing countries where growth in power demand is particularly high, fueling the risk of irreversible investment in CO2-intensive capacity, the so-called “carbon lock-in”.

Sectoral Approaches in Electricity – Building Bridges to a Safe Climate shows how the international

14-September-2009

English

Energy Technology Transitions for Industry - Strategies for the Next Industrial Revolution

Industry accounts for one-third of global energy use and almost 40% of worldwide CO2 emissions.  Achieving substantial emissions reduction in the future will require urgent action from industry.  What are the likely future trends in energy use and CO2 emissions from industry? What impact could the application of best available technologies have on these trends?  Which new technologies are needed if these

26-October-2009

English

Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, this IEA review assesses Chile’s major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile’s long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the

8-July-2009

English

Explorations in OEEC History

Fifty years after it was launched, the Marshall Plan remains a major event of post World War II history. But what did it actually do for European reconstruction? To commemorate the opening of its historical archives to the public and their deposit at the European University Institute (EUI), the OECD invited a group of EUI historians to analyse the role played by the Marshall Plan and the Organisation for European Economic

30-October-2009

English

Transport Energy and CO2 : Moving towards Sustainability

Car ownership is set to triple by 2050, trucking activity will double and air travel could increase fourfold. This book examines how to enable mobility without accelerating climate change.  It finds that if we change the way we travel, adopt technologies to improve vehicle efficiency and shift to low-CO2 fuels, we can move onto a different pathway  where transport CO2 emissions by 2050 are far below current

1-December-2009

English

Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 1 - Increasing Transparency through Legislation

Lobbying can improve policy making by providing valuable insights and data, but it can also result in unfair advantages for vested interests if the process is opaque and standards are lax.‪‪ Lobbying is resource intensive. The financial services sector in the United States spent USD 3.4 billion lobbying the federal government between 1998 and 2008, principally promoting the deregulation of the financial sector. Legions of lobbyists

16-October-2009

English

Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: are IEA Member Countries on Track?

This book presents 25 energy efficiency recommendations from the IEA which could, if implemented globally without delay, reduce global CO2 emissions by 8.2 gigatonnes per year by 2030 – equivalent to roughly two-times the amount of current EU CO2 emissions.

This innovative book provides the first assessment of IEA member countries’ progress on implementing energy efficiency policy.  Using a rigorous evaluation process, it

8-October-2009

English

Cogeneration and District Energy - Sustainable energy technologies for today... and tomorrow

Combined heat and power and district heating and cooling (DHC) represent a series of proven, reliable and cost-effective technologies that are already making an important contribution to meeting global heat and electricity demand.
This report follows the March 2008 report that hightlighted the energy, economic and environmental benefits of CHP and DHC (IEA, 2008). That report also provides a technical introduction to CHP/DHC and

8-October-2009

English

Empowering Variable Renewables – Options for Flexible Electricity Systems

A number of renewable electricity technologies, such as wind, wave, tidal, solar, and run-of-river hydro share a characteristic that distinguishes them from conventional power plants: their output varies according to the availability of the resource.

This is commonly perceived to be challenging at high shares, but there is no intrinsic, technical ceiling to variable renewables’ potential. Variability has to be looked at in the

10-December-2009

English

Cities, Towns and Renewable Energy - Yes In My Front Yard

Local governments have the power to influence the energy choices of their citizens. Many cities and towns have already encouraged energy efficiency measures. Even so, as demand for energy services continues to grow, the energy infrastructure that every city and town depends on will need to be expanded, upgraded or replaced. This provides the opportunity to increase the deployment of renewable energy technologies and decentralised

8-October-2009

English

Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment

Clean coal technologies (CCTs) have been developed and deployed to reduce the environmental impact of coal utilisation over the past 30 to 40 years. Initially, the focus was upon reducing emissions of particulates, SO2, NOX and mercury.
The coal sector – producers, consumers and equipment suppliers – as well as governments and agencies in countries where coal is essential, have a long experience of stimulating clean coal

1-December-2009

English

The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants

Many countries have recognised that greater use of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, given the high capital cost and complexity of nuclear power plants, financing their construction often remains a challenge. This is especially true where such financing is left to the private sector in the context of competitive electricity markets. 

This study examines the financial risks

9-July-2010

English

Consumer Policy Toolkit

The markets for goods and services have undergone significant changes over the past 20 years. Regulatory reform, global markets, new technologies and growth in the role of services in economic activity have driven the changes which, in many instances, have provided significant benefits to consumers. Relatively little attention has been paid to the challenges these developments have posed for consumers. More choice and more

9-February-2010

English

Towards Transparent, Proportionate and Deliverable Regulation for Geological Disposal

These workshop proceedings highlight the significant amount of work accomplished over the past decade in delivering transparent, proportionate regulation for geological disposal, and identify important differences between national regulations even if these are not in contradiction with international guidance. They also underline the importance of R&D carried out on behalf of the regulator. In addition to the contributed papers, these

8-April-2010

English

Partnering for Long-Term Management of Radioactive Waste - Evolution and Current Practice in Thirteen Countries

National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent

23-June-2010

English

Nuclear Production of Hydrogen - Fourth Information Exchange Meeting, Oakbrook, Illinois, USA , 14-16 April 2009

Hydrogen has the potential to play an important role as a sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy carrier in the 21st century. This report describes the scientific and technical challenges associated with the production of hydrogen using heat and/or electricity from nuclear power plants, with special emphasis on recent developments in high-temperature electrolysis and the use of different chemical thermodynamic processes.

11-May-2010

English

Solar Photovoltaic Energy

This energy technology roadmap envisions that by 2050, photovoltaic could provide 11% of global electricity production (4 500 TWh per year), corresponding to 3 000 gigawatts of cumulative installed photovoltaic capacity. In addition to contributing to significant greenhouse gas emission reductions, photovoltaic will deliver substantial benefits in terms of the security of energy supply and socio-economic development. This roadmap

9-October-2009

English

Carbon Capture and Storage

This energy technology roadmap on carbon capture and storage (CCS) identifies, for the first time, a detailed scenario for the technology’s growth from a handful of large-scale projects today to over three thousand projects by 2050. It finds that the next decade is a key “make or break” period for CCS; governments, industry and public stakeholders must act rapidly to demonstrate CCS at scale around the world in a variety of

12-October-2009

English

Cement Technology Roadmap: Carbon Emissions Reductions up to 2050

The cement energy technology roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the industry to make continued contributions towards a halving of global CO2 emissions by 2050. As part of this contribution, this roadmap estimates that the cement industry could reduce its direct emissions 18% from current levels by 2050. This roadmap is a first step. It is only attainable with a supportive policy framework, and appropriate financial

7-May-2010

English

Concentrating Solar Power

The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help chart the course to broad development and deployment of CSP.

12-October-2009

English

Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

This energy technology roadmap focuses on electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV), presenting for the first time a detailed scenario for their evolution from annual production of a few thousand to over 100 million vehicles by 2050. It finds that the next decade is a key “make or break” period for EVs and PHEVs: governments, the automobile industry, electric utilities and other stakeholders must work together to roll out

12-October-2009

English

Wind Energy

Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the “new” renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This energy technology roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal.

3-June-2010

English

Nuclear Energy

Almost one quarter of global electricity could be generated from nuclear power by 2050, making a major contribution to cutting greenhouse gas emissions. This is the central finding of the Nuclear Energy Technology Roadmap, published today by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Such an expansion will require nuclear generating capacity to more than triple over the next 40 years, a target

30-July-2010

English

Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA enables member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to share research on breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants and to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes.

Energy Technology Initiatives: Implementation

28-May-2013

English

Resources to Reserves 2013 - Oil, Gas and Coal Technologies for the Energy Markets of the Future

The availability of oil and gas for future generations continues to provoke international debate. In 2005, the first edition of Resources to Reserves found that the known hydrocarbon resources were sufficient to sustain likely growth for the foreseeable future. Yet the book also predicted that developing oil and gas resources – and bringing them to market – would become more technically demanding.

Resources to Reserves 2013

10-September-2010

English

Radioactive Waste in Perspective

Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by

7-October-2010

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Czech Republic 2010

The International Energy Agency's 2010 review of the Czech Republic's energy policies and programmes. It analyses the energy challenges facing the Czech Republic and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

It finds that the Czech Republic, rich in coal resources, is the third-largest

28-March-2011

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: New Zealand 2010

The International Energy Agency's periodic review of New Zealand's energy policies and programmes.  This edition finds that New Zealand’s strong commitment to liberalised energy markets has delivered a relatively high level of energy security and economic prosperity for consumers. Since the previous IEA review in 2006, the government has built on the success of existing policy mechanisms and implemented a number of far-reaching

13-December-2010

English

The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and

27-October-2011

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Greece 2011

This 2011 review of energy policy in Greece finds that increasing competition and reducing the role of the state in the energy sector should add efficiency and dynamism to the economy.  This, in turn, should help generate self-sustained employment and prosperity for the country.  

Reforming the electricity and gas markets is an economic and political imperative. In particular, regulatory authorities must be given the

4-January-2011

English

Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF 10 - Workshop Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland 2-4 June 2010

Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines, and are having an increasingly important impact on research, technology and daily life. Today they cover a wide range of applications including material science and medical applications. In recent years, requirements from new technological and research applications have emerged while the number of accelerator facilities in operation,

22-March-2010

English

Public Attitudes to Nuclear Power

Public attitudes to nuclear power are critical in shaping nuclear policies in OECD/NEA countries and the latter will only be able to make use of this energy source if a well-informed public considers that its benefits outweigh its risks. This report provides a number of insights into public attitudes towards nuclear power. Support for nuclear energy is generally correlated with the level of experience of and knowledge about nuclear

15-April-2010

English

More than Just Concrete Realities - The Symbolic Dimension of Radioactive Waste Management

Key concepts of radioactive waste management, such as safety, risk, reversibility and retrievability, carry different meanings for the technical community and for non-technical stakeholders. Similarly, socio-economic concepts, including community, landscape and benefit packages, are interpreted differently by diverse societal groups. Opinions and attitudes are not simply a faithful reflection of decision making, actual events and

31-August-2010

English

Comparing Nuclear Accident Risks with Those from Other Energy Sources

Nuclear accident risks are raised frequently in discussions of the acceptability of nuclear power generation, often framed in the context of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. In reality, the safety record of nuclear power plants, by comparison with other electricity generation sources, is very good. This report describes how safety has been enhanced in nuclear power plants over the years, as the designs have progressed

22-March-2010

English

Towards Greater Harmonisation of Decommissioning Cost Estimates

Currently, the format, content and practice of cost estimation vary considerably both within and between countries, which makes it very difficult to compare estimates, even for similar types of facilities. The reasons are largely due to different legal requirements in different countries and to historical custom and practice, leading to variations in basic assumptions such as the anticipated decommissioning strategy and end state

5-October-2010

English

Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants

Global demand for electricity continues to grow and numerous new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being planned or constructed in NEA member countries. Most of these new NPPs will be of the third generation, and will be designed for as long as 80 years of operation. The successful design, construction and operation of these plants will depend broadly on appropriately implementing the lessons from experience accumulated to date.

21-April-2010

English

Applying Decommissioning Experience to the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Power Plants

Experience from decommissioning projects suggests that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants could be made easier if it received greater consideration at the design stage and during the operation of the plants. Better forward planning for decommissioning results in lower worker doses and reduced costs. When appropriate design measures are not taken at an early stage, their introduction later in the project becomes

15-March-2011

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Norway 2011

The International Energy Agency's 2011 comprehensive review of Norways energy policies and programmes. The review finds that Norway has a unique twin role as a major oil and gas producer and a strong global advocate of climate change mitigation. As the third-largest exporter of energy in the world, it contributes to global energy security by providing reliable supplies to consuming countries. At the same time, the Norwegians highly

2-March-2011

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland 2011

The International Energy Agency's comprehensive 2011 review Poland's energy policies and programmes.  The review finds that Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans

21-February-2012

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Denmark 2011

Denmark is a leader among OECD member countries in terms of its well-designed policies for renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate change. The country is a forthright voice in international fora for climate policy and a strong advocate of tougher climate-change mitigation measures. A long history of consensus-based policy making and political stability has been leveraged to develop Denmarkfs far-reaching and comprehensive

15-July-2011

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2011

The International Energy Agency's 2011 review of Hungary's energy policies and programmes. The review finds that regional co-operation is a vital element of Hungary's energy market and energy security policy. Hungary, which shares borders with seven countries, is well placed to improve regional energy security by catalysing the development of closely integrated regional markets for electricity and natural gas.

A country strongly

9-October-2009

English

Research and Test Facilities Required in Nuclear Science and Technology

Experimental facilities are essential research tools both for the development of nuclear science and technology and for testing systems and materials which are currently being used or will be used in the future. As a result of economic pressures and the closure of older facilities, there are concerns that the ability to undertake the research necessary to maintain and to develop nuclear science and technology may be in jeopardy.

13-July-2009

English

Work Management to Optimise Occupational Radiological Protection at Nuclear Power Plants

Since 1992, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) has provided a forum for radiological protection professionals from nuclear power utilities and national regulatory authorities worldwide to discuss, promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings for the radiological protection of workers at nuclear power plants. The ISOE objective is to improve occupational exposure management at nuclear power

17-May-2010

English

Cost Estimation for Decommissioning - An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements

This report is based on a study carried out by the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) on decommissioning cost elements, estimation practices and reporting requirements. Its findings indicate that cost methodologies need to be updated continuously using cost data from actual decommissioning projects and hence, systematic approaches need to be implemented to collect these data. The study also concludes that changes in

10-March-2010

English

National Programmes in Chemical Partitioning - A Status Report

Many countries have been performing a wide range of research on the partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of minor actinides and fission products. The aim is to provide greater flexibility in terms of radioactive waste management strategies and deploying advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This report describes recent and ongoing national research programmes related to chemical partitioning in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Japan,

26-July-2010

English

International Nuclear Law - History, Evolution and Outlook

This publication commemorates the International School of Nuclear Law which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2010. The purpose of the publication is to provide an overview of the international nuclear law instruments, their background, content and development over the years and to present an outlook on future needs in the field of international nuclear law. Renowned experts in the nuclear law field have contributed scholarly

3-February-2009

English

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenario Studies - Status Report

Future nuclear fuel cycles could effectively address radioactive waste issues with the implementation of partitioning and transmutation (P&T). Previous studies have defined the infrastructure requirements for several key technical approaches. While these studies have proven extremely valuable, several countries have also recognised the complex, dynamic nature of the infrastructure problem: severe new issues arise when attempting to

24-May-2011

English

Harnessing Variable Renewables - A Guide to the Balancing Challenge

Power systems must be actively managed to maintain a steady balance between supply and demand. This is already a complex task as demand varies continually. But what happens when supply becomes more variable and less certain, as with some renewable sources of electricity like wind and solar PV that fluctuate with the weather? To what extent can the resources that help power systems cope with the challenge of variability in demand

27-May-2011

English

Climate and Electricity Annual 2011 - Data and Analyses

Electricity use is growing worldwide, providing a range of energy services: lighting, heating and cooling, specific industrial uses, entertainment, information technologies, and mobility. Because its generation remains largely based on fossil fuels, electricity is also the largest and the fastest-growing source of energy-related CO2 emissions, the primary cause of human-induced climate change. Forecasts from the IEA and

8-April-2011

English

From War to Wealth - Fifty Years of Innovation

This lavishly illustrated book tells the story of the development of the OECD from the founding of its predecessor organisation, the OEEC after World War II, to the transformation into the OECD in 1960, and its evolution since that time. Covering the stewardship of 6 Secretaries-General over a period of 50 years, the book describes what OECD does and how it does it.  An interesting chapter on a Day in the Life of a Chateau, tracks a

21-April-2011

English

Smart Grids

The development of smart grids – which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users – is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing

5-November-2014

English

OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Slovak Republic 2014

This book provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues facing the educational evaluation and assessment framework, current policy initiatives, and possible future approaches in the Slovak Republic.

27-June-2011

English

Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems - Workshop Proceedings, Karlsruhe, Germany, 15-17 March 2010

The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a potential transmutation system option as part of partitioning and transmutation strategies for radioactive waste in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. These proceedings contain all the technical papers presented at the workshop on Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems held on 15-17 March 2010 in Karlsruhe, Germany. The workshop provided experts with a forum to present and discuss

23-June-2011

English

Biofuels for Transport

Biofuels could provide up to 27% of total transport fuel worldwide by 2050. The use of transport fuels from biomass, when produced sustainably, can help cut petroleum use and reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector, especially in heavy transport. Sustainable biofuel technologies, in particular advanced biofuels, will play an important role in achieving this roadmap vision.

The roadmap describes the steps necessary to

23-June-2011

English

Geothermal Heat and Power

The technology roadmap for Geothermal Heat and Power offers a strategic plan to maximise deployment of these energy resources by 2050. It projects that 1 400 TWh of electricity per year could come from geothermal power by 2050, up from 67 TWh at present.

Additionally, geothermal heat (not including ground-source heat pump technology) could contribute 5.8 EJ (1600 TWh) annually by 2050. In order to reach these targets, policy

23-June-2011

English

Energy-efficient Buildings - Heating and Cooling Equipment

Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and

8-July-2011

English

Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Power

This study assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalised electricity markets with either CO2 trading or carbon taxes. It uses daily price data for electricity, gas, coal and carbon from 2005 to 2010, which encompasses the first years of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the world’s foremost carbon trading framework. The study shows that even with modest carbon

2-October-2012

English

Bioenergy for Heat and Power

The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for

1-December-2011

English

Solar Energy Perspectives

In 90 minutes, enough sunlight strikes the earth to provide the entire planet's energy needs for one year. While solar energy is abundant, it represents a tiny fraction of the world’s current energy mix. But this is changing rapidly and is being driven by global action to improve energy access and supply security, and to mitigate climate change. 

Around the world, countries and companies are investing in solar

19-October-2011

English

IEA Scoreboard 2011 - Implementing Energy Efficiency Policy: Progress and challenges in IEA member countries

On the occasion of its 35th Anniversary in 2009, the International Energy Agency published the first edition of the Scoreboard focusing on 35 Key Energy Trends over 35 Years. In parallel, the IEA published Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies: Are IEA Member Countries on Track?. Both publications found that although IEA member countries were making progress in implementing energy efficiency, more work was

24-November-2011

English

Deploying Renewables - Best and Future Policy Practice

The global energy system faces urgent challenges. Concerns about energy security are growing, as highlighted by the recent political turmoil in Northern Africa and the nuclear incident in Fukushima. At the same time, the need to respond to climate change is more critical than ever. Against this background, many governments have increased efforts to promote deployment of renewable energy – low-carbon sources that can strengthen

6-August-2012

English

Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications

The Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed to reduce emissions by 50% by the middle of the century. The roadmap focuses on five main industrial applications: high-purity CO2

31-January-2012

English

China Wind Energy Development Roadmap 2050

The report shows how China, already the world’s largest wind market, could reach 1,000 GW of wind power by the middle of the century, an achievement that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 1.5 gigatonnes per year, or roughly equivalent to the combined CO2 emissions of Germany, France and Italy in 2009. The China Wind Energy Roadmap is the first national roadmap that has been developed by a country with IEA support, drawing from

13-June-2012

English

Compact City Policies - A Comparative Assessment

This book examines the concept of the compact city and the implication of the current urban context for compact city policies. It explores their potential outcomes, particularly in terms of how it can contribute to Green Growth and looks at developing indicators to monitor compact city and track policy performance. It reviews compact city policies currently being implemented across the OECD in relation to the pursuit of Green Growth

Also Available

30-May-2012

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: United Kingdom 2012

The United Kingdom is preparing for a deep decarbonisation of its energy system. The country has decided to halve its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2027 and to cut them by a total of 80% by 2050. For this to happen, significant private-sector investment in new energy infrastructure is needed. As it seeks concrete solutions to the low-carbon investment challenge, the United Kingdom is leading by example. The UK’s proposed

12-July-2012

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Ireland 2012

The IEA's 2012 review of Ireland's energy policies and programmes finds that Ireland has suffered a significant economic downturn, but remains committed to its ambitious energy targets to bring the country towards a low-carbon economy.  Ireland’s location at the edge of the Atlantic Ocean ensures one of the best wind and ocean resources in Europe, and Ireland has set the ambitious target of producing 40% of its electricity from

19-November-2012

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Australia 2012

The IEA's 2012 review of Australia's energy policies and programmes finds that Australia enjoys the benefit of abundant and diverse energy resources; it is the world’s ninth-largest energy producer and is one of only three net energy exporters in the OECD. Its substantial conventional energy resource base includes coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. The country also enjoys extensive wind, solar and geothermal resources as well as

23-November-2012

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The Republic of Korea 2012

Korea, the world’s thirteenth-largest economy and the seventh-largest exporter, is an energy-intensive nation. In 2008, the country adopted a long-term “green growth” strategy to foster economic development by means of low-carbon technologies and clean energy; since then, the government has implemented many policies to support these goals.

In 2012, Korea announced an emissions-trading scheme -- the first of its kind in Asia

6-February-2012

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2012

The Slovak Republic imports virtually all of its natural gas and crude oil from a single supplier, the Russian Federation. Energy security is therefore an overarching concern and priority in the Slovak Republicfs energy policy agenda. The government is taking steps to diversify supplies and build on lessons learned from the gas supply disruption in 2009. 

Enhancing regional co-operation, particularly in the development of

31-January-2013

English

Electricity in a Climate-Constrained World - Data and Analyses

Electricity use is growing worldwide, providing a range of energy services: lighting, heating and cooling, specific industrial uses, entertainment, information technologies, and mobility. Because its generation remains largely based on fossil fuels, electricity is also the largest and the fastest-growing source of energy-related CO2 emissions, the primary cause of human-induced climate change. Forecasts from the IEA and

11-April-2012

English

Nuclear Education and Training - From Concern to Capability

The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others

20-April-2012

English

Thermodynamic Sorption Modelling in Support of Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Cases - NEA Sorption Project Phase III

A central safety function of radioactive waste disposal repositories is the prevention or sufficient retardation of radionuclide migration to the biosphere. Performance assessment exercises in various countries, and for a range of disposal scenarios, have demonstrated that one of the most important processes providing this safety function is the sorption of radionuclides along potential migration paths beyond the engineered barriers.

5-March-2013

English

Mental Health and Work: Norway

Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Norway is the fourth in a series of reports looking at

23-September-2013

English

Nuclear Energy Today (Second Edition)

Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.

Although nuclear energy currently

3-July-2012

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Switzerland 2012

This 2012 IEA review of Swiss energy policies finds that Switzerland has taken bold decisions to gradually phase out nuclear power and to reduce by a fifth its greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 with domestic measures only. These are challenging objectives, and the country now needs to identify the most viable ways to meet them at least cost and minimum risk to energy security.

In the absence of nuclear power, maintaining

10-August-2012

English

Solar Heating and Cooling

The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050.  This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages

27-September-2012

English

Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles  including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG

19-December-2013

English

Environment at a Glance 2013 - OECD Indicators

This book includes key environmental indicators endorsed by OECD Environment Ministers and major environmental indicators from the OECD Core Set. These indicators reflect environmental progress made since the early 1990s and thus contribute to measuring environmental performance. Organised by issues such as climate change, air pollution, biodiversity, waste or water resources, they provide essential information for all those

19-October-2012

English

Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Ukraine 2012

Ukraine’s energy sector faces unprecedented challenges, from a heavy reliance on expensive fossil-fuel imports to inefficient infrastructure and markets. Yet there is also potential for Ukraine to experience an energy revolution, one that could boost employment, lift economic growth and enhance energy security. Modernisation of Ukraine’s energy-supply sectors has only begun and will require investment on a huge scale, complemented

29-January-2013

English

Mental Health and Work: Belgium

Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Belgium is the first in a series of reports looking at

18-December-2013

English

The Missing Entrepreneurs - Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship in Europe

Entrepreneurship development is an important requirement for achieving of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It is also a means to respond to new economic challenges, to create jobs and to fight social and financial exclusion. The impact of the global financial and economic crisis calls for giving entrepreneurship and self-employment a stronger role in economic and social development policies.

This book collects and

Also Available

7-November-2012

English

Nuclear Energy and Renewables - System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays”

25-February-2013

English

Mental Health and Work: Denmark

Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Denmark is the third in a series of reports looking at

5-March-2013

English

Mental Health and Work: Sweden

Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Sweden is the second in a series of reports looking at how

15-November-2012

English

Hydropower

Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2 000 GW of global capacity and over 7 000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries.

Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability,

2-May-2013

English

Korea: Improving the Re-employment Prospects of Displaced Workers

In Korea's dynamic labour market, job displacement (involuntary job loss due to firm closure or downsizing) affects many workers over the course of their working lives. Some workers are more vulnerable than others to this risk and may face long periods of unemployment/inactivity after displacement, particularly if their skills are not well-matched to emerging job opportunities. Even when they find new jobs, displaced workers tend

28-May-2013

English

Interconnected Economies - Benefiting from Global Value Chains

Global Value Chains (GVCs) have exploded in the past decade and refer to the international dispersion of design, production, assembly, marketing and distribution of services, activities, and products. Different stages in the production process are increasingly located across different economies, and intermediate inputs like parts and components are produced in one country and then exported to other countries for further production

Also Available

5-February-2013

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Sweden 2013

Sweden has made progress in recent years towards a more secure, sustainable energy future. The Scandinavian nation already has an almost carbon-free electricity supply and has phased out oil use in residential and power sectors. It is increasingly integrated within the Nordic and Baltic electricity markets, and its joint renewable electricity certificate market with Norway offers a unique model for other countries.

Now

24-May-2013

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Germany 2013

Since the IEA last reviewed Germany’s energy policies in 2007, the country has taken two fundamental policy decisions that will guide its energy policy in coming decades.  In September 2010, the federal government adopted the Energy Concept, a comprehensive new strategy for a long-term integrated energy pathway to 2050. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, Germany decided to accelerate the phase-out of

23-May-2013

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Finland 2013

Finland’s economy is highly industrialised. Yet with over one-third of its territory located above the Arctic Circle, the country is largely rural and sparsely populated, except for its southern tip. With its energy-intensive industries and its cold climate, Finland’s energy consumption per capita is the highest in the IEA. Finland is highly dependent on imported fossil fuels, and energy policy is at the heart of the government’s

20-September-2013

English

Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Estonia 2013

This review of Estonia’s energy policies analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It finds that Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it

7-October-2013

English

The OECD Handbook for Fisheries Managers - Principles and Practice for Policy Design

The Fisheries Manager's Handbook is a compilation of OECD work designed to aid policy makers develop and implement good policies and management tools in fisheries.  Drawing upon years of OECD research, it demonstrates how an open policy design process with clear objectives, using market-based instruments and focussed on effective stock management can benefit all those involved in or concerned about the fisheries sector.  Of

12-February-2013

English

Addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting

Base erosion constitutes a serious risk to tax revenues, tax sovereignty and tax fairness for many countries. While there are many ways in which domestic tax bases can be eroded, a significant source of base erosion is profit shifting. This report presents the studies and data available regarding the existence and magnitude of base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS), and contains an overview of global developments that have an

Also Available

28-February-2013

English

Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry

This roadmap outlines emissions reduction potential from all technologies that can be implemented in the Indian cement industry. Taking into account the specificities of the Indian context, markets and opportunities, this roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to support the global goal of halving CO 2 emissions by 2050.

22-April-2013

English

Handbook on Residential Property Price Indices

For most citizens, buying a residential property (dwelling) is the most important transaction during their lifetime. Residential properties represent the most significant component of households’ expenses and, at the same time, their most valuable assets. The Residential Property Prices Indices (RPPIs) are index numbers measuring the rate at which the prices of residential properties are changing over time. RPPIs are key statistics

28-April-2014

English

Energy Policy Highlights - In-Depth Energy Policy Reviews (IDRs) of 21st Century

Energy Policy Highlights showcases what the 28 IEA member countries identified as key recent developments in their energy policies. Each country contribution covers a range of energy-related topics, with best practices and policy examples from their respective governments, including objectives, characteristics, challenges and successes, and shared lessons. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and

6-October-2014

English

OECD Regional Outlook 2014 - Regions and Cities: Where Policies and People Meet

Regions and cities are on the front lines of many challenges faced by OECD countries today, from education and jobs to health care and quality of life. Getting regions and cities “right”, adapting policies to the specificities of where people live and work,  is vital to improving citizens’ well-being. This second edition of the OECD Regional Outlook aims to help countries do just that. Part I describes the main trends and

21-June-2013

English

Ageing and Employment Policies: Norway 2013 - Working Better with Age

This report provides an overview of the substantial ageing and employment policy initiatives already implemented in Norway over the past decade and identifies areas where more should be done, covering both supply-side and demand-side aspects.

To give better incentives to carry on working, the report recommends further reforms in the second-pillar pension schemes, particularly for public sector employees. On the side of

24-November-2014

English

OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Turkey 2014 - Raising Standards

Turkey underwent a very ambitious reform programme  in 2003, the so-called "Health Transformation Programme". Access to healthcare in Turkey has greatly increased with the attainment of Universal Health Coverage, as also demonstrated by improvement in health outcomes, most notably around maternal and child health and infectious diseases. However, despite these significant achievements, Turkey has a significant way to travel to

19-July-2013

English

Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting

Taxation is at the core of countries' sovereignty, but in recent years, multinational companies have avoided taxation in their home countries by pushing activities abroad to low or no tax jurisdictions.  The G20 asked OECD to address this growing problem by creating this action plan to address base erosion and profit shifting. This plan identifies a series of domestic and international actions to address the problem and sets

Also Available

27-June-2013

English

Transition to Sustainable Buildings - Strategies and Opportunities to 2050

Buildings are the largest energy consuming sector in the world, and account for over one-third of total final energy consumption and an equally important source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Achieving significant energy and emissions reduction in the buildings sector is a challenging but achievable policy goal.

Transition to Sustainable Buildings presents detailed scenarios and strategies to 2050, and demonstrates how

9-December-2014

English

OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Botswana 2014

OECD's comprehensive review of investment policy in Botswana.  After an overview of the country, the review examines investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation as well as infrastructure in Botswana.

23-January-2014

English

Mental Health and Work: Switzerland

Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Switzerland is the fifth in a series of reports looking

10-February-2014

English

Mental Health and Work: United Kingdom

Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on the United Kingdom is the sixth in a series of reports

5-June-2013

English

Crisis Communication: Facing the Challenges - Workshop Proceedings, Madrid, Spain, 9-10 May 2012

As manifested by an increasingly globalised media, a nuclear accident anywhere quickly becomes a potential concern for people everywhere. It is therefore of prime importance that nuclear regulators’ communication strategies take into consideration the expectations and concerns of the public and provide sound information not only for the people of the affected country, but also for citizens worldwide. Public trust is a key element

1-March-2013

English

Stakeholder Confidence in Radioactive Waste Management - An Annotated Glossary of Key Terms

The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) Annotated Glossary is a review of concepts central to societal decision making about radioactive waste management. It records the evolution in understanding that has taken place in the group as the FSC has worked with these concepts over time. This should be a useful resource not only for new FSC participants but also for others: this annotated glossary

24-September-2013

English

Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Future fuel cycle characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial for the continued development of nuclear energy, especially in the post-Fukushima context. Fuel cycle choices have both long- and short-term impacts, and a holistic assessment of their characteristics, cost and associated safety issues is of paramount importance. This report associates quantified impacts with foreseeable nuclear energy development in

24-September-2013

English

Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4) - Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires

The International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving national and international response arrangements for nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. Early INEX exercises focused on the national and international aspects of early phase management of nuclear

29-April-2014

English

Innovation and Modernising the Rural Economy

This publication is a result of the discussions from the OECD 8th Rural Development Policy Conference: "Innovation and modernising the rural economy" which took place in Krasnoyarsk, Russia on 3-5 October 2012. It provides an overview of the two themes of modernisation and innovation, focusing on identifying the attributes of the modern rural economy and showing how it differs from the traditional rural economy and from

16-October-2013

English

Energy Efficiency - Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects

Energy efficiency has been referred to as a “hidden fuel”, one that extends energy supplies, increases energy security, lowers carbon emissions and generally supports sustainable economic growth. Yet it is hiding in plain sight: in 2011, investments in the energy efficiency market globally were at a similar scale to those in renewable energy or fossil-fuel power generation.

The Energy Efficiency Market Report

11-June-2014

English

Ageing and Employment Policies: France 2014 - Working Better with Age

People today are living longer than ever before, while birth rates are dropping in the majority of OECD countries. In such demographics, public social expenditures require to be adequate and sustainable in the long term. Older workers play a crucial role in the labour market. Now that legal retirement ages are rising, older workers will work longer and employers will have to retain them. But those older workers who have lost their

28-April-2014

English

Secure and Efficient Electricity Supply - During the Transition to Low Carbon Power Systems

Electricity shortages can paralyse our modern economies. All governments fear rolling black-outs and their economic consequences, especially in economies increasingly based on digital technologies.

Over the last two decades, the development of markets for power has produced cost reduction, technological innovation, increased cross border trade and assured a steady supply of electricity. Now, IEA countries face the challenge

28-April-2014

English

Energy Technology Initiatives 2013 - Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change cost-effectively are key global challenges. Tackling these issues will require efforts from stakeholders worldwide. To find solutions, the public and private sectors must work together, sharing burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes.

Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA

24-July-2014

English

Tourism and the Creative Economy

As the significance of the creative economy continues to grow, important synergies with tourism are emerging, offering considerable potential to grow demand and develop new products, experiences and markets.These new links are driving a shift from conventional models of cultural tourism to new models of creative tourism based on intangible culture and contemporary creativity. This report examines the growing relationship between

3-February-2014

English

Employment and Skills Strategies in Australia

Employment and Skills Strategies in Australia focuses on the role of local employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity. It looks at the role of Local Employment Coordinators, introduced by the Department of Employment to work in 20 "priority employment areas" which were identified as needing extra assistance following the global financial crisis. This report is part of a comparative OECD review

27-March-2014

English

Employment and Skills Strategies in Ireland

Employment and Skills Strategies in Ireland focuses on the role of local employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity. This report looks at the range of institutions and bodies involved in employment and skills policies, focusing on local activities in the Dublin and South East regions. It can help national, regional and local policy makers in Ireland build effective and sustainable partnerships

26-February-2014

English

The Power of Transformation - Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems

Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while

16-April-2014

English

Ageing and Employment Policies: Netherlands 2014 - Working Better with Age

Given the ageing challenges, there is an increasing pressure in OECD countries to further boost the employability of the working-age population over the coming decades. This report provides an overview of policy iniatives implemented over the past decade in the Netherlands and identifies areas where more should be done, covering both supply-side and demand-side aspects. To give better incentives to carry on working, the report

7-January-2014

English

The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

The feasibility and costs of spent nuclear fuel management and the consequent disposal of ultimate waste continue to be the subject of public debate in many countries, with particular concern often expressed over the lack of progress in implementing final disposal. Uncertainties about back-end costs and the financial risks associated with management of the back end have also been singled out as possible deterrents to investment in

7-January-2014

English

Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors - A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems

A modern light water reactor (LWR) of 1 GWe capacity will typically discharge about 20-25 tonnes of irradiated fuel (spent fuel) per year of operation. Despite the low content of about 0.1-0.2% of minor actinides in spent fuel, these actinides can nonetheless contribute significantly to decay heat loading and neutron output, as well as to the overall radiotoxic hazard of spent fuel. For this reason, there has long been an interest

7-January-2014

English

Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF-11 - Workshop Proceedings, Tsukuba, Japan, 11-13 September 2012

Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines and are having an increasingly important impact on research, technology and daily life. Today, they have a wide range of applications in many areas including material science and medical applications. In recent years, new technological and research applications have helped to define requirements while the number of accelerator

7-January-2014

English

Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems

Materials performance is critical to the safe and economic operation of any nuclear system. As the international community pursues the development of Generation IV reactor concepts and accelerator driven transmutation systems, it will be increasingly necessary to develop advanced materials capable of tolerating the more challenging environments of these new systems. The international community supports numerous materials research

21-December-2014

English

Seine Basin, Île-de-France, 2014: Resilience to Major Floods

This study examines flood risk prevention of the Seine in the Ile-de-France region. It highlights the impacts a major flood, like the one in 1910, could have on the well-being of citizens, city management and the economy.

22-December-2014

English

OECD Integrity Review of Tunisia´s Audit System - Managing Risk in Public Institutions

This report, from the OECD-MENA Governance Programme, reviews the Tunisian government’s current public audit and risk management system. It acknowledges that Tunisia is already engaged in a discussion on reforms and considers available resources and existing operational structures in its recommendations. The report highlights priority areas for the reform process, presenting recommendations on how to progressively improve risk

18-April-2014

English

Employment and Skills Strategies in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

This book focuses on the role of employment and training agencies in contributing to job creation and productivity in Northern Ireland. It explores how Northern Ireland is  implementing labour market and skills policy and putting measures in place at the local level to stimulate quality employment, inclusion and growth.

21-May-2014

English

Employment and Skills Strategies in the Czech Republic

This review looks at a range of institutions and bodies involved in employment and skills policies in the Czech Republic, focusing on local strategies on the Ústí nad Labem and South Moravian regions.

17-July-2014

English

Nanotechnology and Tyres - Greening Industry and Transport

New nanomaterials offer promising avenues for future innovation, which can contribute towards the sustainability and resource efficiency of the tyre industry. Yet uncertainty over environmental health and safety (EHS) risks appears to be a main and continuous concern for the development of new nanomaterials in tyre production, even for those closest to market. Lack of sector-specific guidance represents a major gap.

This

11-June-2014

English

Employment and Skills Strategies in Canada

This report delivers evidence-based and practical recommendations on how to better support employment and economic development in Canada. It builds on sub-national data analysis and consultations with local stakeholders in four case study areas across Ontario and Quebec. It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in contributing to more and better quality jobs. The report can help federal,

18-September-2014

English

Employment and Skills Strategies in the United States

How to stimulate growth and support job creation are two critical challenges that countries confront following the global financial crisis. The Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme of the OECD has developed international cross-comparative reviews on local job creation policies to examine the contribution of local labour market policy to boosting quality employment. Each country review examines the capacity of

14-August-2014

English

Multi-dimensional Review of Uruguay - Volume 1: Initial Assessment

Uruguay has made remarkable progress over the past decade. Stable macroeconomic policies and a favourable external environment have permitted brisk growth and the financing of social policies. Substantial improvements in several dimensions of human well-being have occurred during this period, alongside considerable reductions in external risks. The conditions ahead, however, may present challenges to maintaining performance.

Also Available

9-April-2014

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Austria 2014

The International Energy Agency's 2014 review of Austria’s energy policy analyses the energy policy challenges facing Austria and provides sectoral studies and recommendations for further policy improvements. It finds that Austria's energy policy  rests on three pillars – security of supply, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources.

The country’s decarbonisation drive has strengthened as the economy and renewable

22-December-2014

English

A Skills beyond School Review of Egypt

Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. This report on Egypt examines what type of training is needed to meet the needs of a changing economy,  how programmes should be funded,  how theyshould be linked to academic and university programmes and how employers and unions can be engaged.  The country reports in this series look at these and other questions.

22-April-2014

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Netherlands 2014

Since the last review in 2008, the Netherlands has attracted investment in oil and gas storage; coal, oil and gas import terminals; and efficient power plants. This additional capacity provides flexibility and energy security both in the Netherlands and across EU markets. However, the outlook for Europe’s second-largest producer of natural gas is challenging amid declining gas production and uncertain prospects for unconventional

16-July-2014

English

Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Luxembourg 2014

This review analyses the energy policy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides recommendations for each sector. It is intended to help guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future and the development of its 2030 energy strategy.

It finds that since 2008, Luxembourg’s energy policy has focused on mitigating CO2 emissions in transport and industry and on supporting renewable energies and energy

16-June-2014

English

Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Russia 2014

Russia holds among the world’s largest resources of gas, oil and coal. Its liquids production has reached historical highs, yet major additional upstream investments and technology upgrades will be needed to sustain these levels in the long term. Since the IEA’s last review of Russia’s energy policies in 2002, the power sector has also liberalised considerably. However, the Russian economy remains largely inefficient, with twice as

English

Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2014

As the supply revolution enters a new phase, oil’s role in the global energy mix is being redefined. More than ever, getting a handle on these developments is key to ensuring that energy security is maintained or enhanced, investment is appropriately targeted and resources are optimally leveraged. That makes the Medium-Term Oil Market Report's insights into the oil market for the next five years essential reading for

28-March-2014

English

How2Guide for Wind Energy - Roadmap Development and Implementation

This How2Guide for Wind Energy (Wind H2G) is designed to provide interested stakeholders from both government and industry with the necessary tools to plan and implement a roadmap for wind energy technology at the national or regional level.

28-March-2014

English

Energy Storage

This roadmap aims to increase understanding among a range of stakeholders of the applications that electricity and thermal energy storage technologies can be used for at different locations in the energy system. Emphasis is placed on storage technologies that are connected to a larger energy system (e.g. electricity grid), while a smaller portion of the discussion focuses on off-grid storage applications. This focus is complemented

21-December-2014

English

Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure - Expanding Access to Clean Energy for Green Growth and Development

This publication provides host country governments with guidance on the policy options that are available to make the most of investment opportunities in clean energy infrastructure, drawing on the expertise of climate and investment communities among others. It identifies key issues in investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, competition, financial markets, and public governance. It also addresses cross-cutting

14-December-2014

English

Shallots

These guidelines published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by OECD in 1962. They include explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the Shallots Standard. This book illustrates the standard text and demonstrates the quality parameters on high quality photographs. It therefore is a valuable tool for the

24-November-2014

English

Science, Technology and Innovation in Viet Nam

This book offers a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of Viet Nam, focusing on the role of government and providing concrete recommendations on how to improve policies that affect innovation and R&D performance.

The OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy offer a comprehensive assessment of the innovation system of individual OECD member countries and non-member economies, focusing on the role of government. They

18-June-2014

English

The 2012 Labour Market Reform in Spain - A Preliminary Assessment

This report provides an initial evaluation of the comprehensive reform of the Spanish labour market undertaken in 2012. It describes the key components of the 2012 reform and places them in the context of the evolution of labour market institutions in other OECD member countries, with a particular focus on collective bargaining and employment protection legislation. The report also assesses the impact of the reform on the ability

28-November-2014

English

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Sweden 2014

This report is the third OECD review of Sweden’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on Sweden's longstanding commitment to mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases and its management of marine ecosystem services and water.
 

17-November-2014

English

Italy: Key Issues and Policies

This review underlines some important points of strength with respect to Italian SMEs and entrepreneurship, notably for medium-sized firms that very often excel in their market niches, have a strong propensity to business collaboration, as well as favourable access to finance. The review also looks at the challenges that lie ahead for Italy, hard hit by the global economic crisis, notably among micro and small firms. Recovery will

4-September-2014

English

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Iceland 2014

This report is the third OECD review of Iceland’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on the environmental aspects of Iceland's energy and tourism policies.

27-November-2014

English

Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 3 - Implementing the OECD Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying

This report takes stock of progress made in implementing the 2010 Recommendation on Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying – the only international instrument addressing major risks in the public decision-making process related to lobbying. The review process found that although there is an emerging consensus on the need for transparency to shed light on lobbying, new regulations are often scandal-driven instead of

2-October-2014

English

How Was Life? - Global Well-being since 1820

How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality.

20-October-2014

English

Understanding National Accounts - Second Edition

This second edition of Understanding National Accounts, that provides a comprehensive explanation of how national accounts are compiled, contains new data and new chapters, and is adapted to the new systems of national accounts, SNA 2008 and ESA 2010, that came into effect in September 2014. It approaches national accounts from a truly global perspective, with special chapters dedicated to international comparisons,

13-November-2014

English

Skills beyond School - Synthesis Report

Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. What type of training is needed to meet the needs of changing economies? How should the programmes be funded? How should they be linked to academic and university programmes? How can employers and unions be engaged? This report synthesises the findings of the series of  country reports done on skills beyond school.

19-November-2014

English

Job Creation and Local Economic Development

This publication highlights new evidence on policies to support job creation, bringing together the latest research on labour market, entrepreneurship and local economic development policy to help governments support job creation in the recovery. It  also includes  a set of country pages featuring, among other things, new data on skills supply and demand at the level of smaller OECD regions (TL3).

This publication is the

17-July-2014

English

Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2014

This volume contains data on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste. Complete data are available for 2011 and 2012 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e. 2013). Historical tables summarise data on production, trade and  final consumption. The book also includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual

19-August-2014

English

Energy Balances of non-OECD Countries 2014

This volume contains data for 2011 and 2012 on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances. Data are expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent for over 100 non-OECD countries.

Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. These tables also include

7-January-2014

English

Nuclear Energy Data 2013

Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies, fuel cycle developments, and projected generating capacity and

19-August-2014

English

Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2014

This volume contains data for 2011 and 2012 on energy supply and consumption in original units for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste for over 100 non-OECD countries. Historical tables summarise data on production, trade, final consumption and oil demand by product. These tables also include preliminary estimates of 2013 production (and trade when available) for natural gas, primary coal and oil. The

11-July-2014

English

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2014

This twentieth edition of the Agricultural Outlook, and the tenth prepared jointly with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), provides market projections to 2023 for major agricultural commodities, biofuels and fish across 41 countries and 12 regions: OECD member countries (European Union as a region), key non-OECD agricultural producers (such as India, China, Brazil, Russian Federation and Argentina) and groups of

Also Available

3-September-2014

English

OECD Employment Outlook 2014

The OECD Employment Outlook 2014 marks the 20th Anniversary of the OECD Jobs Strategy and includes chapters on recent labour market developments with a special section on earnings/wages, job quality, youth employment, unemployment and unemployment rates, and forms of employment and employment protection. As in previous editions, the 2014 OECD Employment Outlook monitors recent labour market developments in OECD

12-November-2014

English

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014

The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policies, and performance in more than 45 economies, including OECD countries and major emerging economies. The report draws on the latest OECD work on science and innovation policy analysis and measurement.

Following an overview of the STI global landscape and policy trends, key policy issues are

Also Available

11-July-2013

English

OECD Communications Outlook 2013

Published every two years, the OECD Communications Outlook provides an extensive range of indicators for the development of different communications networks and compares performance indicators such as  revenue, investment, employment and prices for service throughout the OECD area. These indicators are essential for industry and regulators who use benchmarking to evaluate policy performance.

This edition is based on data

22-October-2014

English

Energy Prices and Taxes - Volume 2014 Issue 3

This quarterly report contains a major international compilation of energy prices of OECD countries: including crude oil and oil product spot prices, import costs by crude stream, industry prices and consumer prices. The end-user prices cover the main oil products, gas, coal and electricity. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country. Time series availability varies

6-October-2014

English

Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Volume 2014 Issue 4

This publication provides detailed and up-to-date quarterly statistics on oil, natural gas, coal and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas and coal show supply and trade. Oil and coal import and export data are reported by origin and destination.

17-July-2014

English

Oil Information 2014

This comprehensive reference book on current developments in oil supply and demand provides  key data on world production, trade, prices and consumption of major oil product groups, with time series back to the early 1970s. It also provides more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil supply, demand, trade, production and consumption by end-user for each OECD country individually and for the OECD regions. Trade data are reported

19-August-2014

English

Natural Gas Information 2014

This detailed reference work on gas supply and demand covers not only OECD countries but also the rest of the world. It contains essential information on LNG and pipeline trade, gas reserves, storage capacity and prices. The main part of the book, however, concentrates on OECD countries, showing a detailed gas supply and demand balance for each individual country and for the three OECD regions, as well as a breakdown of gas

19-August-2014

English

Coal Information 2014

Coal Information provides a comprehensive review of the historical and current market trends in the world coal sector, including 2013 preliminary data. An introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides a review of the world coal market in 2013, while Part III provides a statistical overview of developments, which covers world coal production and coal

17-July-2014

English

Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2014

This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2011 and 2012 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2013). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic

17-August-2012

English

Trends in the Transport Sector 2012

This publication presents data on global trends in the transport sector with up-to-date figures on the impact of the recent economic crisis. In addition to highlighting major trends in the transport sector, this brochure provides the reader with the latest statistics on transport markets and on road safety in the International Transport Forum member countries for the period 1970-2010 for all modes of transport.

12-November-2014

English

World Energy Outlook 2014

The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first

10-September-2014

English

Uranium 2014 - Resources, Production and Demand

Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the

7-October-2014

English

Development Co-operation Report 2014 - Mobilising Resources for Sustainable Development

The Development Co-operation Report (DCR) is a yearly report by the Chair of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) that addresses important challenges for the international development community and provides practical guidance and recommendations on how to tackle them. Moreover, it reports the profiles and performance of DAC development co-operation providers and presents DAC statistics on official development

7-March-2014

English

OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2014

This report provides comparative knowledge, both policy and data, through thematic chapters and country-specific policy and statistical profiles. The report highlights key tourism policy developments, focuses on issues that rank high on the policy agenda in the field of tourism and provides a broad overview and interpretation of tourism trends in the OECD area and beyond. The 2014 edition focuses on tourism and growth, and covers

19-August-2014

English

Electricity Information 2014

Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector, including 2013 preliminary data.

An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the world electricity developments in 2012 covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and

12-May-2014

English

Energy Technology Perspectives 2014

Starting from the premise that electricity will be an increasingly important vector in energy systems of the future, Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 (ETP 2014) takes a deep dive into actions needed to support deployment of sustainable options for generation, distribution and end-use consumption. In addition to modelling the global outlook to 2050 under different scenarios for more than 500 technology options,

25-March-2010

English

Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2010

This joint IEA/NEA report on electricity generating costs presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas (with and without carbon capture), nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power (CHP).  It provides levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) per MWh for almost 200 plants, based on data covering 21 countries

19-August-2014

English

Renewables Information 2014

Renewables Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in OECD countries, including 2013 preliminary data. An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the development of renewables and waste in the world over the 1990 to 2012 period. A greater focus is given to the OECD countries with a review of

17-January-2014

English

Highlights of the International Transport Forum 2013 - Funding Transport: Session Summaries

Demand for mobility around the globe is growing rapidly. Motorisation in emerging economies continues at breath-taking pace, with the number of motor vehicles on the world’s streets rising, according to some estimates, from just over 1 billion today to 2 billion in 2020. Air passenger travel could double, air freight could triple and container handling in ports could quadruple within the next 15 years or so, according to OECD

Also Available

4-November-2014

English

CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2014

In recognition of fundamental changes in the way governments approach energy-related environmental issues, the IEA has prepared this publication on CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. This annual publication was first published in 1997 and has become an essential tool for analysts and policy makers in many international fora such as the Conference of the Parties. The twentieth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate

11-April-2014

English

National Accounts at a Glance 2014

National Accounts at a Glance presents information using an "indicator" approach, focusing on cross-country comparisons. The aim being to make the national accounts more accessible and informative, whilst, at the same time, taking the opportunity to present the conceptual underpinning of, and comparability issues inherent in, each of the indicators presented.

The range of indicators reflects the richness inherent

24-September-2014

English

Key World Energy Statistics 2014

The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful.

Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources.

The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Australian

14-November-2013

English

OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2013

Productivity is a key source of economic growth and competitiveness and, as such, we need internationally comparable measures for assessing economic performance. The OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2013 presents a comprehensive overview of recent and longer term trends in productivity levels and growth in OECD countries. It also highlights some of the key measurement issues faced when compiling cross-country

15-July-2014

English

Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2014

This fourth edition of Entrepreneurship at a Glance presents an original collection of indicators for measuring the state of entrepreneurship and its determinants, produced by the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme. The 2014 edition contains new indicators at the regional level, and a thematic chapter on innovation activities by firms of different size.

27-November-2014

English

Health at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2014 - Measuring Progress towards Universal Health Coverage

This third edition of Health at a Glance Asia/Pacific presents a set of key indicators of health status, the determinants of health, health care resources and utilisation, health care expenditure and financing and health care quality across 27 Asia/Pacific countries and economies. Drawing on a wide range of data sources, it builds on the format used in previous editions of Health at a Glance, and gives readers a better

15-December-2014

English

Health at a Glance: Europe 2014

This third edition of Health at a Glance: Europe presents a set of key indicators related to health status, determinants of health, health care resources and activities, quality of care, access to care, and health expenditure and financing in 35 European countries, including the 28 European Union member states, four candidate countries and three EFTA countries. The selection of indicators is based largely on the European Core

11-June-2014

English

Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2014

The IEA Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2014 gives a detailed analysis of demand, supply and trade developments as well as infrastructure investments to meet the 2.2% annual growth in gas demand expected through 2019. It investigates the important changes that will transform the industry: rising regional disparities between gas-hungry regions such as China and the Middle East against weakening growth in the Former Soviet

28-August-2014

English

Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014

The Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2014 assesses market trends for renewables in the electricity, transport and heat sectors, identifying drivers and challenges to deployment, and making projections through 2020. The report presents for the first time an investment outlook for renewable power capacity, in addition to projections for renewable electricity technologies, a global biofuels supply forecast and extended

16-December-2013

English

Medium-Term Coal Market Report 2013

The Medium-Term Coal Market Report-2013 provides IEA forecasts on coal markets for the coming five years as well as an in-depth analysis of recent developments in global coal demand, supply and trade. This third annual report shows that while coal continues to be a growing source of primary energy worldwide, its future is increasingly tied to developments in non-OECD countries, led by China.

Coal is both the leading fuel

5-November-2013

English

How's Life? 2013 - Measuring Well-being

Every person aspires to a good life. But what does “a good or a better life” mean? The second edition of How’s Life? provides an update on  the most important aspects that shape people’s lives and well-being: income, jobs, housing, health, work-life balance, education, social connections, civic engagement and governance, environment, personal security and subjective well-being. It paints a comprehensive picture of

Also Available

5-November-2013

English

Pensions at a Glance Asia/Pacific 2013

Pensions are a major policy issue in developed and developing countries alike. However, pension reform is challenging and controversial because it involves long-term planning by governments faced with numerous short-term pressures. It often provokes heated debates and, sometimes, street protests.

Countries can learn valuable lessons from others’ pension systems and their experiences of retirement-income reforms. However,

18-December-2014

English

Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2015 - Strengthening Institutional Capacity

The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is an annual publication on Asia’s regional economic growth, development and regional integration process. It focuses on the economic conditions of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries  – Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam –, and also addresses relevant

17-June-2014

English

Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2014

As the supply revolution enters a new phase, oil’s role in the global energy mix is being redefined. More than ever, getting a handle on these developments is key to ensuring that energy security is maintained or enhanced, investment is appropriately targeted and resources are optimally leveraged. That makes the Medium-Term Oil Market Report's insights into the oil market for the next five years essential reading for

2-October-2014

English

Road Safety Annual Report 2014

The IRTAD Annual Report 2014 provides an overview of road safety indicators for 2012 in 38 countries, with preliminary data for 2013, and detailed reports for each country. The report outlines the crash data collection process in IRTAD countries, describes the road safety strategies and existing targets, and provides detailed safety data by road user, location and age together with information on recent trends in speeding,

31-October-2014

English

Society at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2014

This is the third edition of Society at a Glance Asia/Pacific, a regularly updated OECD overview of social indicators, which addresses the growing demand for quantitative evidence on social well-being and its trends. This report starts with an introductory chapter providing a guide to help readers understanding the OECD Social Indicator framework. Chapters 2 and three are special thematic chapters to address two

5-June-2014

English

Energy Efficiency Indicators - Essentials for Policy Making

Energy efficiency is widely recognised as the most cost-effective and readily available means to address numerous energy-related issues, including energy security, the social and economic impacts of high energy prices, and concerns about climate change. At the same time, energy efficiency increases competitiveness and promotes consumer welfare. In this context, it is important to develop and maintain well-founded indicators to

5-June-2014

English

Energy Efficiency Indicators - Fundamentals on Statistics

Energy efficiency is high on the political agenda as governments seek to reduce wasteful energy consumption, strengthen energy security and cut greenhouse gas emissions. However, the lack of data for developing proper indicators to measure energy efficiency often prevents countries from transforming declarations into actions.

This manual identifies the main sectoral indicators and the data needed to develop these

2-November-2014

English

Regional Perspectives on Aid for Trade

Deepening economic integration via regional co-operation has emerged as a key priority in the reform strategies of most developing economies over the past decade. This is evidenced by the explosive growth in bilateral and regional trading agreements in which they now participate. Regional aid for trade can help developing countries spur regional economic integration, enhance competitiveness, and plug into regional production

20-June-2014

English

Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining

Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years. By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, this report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes committed primarily during the early

25-June-2014

English

A Teachers' Guide to TALIS 2013 - Teaching and Learning International Survey

This publication not only presents the main results of TALIS 2013, it also takes those findings and, backed by the research literature on education and the large body of OECD work on education, offers insights and advice to teachers and school leaders on how they can improve teaching and learning in their schools. It is both a guide through TALIS and a handbook for building excellence into teaching.

Also Available

23-October-2014

English

The Space Economy at a Glance 2014

The space sector plays an increasingly pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development as the use of satellite technology gives rise to new applications, uses and markets. This volume offers a statistical overview of the global space sector and its contributions to economic activity using data from over 40 countries with space programmes.

6-October-2014

English

How's Life in Your Region? - Measuring Regional and Local Well-being for Policy Making

How’s life? The answer can depend on the region in which you live. Many factors that influence people’s well-being are local issues, such as employment, access to health services, pollution and security. Policies that take into account regional differences beyond national averages can therefore have a greater impact on improving well-being for the country as a whole.

This report presents the OECD analytical framework for

8-October-2014

English

Energy Efficiency Market Report 2014

The evidence is clear: energy efficiency has played, and continues to play, a large and valuable role in the sustainable development of the global economy. The energy demand that is avoided as a result of steady improvements in the efficiency of energy-using stock such as buildings, cars and appliances is larger than the total final consumption from coal, oil or gas in IEA member countries.

The market for energy efficiency

15-February-2015

English

All on Board - Making Inclusive Growth Happen

All on Board: Making Inclusive Growth Happen puts forth a new approach to economic growth that goes beyond traditional monetary indicators and includes dimensions that reflect people's well-being. It introduces an analytical framework to assess economic growth based on a measurement of multidimensional living standards. The report also presents win-win policies that can deliver stronger growth and greater inclusiveness in

16-July-2014

English

The Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator

This regulatory guidance booklet describes the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator in terms of roles and responsibilities, principles and attributes. Each of the characteristics discussed in this report is a necessary feature of an effective nuclear safety regulator but no one characteristic is sufficient on its own. It is the combination of these characteristics that leads to the effectiveness of a nuclear

16-September-2014

English

Addressing the Tax Challenges of the Digital Economy

The spread of the digital economy poses challenges for international taxation. This report sets out an analysis of these tax challenges. It notes that because the digital economy is increasingly becoming the economy itself, it would not be feasible to ring-fence the digital economy from the rest of the economy for tax purposes. The report notes, however, that certain business models and key features of the digital economy may

16-September-2014

English

Neutralising the Effects of Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements

This report sets out recommendations for domestic rules to neutralise the effect of hybrid mismatch arrangements and includes changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention to address such arrangements. Once translated into domestic law, the recommendations in Part 1 of the report will neutralise the effect of cross-border hybrid mismatch arrangements that produce multiple deductions for a single expense or a deduction in one

Also Available

16-September-2014

English

Countering Harmful Tax Practices More Effectively, Taking into Account Transparency and Substance

Preferential regimes continue to be a key pressure area in international taxation. The OECD’s 2013 BEPS report recognises that these need to be dealt with more effectively and the work of the Forum on Harmful Tax Practices (FHTP) needs to be refocused with an emphasis on substance and transparency. This is an interim report that sets out the progress made to date.

Also Available

16-September-2014

English

Preventing the Granting of Treaty Benefits in Inappropriate Circumstances

This report includes proposed changes to the OECD Model Tax Convention to prevent treaty abuse. Countries participating in the BEPS Project have agreed on a minimum standard to prevent treaty shopping and other strategies aimed at obtaining inappropriately the benefit of certain provisions of tax treaties. The report also ensures that tax treaties do not inadvertently prevent the application of legitimate domestic anti-abuse rules.

16-September-2014

English

Guidance on Transfer Pricing Aspects of Intangibles

This document contains revisions to the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines to align transfer pricing outcomes with value creation in the area of intangibles. The changes clarify the definition of intangibles and provide guidance for related parties; including transactions involving intangibles and the transfer pricing treatment of local market features and corporate synergies. Some transfer pricing issues relating to intangibles are

16-September-2014

English

Guidance on Transfer Pricing Documentation and Country-by-Country Reporting

This document contains revised standards for transfer pricing documentation and a template for country-by-country reporting of revenues, profits, taxes paid and certain measures of economic activity. These new reporting provisions, and the transparency they will encourage, will contribute to the objective of understanding, controlling, and tackling BEPS behaviours. Countries participating in the BEPS project will carefully review

16-September-2014

English

Developing a Multilateral Instrument to Modify Bilateral Tax Treaties

This report identifies the issues arising from the development of a multilateral instrument that modifies bilateral tax treaties. Without a mechanism for swift implementation, changes to model tax conventions only widen the gap between the content of these models and the content of actual tax treaties. Developing such a mechanism is necessary not only to tackle base erosion and profit shifting, but also to ensure the sustainability

12-January-2015

English

Multi-dimensional Review of Myanmar - Volume 2. In-depth Analysis and Recommendations

After an initial assessment of constraints to development in Myanmar found in Volume I, this Volume II assesses key issues and makes policy recommendations. It finds that Myanmar faces a crucial few years to shape growth towards a higher, more sustainable and equitable trajectory. Key issues addressed include modernising the agricultural sector and dealing with corruption and lack of technology and skills to build the manufacturing

9-September-2014

English

Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency - A Guide to Quantifying the Value Added

The traditional focus on energy savings as the main goal of energy efficiency policy has, at times, led to an underestimation of the full value of energy efficiency in both national and global economies. Energy efficiency can bring multiple benefits, such as enhancing the sustainability of the energy system, supporting strategic objectives for economic and social development, promoting environmental goals and increasing

9-December-2014

English

Energy, Climate Change and Environment - 2014 Insights

Policies that respond to climate change and other environmental issues will increasingly impact the development of the global energy sector. The transition to low-carbon economies will need to be carefully managed, as the provision of secure, affordable energy is critical for economic growth and social development. More than ever, there is a need for a fuller understanding of the opportunities to promote synergies between energy,

30-November-2014

English

Measuring the Digital Economy - A New Perspective

The growing role of the digital economy in daily life has heightened demand for new data and measurement tools. Internationally comparable and timely statistics combined with robust cross-country analyses are crucial to strengthen the evidence base for digital economy policy making, particularly in a context of rapid change. This report presents indicators traditionally used to monitor the information society and complements them with

9-December-2014

English

A Skills beyond School Review of Kazakhstan

Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can workbased learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report on Kazakhstan looks at these and other questions.

13-November-2014

English

A Skills beyond School Review of the Netherlands

Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can workbased learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report on the Netherlands looks at these and other questions.

24-August-2014

English

Nuclear Site Remediation and Restoration during Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations - A Report by the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes. Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This

25-August-2014

English

R&D and Innovation Needs for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

Nuclear decommissioning activities can greatly benefit from research and development (R&D) projects. This report examines applicable emergent technologies, current research efforts and innovation needs to build a base of knowledge regarding the status of decommissioning technology and R&D. This base knowledge can be used to obtain consensus on future R&D that is worth funding. It can also assist in deciding how to collaborate and

29-October-2014

English

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Belize 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Belize.

The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

The

29-October-2014

English

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Ghana 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Ghana.

The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

The

29-October-2014

English

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Gibraltar 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Gibraltar.

The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal

17-November-2014

English

OECD Rural Policy Reviews: Chile 2014

This report looks at rural policy in Chile, examining the main trends in rural regions, policies and governance arrangements. It highlights the need to establish a national rural policy framework in Chile, in order to better coordinate the wide range of national policies and programmes currently targeting rural areas. It also investigates the evolving role of "rural" in development, highlighting the need to design rural policies in

29-October-2014

English

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Grenada 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Grenada.

The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

The

29-October-2014

English

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Israel 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of Israel.

The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

The

29-October-2014

English

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Russian Federation 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of the Russian Federation.

The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal

29-October-2014

English

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes Peer Reviews: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2014 - Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice

This report contains the 2014 “Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice” Global Forum review of the Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 120 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on

2-October-2014

English

Green Growth Indicators for Agriculture - A Preliminary Assessment

An integral component of any green growth strategy is a highly-reliable set of measurement tools and indicators that would enable policy makers to evaluate how effective policies are, and to gauge the progress being achieved in shifting economic activity onto a greener path. These tools and indicators, which will need to be based on internationally comparable data, must also be embedded in a conceptual framework and selected

24-October-2014

English

Tax Compliance by Design - Achieving Improved SME Tax Compliance by Adopting a System Perspective

This study introduces the concept of “Tax Compliance by design”. It describes how revenue bodies can exploit developments in technology and the ways in which modern SMEs organise themselves to incorporate tax compliance into the systems businesses use to manage their financial affairs.

24-October-2014

English

Measures of Tax Compliance Outcomes - A Practical Guide

This study provides practical guidance to revenue bodies wishing to enhance and enrich their existing measures with timely measures of compliance outcomes. The study shares experiences of what has worked for revenue bodies, what challenges have been faced and how they might be overcome.

24-October-2014

English

Working Smarter in Tax Debt Management

Many revenue bodies have been developing strategies and approaches to improve the tax collection and recovery processes, so that they are more effective and cost less. Very promising and proven new practices have emerged, which can deliver spectacular improvements in performance in tax collection and recovery. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the best practices in tax debt management, with a particular emphasis on

24-October-2014

English

Increasing Taxpayers' Use of Self-service Channels

Building on prior work that resulted in the practical guide Managing Service Demand, this report explores the strategies revenue bodies can use to improve take-up of self-service channels in the context of a proposed future service experience for individuals, businesses and tax intermediaries.

1-December-2014

English

Mental Health and Work: Netherlands

Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on the Netherlands is the seventh in a series of reports

28-October-2014

English

Critical Maths for Innovative Societies - The Role of Metacognitive Pedagogies

How can mathematics education foster the skills that are appropriate for innovative societies? Mathematics education is heavily emphasised worldwide, nevertheless it is still considered to be a stumbling block for many students. While there is almost a consensus that mathematics problems appropriate for the 21st century should be complex, unfamiliar and non-routine (CUN), most of the textbooks still mainly include routine problems

23-June-2011

English

The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes - The Path to Reliability

The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes can delay or prevent important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99Mo-producing, research reactors and

4-May-2012

English

Main Benefits from 30 Years of Joint Projects in Nuclear Safety

One of the major achievements of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the knowledge it has helped to generate through the organisation of joint international research projects. Such projects, primarily in the areas of nuclear safety and radioactive waste management, enable interested countries, on a costsharing basis, to pursue research or the sharing of data with respect to particular areas or issues. Over the years, more than

2-March-2012

English

International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations

Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities can vary considerably in format, content and practice both within and across countries. These differences may have legitimate reasons but make the process of reviewing estimates complicated and the estimates themselves difficult to defend.  Hence, the joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European

1-June-2012

English

Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation - Eleventh Information Exchange Meeting, San Francisco, California, USA, 1-4 November 2010

In order to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P&T), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has been organising, since 1990, a series of biennial information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product P&T. These proceedings contain all the technical papers presented at the 11th Information Exchange Meeting, which was held on 1-4 November 2010 in San

31-December-2012

English

Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Recycling of Transuranics in Fast Nuclear Reactors

Fuel transuranics (TRU) multi-recycling is a mandatory feature if both the resource sustainability and the waste minimisation objectives for future fuel cycles are to be pursued. The resulting TRU transmutation can be implemented in fast neutron spectrum reactors according to two main options commonly referred to as the homogeneous and heterogeneous modes. In this study, the two alternatives have been compared in terms of reactor

14-September-2012

English

Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review (Second Edition)

Most of the current nuclear fuel safety criteria were established during the 1960s and early 1970s. Although these criteria were validated against experiments with fuel designs available at that time, a number of tests were based on unirradiated fuels. Additional verification was performed as these designs evolved, but mostly with the aim of showing that the new designs adequately complied with existing criteria, and not to

21-September-2012

English

Challenges in Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants - Implications for Regulatory Bodies

This document contains a compilation of consensus guidance for approval of long-term operation of nuclear power plants. This guidance is presented as fundamental and key principles that should govern decisions on authorisation for long-term operation. These principles allow for differences in national regulatory strategies and expectations while ensuring that safe performance can be achieved in long-term operation.

18-June-2012

English

The Role of Nuclear Energy in a Low-carbon Energy Future

This report assesses the role that nuclear energy can play in supporting the transition to a low-carbon energy system. It begins by considering the greenhouse gas emissions from the full nuclear fuel cycle, reviewing recent studies on indirect emissions and assessing the impact that nuclear power could make in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The report provides estimates of the construction rates that would be needed to

21-June-2012

English

Methods for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste - Outcomes of the NEA MeSA Initiative

Safety assessment is an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the scientific understanding and performance assessment of safety functions as well as the hazards associated with a geological disposal facility. It forms a central part of the safety case, and the results of the safety assessments provide evidence to support decision making. The goals of the NEA project on “Methods for Safety Assessment for Geological Disposal

7-May-2012

English

The Post-closure Radiological Safety Case for a Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden - An International Peer Review of the SKB License-application Study of March 2011

Sweden is at the forefront among countries developing plans for a deep geological repository of highly radioactive waste. There is no such repository in operation yet worldwide, but Sweden, Finland and France are approaching the licensing stage. At the request of the Swedish government, the NEA organised an international peer review of the post-closure radiological safety case produced by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste

31-December-2013

English

Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience - from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience

This fifth report on nuclear power plant operating experience from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System covering the 2009-2011 period highlights important lessons learnt and is based on a review of the approximately 245 event reports received from the participating countries over this period.

18-December-2012

English

The Long-term Radiological Safety of a Surface Disposal Facility for Low-level Waste in Belgium - An International Peer Review of Key Aspects of ONDRAF/NIRAS' Safety Report of November 2011 in Preparation for the License Application

An important activity of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. This report provides an international peer review of the long-term safety strategy and assessment being developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, as part of the licence

18-December-2012

English

The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes - Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production

The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convernt to using low-enriched uranium targetts for the production of 99Mo. This report describes the market impact of

31-December-2012

English

Japan's Compensation System for Nuclear Damage - As Related to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, extraordinary efforts were undertaken in Japan to implement a compensation scheme for the proper and efficient indemnification of the affected victims. This publication provides English translations of key Japanese legislative and administrative texts and other implementing guidance, as well as several commentaries by Japanese experts in the field of third party

19-December-2012

English

The Economics of Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce baseload power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched

31-December-2012

English

Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin – Volume 12

The Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin is based on a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of tin, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, carried out as part of NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III).  The database system developed at the OECD/NEA Data Bank ensures consistency not only within the recommended data sets of tin, but also among all the data sets published in this series.  This volume will be

31-December-2012

English

Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS-2) - Workshop Proceedings, Daejon, Republic of Korea, 31 August-3 September 2010

Materials research is a field of growing relevance for innovative nuclear systems, such as Generation IV reactors, critical and sub-critical transmutation systems and fusion devices. For these different systems, structural materials are selected or developed taking into account the pecificities of their foreseen operational environment. Since 2007, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has begun organising a series of workshops on

3-October-2008

English

17th International ITF/OECD Symposium on Transport Economics and Policy: Benefiting from Globalisation - Transport Sector Contribution and Policy Challenges

The opportunities for individuals and businesses to benefit from globalisation are increased by efficient, cost-effective transport networks. A competitive, responsive, well-organised transport sector facilitates trade, but creating the conditions for this poses policy challenges that must be tackled if transport is to contribute fully to globalisation. This was the main theme of the 17th ITF/OECD Symposium.

These

23-October-2008

English

Privatisation and Regulation of Urban Transit Systems

Urban public transport services generally run at a large deficit. This has led public authorities to seek efficiencies, notably through private sector involvement. Support for the sector traditionally seeks to provide basic mobility services to all segments of society, including low-income users. Intervention is also required to manage the natural tendency towards concentration and market power in the provision of these transport

17-December-2008

English

The Cost and Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions

Transport sector policies already contribute to moderating greenhouse gas emissions from road vehicles. They are increasingly designed to contribute to overall societal targets to mitigate climate change. While abatement costs in transport are relatively high, there are plausible arguments in favour of further abatement in this sector. The empirical basis to decide upon combinations of fuel economy standards and fuel taxes,

26-January-2009

English

Cognitive Impairment, Mental Health and Transport - Design with Everyone in Mind

Cognitive impairment and mental health affect a large number of people, for whom the use of public transport can present a challenge. This book examines this neglected area, presenting various suggestions from transport staff training to better signage, clearer timetables, and increased staff presence to help build users' confidence.

1-April-2009

English

Intermodal Transport - National Peer Review: Turkey

Turkey’s continuing economic expansion depends on the diversification of its transport modes and especially on the development of efficient multimodal services. Its role as a hub for Europe, Asia, and the Middle East and as a facilitator of global exchange will be enhanced with a strategy and measures to support a range of intermodal logistic and transport services. This work analyses the current situation and sets forth some of the

19-June-2009

English

Port Competition and Hinterland Connections

This Round Table publication discusses the policy and regulatory challenges posed by the rapidly changing port environment. The sector has changed tremendously in recent decades with technological and organisational innovation and a powerful expansion of trade. Although ports serve hinterlands that now run deep into continents, competition among ports is increasingly intense and their bargaining power in the supply chain has

28-April-2009

English

Terrorism and International Transport - Towards Risk-based Security Policy

Security is critical to transport systems as they are often appealing targets for terrorist attacks. The significant costs of potential damage make effective security policies a key concern for transport decision makers. This Round Table examines the contribution economic analysis can make to improving security in aviation and maritime shipping by identifying methods for quantifying the benefits of security measures and

4-May-2010

English

Improving Reliability on Surface Transport Networks

Passengers and freight shippers alike want reliable transport services.  Surprisingly, little research has been undertaken in incorporating reliability into the assessment of transport projects despite the increasing importance of scheduling in economic activities.

This report provides policy makers with a framework to understand reliability issues, to incorporate reliability into project assessment and to design reliability

4-November-2009

English

Competitive Interaction between Airports, Airlines and High-Speed Rail

How should airports be regulated to contain market power? This round table proceedings first examines whether they need to be regulated at all. It concludes that because regulation is inevitably imperfect and costly, policy makers should establish conditions for competition to emerge between airports in preference to comprehensive regulation, whenever possible.

Economic regulation is sometimes necessary, such as when airports

31-March-2010

English

Effective Transport Policies for Corporate Mobility Management

Many companies and other large employers have put in place initiatives to address the traffic-related nuisances generated by their activities and, in particular, the traffic generated by their workers and customers. Such Corporate Mobility Management (CMM) initiatives are the focus of this report which investigates the success factors in individual best practice cases at the company level as well as the roles, if any, public

26-February-2010

English

Integration and Competition between Transport and Logistics Businesses

Some very large multinational transport and logistics firms have emerged to provide integrated transport services to shippers in the globalised economy. Do these firms escape regulatory oversight from national competition authorities because of their sheer scale? Do they pose additional threats to competition when they merge with or acquire other companies in the supply chain?

The Round Table brought competition experts

4-May-2010

English

The Future for Interurban Passenger Transport - Bringing Citizens Closer Together

Economic growth, trade and the concentration of population in large cities will intensify demand for interurban transport services. Concurrently, the need to manage environmental impacts effectively will increase. How successful we are in coping with demand will depend on our ability to innovate, to manage congestion, and to improve the quality of transport services. Technological and regulatory innovation will shape the future of

8-October-2010

English

Drugs and Driving - Detection and Deterrence

Driving while impaired by drugs – whether licit or illicit – has emerged as an important road safety issue. This report provides a state-of-the-art review of the role and impact of drugs in road accident risk. It reviews the legislation, deterrence and roadside detection practices in member countries as well as preventative measures to combat drug use while driving. It provides recommendations on strategies to adopt in addressing

4-October-2010

English

Safety and Regulatory Reform of Railways

Does deregulation reduce rail safety? Many countries have envisaged or implemented pro-competitive regulatory reforms of their rail sectors. Concerns have been voiced regarding the impact of these reforms on rail safety performance, especially in cases of reforms that have privatised or deregulated state ownership and control of railways. This report addresses these concerns with a detailed investigation of pre- and post-reform rail

31-August-2010

English

Implementing Congestion Charges

Recent advances in the scientific understanding of urban traffic congestion have only strengthened the already solid case for congestion charges as an element of a successful urban transport policy. But examples of real-world congestion charging systems remain few and far between. What can be done to improve the chances of their more widespread adoption in practice? This report draws lessons from attempts to introduce congestion

26-November-2010

English

Airport Regulation Investment and Development of Aviation

Adequate airport capacity is crucial to allowing the global economy to grow. Present regulatory arrangements are not efficient because the airline and airport markets have changed enormously over recent years. There is scope to do much better.

The challenge is to create conditions for efficient infrastructure development in a sector where in some circumstances some airports have market power and might abuse this position. It

4-October-2010

English

Illustrated Glossary for Transport Statistics 4th Edition

The Glossary for Transport Statistics was published for the first time in 1994 with the purpose of assisting member countries during the collection of data on transport using the Common Questionnaire developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, the International Transport Forum and Eurostat.

The Glossary is the result of continuing valuable co-operation between these three organisations

19-April-2011

English

Moving Freight with Better Trucks - Improving Safety, Productivity and Sustainability

This report identifies potential improvements in terms of more effective safety and environmental regulation for trucks, backed by better systems of enforcement, and  identifies opportunities for greater efficiency and higher productivity.

The report is based on a review of literature, consultation among stakeholders, and research and analysis from working group members. It also presents the results of a comprehensive

16-December-2010

English

Stimulating Low-Carbon Vehicle Technologies

Governments around the world are increasingly intervening in automobile markets to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of CO2 from new vehicles. This report reviews the rationale for such intervention and examines measures for maximum effectiveness and minimum cost.

The Round Table brought together economists, policy makers and auto engineers with the aim of advancing understanding of why car markets currently fail to

6-April-2011

English

Improving the Practice of Transport Project Appraisal

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is indispensable for making good decisions on what transport projects to fund.  It essentially aims to figure out which projects offer the best value for money.  However, the practical relevance of CBA does not always live up to its appeal in principle.  One problem is that there is sometimes disagreement over what to include in CBA, both on the cost side and the benefits side of the analysis. As a

17-May-2011

English

Better Economic Regulation - The Role of the Regulator

Efficient provision of transport infrastructure is critical to economic growth. The long asset lives of much transport infrastructure indicates governance through regulation, rather than through contract or public ownership. This can ensure predictability in long-term relationships whilst preserving some flexibility to deal with changes in external circumstances.

The transparency created by a fully independent regulator is

13-August-2012

English

Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health

Walking is the most natural form of mobility; however cities have not always evolved to accommodate the needs of pedestrians and walking has in many cases been neglected in the development of transport systems. Improving the pedestrian environment can contribute significantly to meeting the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health.

This report aims to present decision-makers with hard evidence on the important

8-November-2012

English

Sharing Road Safety - Developing an International Framework for Crash Modification Functions

Each year about 1.3 million people are killed and another 50 million people are injured on roads worldwide. These road crashes cost countries between 1 and 3 percent of their GDP. Many of these crashes can be prevented by effective countermeasures. This report helps identify the most effective safety countermeasures.

Policy makers need to justify expenditure on road safety in terms of effectiveness, competing for the scarce

10-December-2013

English

ITF Transport Outlook 2013 - Funding Transport

The ITF Transport Outlook 2013 presents and discusses global scenarios concerning the development of transport volumes through 2050. The analysis highlights the impact of alternative economic growth scenarios on passenger and freight flows and the consequences of rapid urbanisation outside the OECD . Under any scenario, transport volumes grow very strongly in non-OECD regions, and curbing negative side-effects (including

26-September-2013

English

Better Regulation of Public-Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure

Many governments seek to attract private finance for infrastructure through public-private partnerships (PPPs) in order to maintain investment at the same time as limiting public spending. Experience with PPPs has, however, been mixed. Some transport PPP projects have delivered major cost savings but many more have exceeded their budgets. PPPs are prone to overestimating revenues and when projects run into financial difficulty,

23-December-2013

English

Long-run Trends in Car Use

The growth of car use in several advanced economies has slowed down, stopped, or turned negative. The change can not be attributed to adverse economic conditions alone. Socio-demographic factors, including population ageing and changing patterns of education, working, and household composition matter. Rising urbanization and less car-oriented policies in some cities also reduce the growth of car use, perhaps combined with changing

19-December-2013

English

Cycling, Health and Safety

Many jurisdictions around the world are trying to retain or increase the share of cycling in urban traffic in order to benefit from the many health and transport efficiency benefits. Safety is a key concern and should be accounted for in these policies.
This report of the International Transport Forum's Cycling Safety Working Group monitors international trends in cycling, safety and policy, and explores options that may help

15-April-2014

English

Expanding Airport Capacity in Large Urban Areas

Expanding airport capacity in large metropolitan areas is difficult. Community agreements on noise constrain growth at existing airports. Land prices can be prohibitive for relocating airports. Most new sites require extensive investment in surface transport links to city centres. In multi-airport regions, options for expansion at the airports are to an extent interdependent, complicating assessment of whether to build new

17-January-2014

German

Höhepunkte des Weltverkehrsforum 2013 - Finanzierungskonzepte für das Verkehrswesen : Zusammenfassung der Diskussionen

Auf der ganzen Welt steigt der Mobilitätsbedarf rasant. Die Motorisierung der Schwellenländer schreitet in einem atemberaubenden Tempo voran. Bis 2020 soll die Anzahl der Kraftfahrzeuge weltweit einigen Schätzungen zufolge von mehr als 1 Milliarde auf gut 2 Milliarden anwachsen. In den nächsten 15 Jahren könnte sich, OECD-Prognosen zufolge, der Personenluftverkehr verdoppeln, die Luftfracht verdreifachen und das Containerhandling

Also Available

20-October-2014

English

Water Governance in Tunisia - Overcoming the Challenges to Private Sector Participation

This report diagnoses the main governance and financing challenges to private sector participation in the water supply and wastewater sector of Tunisia, and provides ways forward to address these challenges. It been developed as part of a water policy dialogue conducted by the OECD jointly with the Global Water Partnership-Mediterranean (GWP-Med) in the context of the project labelled by the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM)

4-June-2014

English

Water Governance in Jordan - Overcoming the Challenges to Private Sector Participation

This report assesses the main governance and financing challenges to private sector participation (PSP) in the water supply and sanitation sector of Jordan, and provides ways forward to address them, based on international experience and OECD compendium of principles and good practices. Using the diagnostic analysis of the governance challenges to PSP in the Jordan water sector (Chapter 1), the report identifies ways forward to

4-June-2014

English

Water Governance in Jordan - Overcoming the Challenges to Private Sector Participation

This report assesses the main governance and financing challenges to private sector participation (PSP) in the water supply and sanitation sector of Jordan, and provides ways forward to address them, based on international experience and OECD compendium of principles and good practices. Using the diagnostic analysis of the governance challenges to PSP in the Jordan water sector (Chapter 1), the report identifies ways forward to

1-October-2008

English

West African Mobility and Migration Policies of OECD Countries

This publication reviews migration policies in the main OECD countries receiving West African migrants and analyses the recent discussions within Europe. This report lists common approaches undertaken in Europe, Africa and West Africa and aims to shed light on decision makers’ strategic thinking. It provides the greater public with an objective understanding of this recent dynamic.

23-March-2009

English

Regional Challenges of West African Migration - African and European Perspectives

This publication presents contributions by international experts on various aspects of West African migration. It provides a contrasting perspective to current debates which essentially focus on security issues. This rather non-institutional approach promotes a constant dialogue based on analyses of the actual situation: the authors encourage "win-win" mobility for all parties involved (Europe, North Africa and West Africa),

20-December-2011

English

Literacy for Life - Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term.

It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various settings – at home and at work – for the eleven countries participating in the first

15-October-2014

English

Employment and Skills Strategies in Korea

With the rising economic importance of human resources and skills, employment and training agencies are now often expected to play a more important role in local strategies to support new creation, facilitate restructuring and increase productivity. The OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme has developed an international cross-comparative study examining the contribution of local labour market policy to

28-October-2014

English

Social Cohesion Policy Review of Viet Nam

This report examines the effects of recent economic growth in Viet Nam on social cohesion. It finds that recent rapid economic growth in Viet Nam has not resulted in an increase in overall inequality, but the level of inequality was already high. Growth was not particularly inclusive, benefiting most the middle class and the richest households, and favouring less households in the bottom 20th percentile. Income mobility was also

1-June-2012

English

Supporting Partners to Develop their Capacity - Twelve Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

This report draws out some common themes or lessons regarding capacity development from the DAC peer reviews, including technical co-operation which is one of the main forms of DAC members’ assistance to partner countries. The lessons are focused on how DAC members can reform their technical co-operation and other practices to better support partners to develop their own capacity.

11-September-2014

English

Few and Far - The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery

Corruption has a devastating impact on developing and transition countries, with estimates of $20 billion to $40 billion per year stolen by public officials, a figure equivalent to 20 to 40 percent of official development assistance flows. The return of the proceeds of corruption— asset recovery—can have a significant development impact. Returns can be used directly for development purposes, such as improvements in the health and

11-November-2014

English

Towards Green Growth in Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia’s booming economy offers tremendous growth potential, but also large and interlinked economic, social and environmental challenges. The region’s current growth model is based in large part on natural resource exploitation, exacerbating these challenges. This report provides evidence that, with the right policies and institutions, Southeast Asia can pursue green growth and thus sustain the natural capital and

16-November-2014

English

Open Government in Latin America

Latin American governments have embarked upon substantial open government reforms in recent years. Working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), progress has been made. The OECD - as an official multilateral partner organisation of the OGP - has conducted a regional stocktaking exercise of open government strategies and practices. Its main findings are reflected in this report, allowing Latin American countries to compare and

Also Available

22-September-2014

English

SME Policy Index: The Mediterranean Middle East and North Africa 2014 - Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe

This report assesses the elaboration and implementation of SME policy in eight Middle East and North African economies of the southern Mediterranean shore. The assessment is structured according to the ten policy principles covered in the Small Business Act for Europe (the SBA). One of the main findings is that over the last five years there has been progress in SME policy elaboration and implementation in spite of the political

18-November-2014

English

A Skills beyond School Review of South Africa

Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can workbased learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report on South Africa looks at these and other questions.

12-May-2014

English

Budgeting Practices and Procedures in OECD Countries

The OECD Budget Practices and Procedures Database provides detailed data on how budgets are made in OECD countries  from formulation, to approval, execution and reporting based on surveys conducted every four to five years. This publication presents the results of the latest survey, conducted in 2012, and compares this with the previous survey, conducted in 2007. It finds that fiscal sustainability is a key issue for countries

22-October-2014

English

Africa Energy Outlook

Sub-Saharan Africa' s energy sector can be improved to unlock a better life for its citizens.  This report describes one of the most poorly understood parts of the global energy system, offers an authoritative study of its future prospects - broken down by fuel, sector and sub-region - and shows how investment in the sub-Saharan energy sector can stimulate rapid economic and social development across the region.

The

7-December-2014

English

The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities

Ports and cities are historically strongly linked, but the link between port and city growth has become weaker. Economic benefits often spill over to other regions, whereas negative impacts are localised in the port-city. How can ports regain their role as drivers of urban economic growth and how can negative port impacts be mitigated? Those are the questions that this report aims to answer.

20-October-2014

English

Women in Business 2014 - Accelerating Entrepreneurship in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Women in Business 2014 summarises the progress made by the OECD-MENA Women Business Forum (WBF) since the publication of its first Women in Business report in 2012. In 2012, five groups of actions had been identified as priorities to be carried out by governments, international stakeholders, financial and business support organisations, as well as statistical agencies. In two years, the WBF has developed inputs for three of these

26-November-2014

English

Women in Public Life - Gender, Law and Policy in the Middle East and North Africa

Public institutions play a critical role in promoting gender-sensitive policies and gender equality more broadly, in the MENA region and around the world. Advancing gender balance in public institutions and public life more generally, including the judiciary, parliaments, and the political executive constitutes a major step towards gender-responsive policies and non-discrimination and serves as a key milestone in promoting gender

2-December-2014

English

Pensions at a Glance - Latin America and the Caribbean

This comprehensive examination of pension systems in Latin America and the Caribbean looks at recent trends in retirement and working at older ages, evolving life expectancy, design of pension systems, and pension entitlements before providing a series of country profiles. The special chapter analyses the coverage and adequacy of Latin American pension systems.

 

 

9-April-2010

English

Risk and Regulatory Policy - Improving the Governance of Risk

We expect governments to protect citizens from the adverse consequences of hazardous events. At the same time it is not possible or necessarily in the best interest of citizens for all risks to be removed. A risk-based approach to the design and implementation of regulation can help to ensure that regulatory approaches are efficient, effective and account for risk/risk tradeoffs across policy objectives. Risk-based approaches to

3-November-2014

English

International Regulatory Co-operation and International Organisations - The Cases of the OECD and the IMO

The world is witnessing the progressive emergence of an open, dynamic, globalised economy, and the intensification of global challenges such as systemic risks, environmental protection, human health or safety. Against this background, governments are increasingly seeking to ensure greater co-ordination on regulatory objectives, processes and enforcement and to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and redundancies.

5-May-2009

English

OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform: China 2009 - Defining the Boundary between the Market and the State

China has made enormous progress in developing the modern legal and regulatory foundation for the market economy. The private sector is now the main driver of growth, and new laws have gone a long way toward establishing private property rights, competition, and mechanisms for entry and exit comparable to those of many OECD countries. At the same time important challenges remain, including further clarification of the scope of

15-February-2010

English

OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform: Australia 2010 - Towards a Seamless National Economy

This review of regulatory reform in Australia comes at the right time to capture the attention of the OECD community. Australia has successfully weathered the worst effects of the current economic crisis. The resilience of the Australian economy, in the face of the deepest and most widespread recession in over fifty years in OECD countries, can in part be attributed to Australia’s current and past regulatory

4-December-2014

English

Mapping Channels to Mobilise Institutional Investment in Sustainable Energy

What are the channels for investment in sustainable energy infrastructure by institutional investors (e.g. pension funds, insurance companies and sovereign wealth funds) and what factors influence investment decisions? What key policy levers and risk mitigants can governments use to facilitate these types of investments? What emerging channels (such as green bonds, YieldCos and direct project investment) hold significant promise

2-October-2008

English

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Hungary 2008

OECD's comprehensive review of Hungary's environmental programs and policies, covering air and water management, nature and biodiversity, sustainable development, the environment-economy interface, the environment-social interface, and international commitments. The review includes relevant statistical information as well as a series of recommendations for strengthening environmental infrastructure, implementing environmental

26-November-2014

English

Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Norway 2014

Norway is characterised by very high levels of migration from within the European Economic Area (EEA) and growing but small scale labour migration from countries outside the EEA. In this context, the challenge for managing discretionary labour migration is to ensure it complements EEA flows. High-skilled workers who come to Norway often leave, even if their employer would like to keep them. Norway has many international students,

19-December-2014

English

OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Italy 2014 - Raising Standards

This report reviews the quality of health care in Italy, seeks to highlight best practices, and provides a series of targeted assessments and recommendations for further improvements to quality of care. Italy’s indicators of health system outcomes, quality and efficiency are uniformly impressive. Life expectancy is the fifth highest in the OECD. Avoidable admission rates are amongst the very best in the OECD, and case-fatality

4-November-2014

English

Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries: Morocco 2014

The Kingdom of Morocco is over 90 % dependent on energy imports, so a major challenge is to develop indigenous resources. Topography and climate are favourable to wind, solar and additional hydropower. By 2020 Morocco aims to derive more than 40 % of its electrical capacity from these sources, strengthening both energy security and sustainability. At the same time, Rabat aims to retain its attractive investment conditions for oil

3-December-2014

English

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014 - Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship in Europe

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014 is the second edition in a series of annual reports that provide data and policy analysis on inclusive entrepreneurship, and on its barriers, by target social groups across the European Union. Inclusive entrepreneurship involves business start-ups and self-employment activities that contribute to economic growth and social inclusion - notably of youth, women, seniors, immigrants and the

1-June-2014

English

Mainstreaming Cross-cutting Issues - Seven Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

Gender equality and the environment are treated as cross-cutting issues in all DAC peer reviews in recognition of their importance in development co-operation. This report highlights some of the common themes and important lessons on mainstreaming gender equality and the environment based on DAC members’ practices as documented in peer reviews, a number of donor evaluations as well as wider work across the OECD.

 

6-October-2014

English

Paying for Performance in Health Care - Implications for Health System Performance and Accountability

The detailed analysis of these 10 case studies together with the rest of the analytical text highlight the realities of P4P programs and their potential impact on the performance of health systems in a diversity of settings. This book provides critical insights into the experience to date with P4P and how this tool may be better leveraged to improve health system performance and accountability.

1-June-2012

English

Partnering with Civil Society - Twelve Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

This report is about partnerships between DAC members and civil society organisations (CSOs) which can serve many purposes. These include supporting the vital role that CSOs play in enabling people to claim their rights, in promoting rights-based approaches, in shaping development policies and partnerships and in overseeing their implementation, in providing services in areas that are complementary to those provided by states and

18-June-2013

English

Evaluating Development Activities - Twelve Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

Evaluating development co-operation activities is one of the areas where the DAC’s influence on policy and practice can most readily be observed. Having an evaluation system that is well-established is one of the conditions of becoming a member of the DAC. Each peer review examines the set-up and management of the evaluation function, using the norms and standards developed by the DAC’s Network on Development Evaluation.

18-December-2014

English

An Atlas of the Sahara-Sahel - Geography, Economics and Security

The Sahara-Sahel has seen recurrent episodes of instability. However, the recent Libyan and Malian crises have intensified the level of violence. These episodes have restructured the geopolitical and geographical dynamics of the region. Cross-border or regional, these contemporary crises require new institutional responses. How can countries sharing this space -  Algeria, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Chad and Tunisia

21-December-2014

English

OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: France 2014

This report compares the performance of the French innnovation systems with that of other countries and presents the conclusions of interviews with 30 key actors in the French research and innovation system.  During the past ten years, this system has undergone profound changes, and the report highlights the governments plan to dynamise and reform the system.

 

27-November-2014

English

Compact City Policies: Korea - Towards Sustainable and Inclusive Growth

This report examines Korea's urban policies and offers customised policy recommendations based on the OECD publication, Compact City Policies (2012). Some Korean policies, such as urban regeneration, new town development or multi-modal transfering centers, have implicitly implemented compact city polices to a certain degree. However, there are still issues - including urban sprawl, unbalanced socio-economic levels and

2-December-2014

English

OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Ireland 2014

The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. This peer review of Ireland reviews its development policies and programmes. It assesses not just the performance of its development co-operation agency, but also policy and implementation. It takes an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian

18-January-2015

English

Education Policy Outlook 2015 - Making Reforms Happen

The OECD Education Policy Outlook provides policy makers, and all those who influence practice and delivery in education, with comparative information and analysis to assist them in formulating and implementing policies to improve education attainment and performance of their education systems. It provides comparative analysis of policy reforms, and reviews individual country education policy approaches in a succinct

14-December-2014

English

New Insights from TALIS 2013 - Teaching and Learning in Primary and Upper Secondary Education

The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) asks teachers and principals who they are, where they teach and how they feel about their work. The results on lower secondary schools were published in TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning. A few countries chose to also conduct the survey in primary and/or upper secondary education. This report presents the results of these options

4-December-2014

English

Biosafety and the Environmental Uses of Micro-Organisms - Conference Proceedings

The OECD Conference on the Environmental Uses of Micro-organisms, organised in March 2012, gathered policy makers, regulators and specialists to overview current developments in environmental microbiology and inform on the environmental aspects (biosafety and risk assessment) of genetically modified organisms.

These proceedings capture the array of the themes discussed, notably the use of micro-organisms in agriculture and

6-January-2015

English

ITF Transport Outlook 2015

The ITF Transport Outlook examines the development of global transport volumes and related CO2 emissions and health impacts through to 2050. It examines factors that can affect supply and demand for transport services and focuses on scenarios illustrating potential upper and lower pathways, discussing their relevance to policy making.

This edition presents an overview of long-run scenarios for the development of global

10-December-2014

English

The Distributional Effects of Consumption Taxes in OECD Countries

The report examines the distributional effects of value-added tax (VAT) and excise tax systems in 20 OECD countries, and investigates the effectiveness of reduced VAT rates as a redistributional tool.

4-October-2012

English

OECD Internet Economy Outlook 2012

The Internet is now a fundamental infrastructure supporting the economy and is firmly in its 2nd stage of development, having evolved from a data network connecting PCs with wires to a much broader network of new portable devices from mobile phones to tablet computers. It is also on the cusp of a much larger expansion to objects that typically did not have communications capabilities: the “Internet of things” is projected to have

30-November-2014

English

OECD Territorial Reviews: Colombia 2014

Regional development policy is a priority of Colombia’s government. The country has experienced sustained economic growth over the past decade; yet several territories still lack development opportunities. To promote growth in all regions the government has engaged in a series of reforms. For instance, it started allocating royalty payments generated by hydrocarbon resources to all departments and most municipalities, including

2-December-2014

English

OECD Foreign Bribery Report - An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials

This groundbreaking report is based on analysis of data emerging from all foreign bribery enforcement actions concluded since the entry into force of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in 1999. The OECD Foreign Bribery Report will, for the first time, ‘measure’ the crime of transnational corruption. It covers issues such as who is being bribed, where, how bribes are being paid and where bribers are being punished.

Also Available

23-November-2014

English

Engaging with the Public - Twelve Lessons from DAC Peer Reviews

DAC peer reviews analyse how DAC members go about public engagement for accountability
and to raise public awareness of global development successes and challenges.
Engaging the public, whether through public information, communication, campaigns or
development education, is a core function of most government departments or agencies
involved in official development co-operation. This report highlights key

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 413: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-day Study

This revised Test Guideline has been designed to fully characterize test article toxicity by the inhalation route for a subchronic duration (90 days), and to provide robust data for quantitative inhalation risk assessments. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rodents are exposed 6 hours per day during a 90 day (13 week) period to a) the test article at three or more concentration levels, b) filtered air (negative control), and/or c)

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 230: 21-day Fish Assay - A Short-Term Screening for Oestrogenic and Androgenic Activity, and Aromatase Inhibition

This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for certain endocrine active substances where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). This assay covers the screening of oestrogenic and androgenic activity, and aromatase inhibition. The assay was validated on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), the

19-September-2012

English

Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 2 - Promoting Integrity through Self-regulation

This second volume of OECD's study on lobbying examines regulation and self-regulation of lobbying. It includes chapters defining and examining lobbying, describing the role of professional lobbying associations, exploring various codes of conduct and examining specific codes in various countries, examining lobbyists' attitudes toward regulation and self-regulation, and exploring various options for enhancing transparency and

2-September-2014

English

Guidance Document on the Validation of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship [(Q)SAR] Models

To keep (Q)SAR applications on a solid scientific foundation, an international effort to articulate principles for (Q)SAR technology and to develop a guidance document for use of (Q)SAR in regulatory applications. This document presents those principles and helpful guides for validating (Q)SAR technology for a variety of applications.

2-September-2014

English

Guidance on Grouping of Chemicals

This guidance document is part of the OECD effort to provide guidance for assessing the hazards of chemical substances while gaining efficiencies and improving animal welfare. The approach described in this guidance document is to consider closely related chemicals as a group, or category, rather than as individual chemicals. In the category approach, not every chemical needs to be tested for every endpoint. Rather, the overall

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 223: Avian Acute Oral Toxicity Test

This Test Guideline describes procedures designed to estimate the acute oral toxicity of substances to birds, and it provides three testing options: (1) limit dose test, (2) LD50-slope test, and (3) LD50-only test. The LD50-slope and LD50-only options are sequential testing procedures. The test method selected will depend on whether or not a definitive median dose (LD50) and slope of the dose-response curve are both needed. The

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 233: Sediment-Water Chironomid Life-Cycle Toxicity Test Using Spiked Water or Spiked Sediment

This Guideline is designed to assess the effects of prolonged exposure of chemicals to the life-cycle of the sediment-dwelling freshwater dipteran Chironomus sp. First instar chironomid larvae are exposed to five concentrations of the test chemical in sediment-water systems. The test substance is spiked into the water or alternatively the sediment, and first instar larvae are subsequently introduced into test beakers in which the

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 317: Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes

This Test Guideline describes procedures designed to assess bioaccumulation of chemicals in soil oligochaetes. The parameters which characterise the bioaccumulation of a substance include the bioaccumulation factor (BAF), the uptake rate constant (ks) and the elimination rate constant (ke). The test consists of two phases: the uptake (exposure) phase and the elimination (post-exposure) phase. An elimination phase is always required

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 439: In Vitro Skin Irritation - Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method

This Test Guideline describes an in vitro procedure that may be used for the hazard identification of irritant chemicals (substances and mixtures) in accordance with the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) Category 2.  It is based on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), which in its overall design closely mimics the biochemical and physiological properties of the upper parts of the human skin. Cell

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 442A: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: DA

The Local Lymph Node Assay: DA (LLNA: DA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method, described in mouse (CBA/J strain), is based on measurement of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content by bioluminescence as an indicator of this proliferation. A minimum of four

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 442B: Skin Sensitization - Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA

The Local Lymph Node Assay: BrdU-ELISA (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) is a non-radioactive modification to the LLNA method for identifying potential skin sensitizing test substances and measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes they induce in the auricular lymph nodes. The method described in mouse (CBA/JN strain) is based on the use of measuring 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) content, an analogue of thymidine, as an indicator of this

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell

17-March-2014

English

Water Governance in the Netherlands - Fit for the Future?

This report assesses the extent to which Dutch water governance is fit for future challenges and sketches an agenda for the reform of water policies in the Netherlands. It builds on a one-year policy dialogue with over 100 Dutch stakeholders, supported by robust analytical work and drawing on international best practice.

15-January-2012

English

Energy

The OECD Green Growth Strategy aims to provide concrete recommendations and measurement tools, including indicators, to support countries’ efforts to achieve economic growth and development, while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which well-being relies. The strategy proposes a flexible policy framework that can be tailored to different country circumstances and stages of

11-November-2012

English

OECD Integrity Review of Brazil - Managing Risks for a Cleaner Public Service

Brazil’s agenda to enhance integrity and prevent corruption is particularly critical in order to address a number of challenges facing the country’s public administration. The challenges include managing risks associated with innovation in public service delivery, achieving value for money and minimising waste in government operations and meeting the expectations of citizens  regarding the conduct of public

27-July-2011

English

Test No. 234: Fish Sexual Development Test

This Test Guideline describes an assay that assesses early life-stage effects and potential adverse consequences of putative endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g. oestrogens, androgens and steroidogenesis inhibitors) on fish sexual development. In the test, fish are exposed, from newly fertilized egg until the completion of sexual differentiation at about 60 days post hatch, to at least three concentrations of the test substance

27-July-2011

English

Test No. 235: Chironomus sp., Acute Immobilisation Test

This Test Guideline describes an acute immobilisation assay on chronomids and is designed to complement existing Test Guidelines for chironomid chronic toxicity assays (TG 218, 219 and 233). The test method is based on TG 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test. First instar Chironomus sp. larvae are exposed to a range of concentrations of the test substance in water-only vessels for a period of 48 hours. C. riparius is the

27-July-2011

English

Test No. 443: Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study

This Test Guideline is designed to provide an evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects that may occur as a result of pre- and postnatal chemical exposure as well as an evaluation of systemic toxicity in pregnant and lactating females and young and adult offspring. In the assay, sexually-mature males and females rodents (parental (P) generation) are exposed to graduated doses of the test substance starting 2 weeks before

27-July-2011

English

Test No. 456: H295R Steroidogenesis Assay

This Test Guideline describes an in vitro screen for chemical effects on steroidogenesis, specifically the production of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T). The human H295R adreno-carcinoma cell line, used for the assay, expresses genes that encode for all the key enzymes for steroidogenesis. After an acclimation period of 24 h in multi-well plates, cells are exposed for 48 h to seven concentrations of the test chemical in at

27-July-2011

English

Test No. 488: Transgenic Rodent Somatic and Germ Cell Gene Mutation Assays

This Test Guideline describes an in vivo assay that detects chemicals that may induce gene mutations. In this assay, transgenic rats or mice that contain multiple copies of chromosomally integrated plasmid or phage shuttle vectors are used. The transgenes contain reporter genes for the detection of various types of mutations induced by test substances. A negative control group and a minimum of 3 treatment groups of

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 109: Density of Liquids and Solids

This Test Guideline lists methods for determining the density of liquids and solids, giving only a succinct description of them. The density of a substance is the quotient of its mass and its volume and is expressed in SI units as kg/m3 at a specified temperature. Several methods are for liquid substance only: hydrometer, immersed body method (both are buoyancy methods) and oscillating densitometer. These methods are applicable to

27-March-2012

English

OECD Best Practice Guidelines for Biological Resource Centres

These best practice guidelines are intended to serve as a target for the quality management of biological resource center collections. They are the result of discussions held by OECD member countries together with a number of key partner countries under the auspices of an expert Task Force established by the OECD Working Party on Biotechnology.   They were developed in extensive consultation with the scientific community.

22-February-2012

English

Institutional and Financial Relations across Levels of Government

As financial markets put more and more pressure on governments to reduce their deficits and debts, sub-central  levels of government are a key player in the implementation of national strategies. The room for manoeuvre to implement consolidations strategies coordinated across levels of government highly depends on the institutional structure of intergovernmental relations, and the effectiveness of their multi-level governance

15-January-2012

English

Measuring Regulatory Performance - A Practitioner's Guide to Perception Surveys

Now more than ever, OECD countries are investing significant resources in regulatory policies and reforms. At the same time, governments are under increasing pressure to explain such reforms and their benefits to the public. Perception surveys are an important part of this process and they are being used by OECD members to measure how citizens and businesses view regulation in their countries. 

This guide helps officials

11-July-2012

English

OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Slovenia 2012

This review of innovation policy in Slovenia offers a comprehensive assessment of Slovenia's innovation system, focusing on the role of government. It provides concrete recommendations and identifies good practices.

10-April-2012

English

OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Colombia 2012

This Investment Policy Review examines Colombia's achievements in developing an open and transparent investment regime and its efforts to reduce restrictions on international investment. The Review  shows  that, in the past few years, Colombia has made tremendous progress in promoting investment liberalisation and improving its investment policy framework. Colombia has also recently undertaken important policy reforms in many of

28-March-2012

English

Related Party Transactions and Minority Shareholder Rights

Related party transactions involve parties who can control the terms of a transaction in their favor potentially at the cost of the company. They include management, board members and controlling shareholders. The publication reviews provisions covering related party transactions and the protection of minority shareholder rights  in 31 jurisdictions, both OECD and non-OECD. In addition, the regulatory and legal systems that have

17-May-2012

English

Knowledge Networks and Markets in the Life Sciences

Around the OECD countries and beyond, there is a proliferation of initiatives in the life sciences to bring together disperse elements of global research and establish an effective virtual infrastructure for open innovation. Their common goal is to leverage innovative capacity by creating interconnected webs of knowledge and exploiting external expertise.
Some such initiatives have as their goal the monetisation and trading

19-March-2012

English

OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Zambia 2012

OECD's review of investment policy in Zambia reviews the country's investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, trade and competition policy, tax policy, corporate governance, policies for promoting responsible business conduct, infrastructure development and other aspects of the policy framework for investment.

6-June-2012

English

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Slovenia 2012

This first review of Slovenia's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in sustainable development, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. It addresses green growth, environmental management, climate change and air pollution, and waste management issues.

20-March-2012

English

OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality: Korea 2012 - Raising Standards

At a time when ever more information is available about the quality of health care, the challenge for policy makers is to better understand the policies and approaches that sit behind the numbers. Korea is the first country report in a new OECD series evaluating the quality of health care across OECD countries – whether care is safe, effective and responsive to patients’ needs. OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality examine

Also Available

27-September-2012

English

OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform: Indonesia 2012 - Strengthening Co-ordination and Connecting Markets

The OECD Review of Regulatory Reform in Indonesia focuses on the administrative and institutional arrangements for ensuring that regulations are effective and efficient. It covers the medium term macroeconomic linkages with regulatory policy; of institutional and procedural arrangements for regulatory policy and governance; non-tariff barriers and behind the border constraints to market openness; competition policy in relation to

21-November-2012

English

Water Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean - A Multi-level Approach

This report addresses multilevel governance challenges in water policy in the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) and identifies good practices for co-ordinating water across ministries, between levels of government, and across local and regional actors.  Based on the OECD Multilevel Governance Framework and a survey on water governance, the report i) maps the allocation of roles and responsibilities in 13 LAC

Also Available

29-March-2012

English

Identification and Quantification of the Proceeds of Bribery - Revised edition, February 2012

This study focuses on the identification and quantification of the proceeds of active bribery in international business transactions. Public and private organisations alike have long recognised that bribery of public officials is harmful to good governance, economic development and competitive conditions. Confiscation and recovery of the proceeds derived from foreign bribery are key elements in the international framework to fight

15-May-2012

English

Evaluating Laws and Regulations - The Case of the Chilean Chamber of Deputies

This report focuses on international practices of ex post evaluation, and particularly on the current efforts to conduct ex post evaluation of laws in Chile. It is divided in two main parts.

The first part of the report provides information and guidance, examples of practice and references on the subject of ex post evaluation in OECD countries, particularly in the Legislative area. It looks at the different definitions of,

Also Available

14-November-2012

English

Public Sector Compensation in Times of Austerity

Austerity drives are leading governments to reduce operational cuts through the wage bill and staffing levels. A big lesson from past experience suggests that when pay cuts and freezes are necessary, it is essential to assess the savings relative to the costs – the loss of institutional knowledge if key contributors retire or resign, the time lost by managers and employees who have to deal with the issues related to vacancies and

20-August-2012

English

A Framework for Financing Water Resources Management

A lack of finance for water resources management is a primary concern for most OECD countries. This is exacerbated in the current fiscal environment of tight budgets and strong fiscal consolidation, as public funding provides the lion’s share of financial resources for water management.

The report provides a framework for policy discussions around financing water resources management that are taking place at local, basin,

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 114: Viscosity of Liquids

This Test Guideline describes methods to measure the viscosity of liquids. Most of the methods listed are appropriate for the investigation of Newtonian liquids. The measurement of non-Newtonian liquids is possible with the rotational viscometer. Viscosity measurements are carried out according to five methods: the capillary viscometer, the flow cup, the rotational viscometer, the rolling ball viscometer and the drawing ball

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test

The test method described in this Test Guideline assesses the effect of chemicals on the reproductive output of Daphnia magna Straus. To this end, young female Daphnia are exposed to the test substance added to water at a range of concentrations (at least five). For semi-static tests, at least 10 animals at each test concentration and for flow-through tests, 40 animals divided into four groups of 10 animals at each test

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 229: Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay

This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for fish reproduction where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). The short term reproduction assay was validated in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and this is the recommended species. The assay is run with three test chemical concentrations and the

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 305: Bioaccumulation in Fish: Aqueous and Dietary Exposure

This Test Guideline describes a procedure for characterising the bioconcentration potential of substances in fish, using an aqueous (standard and minimised tests) or dietary exposure, under flow-through conditions (but semi-static regimes are permissible). Independent of the chosen exposure method, the bioconcentration fish test test consists of two phases: exposure (uptake) and post-exposure (depuration). During the uptake phase

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 405: Acute Eye Irritation/Corrosion

This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to test substance (liquids, solids and aerosols) by application on the eye. This Test Guideline is intended preferably for use with albino rabbit. The test substance is applied in a single dose in the conjunctival sac of one eye of each animal. The other eye, which remains untreated, serves as a control. The initial test uses an animal; the dose level

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 443: Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study

This Test Guideline is designed to provide an evaluation of reproductive and developmental effects that may occur as a result of pre- and postnatal chemical exposure as well as an evaluation of systemic toxicity in pregnant and lactating females and young and adult offspring. In the assay, sexually-mature males and females rodents (parental (P) generation) are exposed to graduated doses of the test substance starting 2 weeks before

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 455: Performance-Based Test Guideline for Stably Transfected Transactivation In Vitro Assays to Detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists

This Performance-Based Test Guideline (PBTG) describes in vitro assays, which provides the methodology of Stably Transfected Transactivation to detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists (ER TAs). It comprises mechanistically and functionally similar test methods for the identification of estrogen receptor agonists and should facilitate the development of new similar or modified test methods. The two reference test methods that provide the

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 457: BG1Luc Estrogen Receptor Transactivation Test Method for Identifying Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

This Test Guideline describes an in vitro assay, which provides concentration-response data for substances with in vitro ER agonist and antagonist activity. The test system utilises the BG1Luc4E2 cell line derived from a human ovarian adenocarcinoma and stably transfected with a ER responsive luciferase reporter gene. This cell line can evaluate TA mediated by ER alpha and ER beta. The cells are plated into 96-well plate and

1-October-2012

English

Test No. 460: Fluorescein Leakage Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

This Test Guideline describes an in vitro assay that may be used for identifying water soluble ocular corrosives and severe irritants as defined by the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling, Category 1. The assay is performed in a well where a confluent monolayer of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) is used as a separation between two chambers. It uses a fluorescein dye as marqueur. The test substance has the

11-December-2012

English

Activating Jobseekers - How Australia Does It

This report on the recent Australian experience with activation policies contains valuable lessons for other countries that need to improve the effectiveness of employment services and control benefit expenditure. It provides overview and assessment of labour market policies in Australia including the main institutions, benefit system, training programmes, employment incentives, and disability employment

17-December-2012

English

Grade Expectations - How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students' Ambitions

While enrolment in tertiary education has increased dramatically over the past decades, many university-aged students do not enrol, nor do they expect to earn a university degree. While it is important to promote high expectations for further education, it is equally important to ensure that students’ expectations are well-aligned with their actual abilities. Grade Expectations: How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students'

14-May-2013

English

Strengthening Health Information Infrastructure for Health Care Quality Governance - Good Practices, New Opportunities and Data Privacy Protection Challenges

Health data constitutes a significant resource in most OECD countries that could be used to improve population health, the quality of health care and the performance of health systems. Rising levels of chronic diseases; concerns about the quality and safety of patient care; the need to assure value for investments in health care; and the need to allocate health resources wisely; are all too important to be left without good

21-May-2013

English

Review of Recent Developments and Progress in Labour Market and Social Policy in Israel - Slow Progress Towards a More Inclusive Society

This report presents the OECD's assessment of recent developments in Israel in the area of labour market and social policy. It focuses on recent trends in poverty and employment outcomes and policy development to improve employment opportunities, especially for the Arab and Haredi communities.

23-June-2014

English

Green Growth Indicators 2014

The OECD Green Growth Strategy supports countries in fostering economic growth and development while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which well-being relies. Policies that promote green growth need to be founded on a good understanding of the determinants of green growth and need to be supported with appropriate indicators to monitor progress and gauge

15-November-2013

English

World Social Science Report 2013 - Changing Global Environments

Produced by the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and UNESCO, and published by the OECD, the 2013 World Social Science Report represents a comprehensive overview of the field gathering the thoughts and expertise of hundreds of social scientists from around the world.

This edition focuses on the transformative role of the social sciences in confronting climate and broader processes of environmental change, and in

9-April-2014

English

Investing in Youth: Brazil

This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth labour market and education system in Brazil. It takes an international comparative perspective, offering policy options to help improve school-to-work transitions. It also provides an opportunity for other countries to learn from the innovative measures that Brazil has taken to strengthen the skills of youth and their employment outcomes.

15-July-2014

English

Connecting People with Jobs - Activation Policies in the United Kingdom

This report examines recent activation policies in the United Kingdom aimed at moving people back into work. It offers insight into how countries can improve the effectiveness of their employment services and also control spending on benefits. The United Kingdom's policies have helped limit the rise in unemployment during the crisis. It has been at the forefront of reform efforts by OECD countries to transform and modernise

2-September-2014

English

‘Outsourcing' of Inspection Functions by Glp Compliance Monitoring Authorities

This document is a statement of policy set by the 1989 Council Decision-Recommendation on Compliance with Good Laboratory Practice [C(89)87(Final). It reiterates the decisions and the recommendations related to the role and responsibilities of governments, national GLP compliance monitoring authorities and inspectors set out in that Act and its Annexes and states current practices. The Working Group on GLP
is of the opinion

2-September-2014

English

Chemicals Used in Oil Well Production

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in petroleum production at oil wells. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to oil production chemicals.

2-September-2014

English

Water Based Washing Operations at Industrial and Institutional Laundries

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals to be used in water washing machines at industrial and institutional laundries. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to chemicals used in water washing machines in laundries.

2-September-2014

English

Metalworking Fluids

This OECD Emission Scenario Document provides information on the sources, use patterns and potential release pathways of chemicals used in metalworking fluids. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposure to  chemicals ussed in metalworking fluids.


 

2-September-2014

English

Radiation Curable Coating, Inks and Adhesives

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the radiation curable products
industry, specifically during application of radiation curable coatings, inks, and adhesives. The document focuses primarily on ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) curable products and presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental

2-September-2014

English

Blending of Fragrance Oils into Commercial and Consumer Products

The scope of this Emissions Scenario Document includes the blending of fine and functional fragrance oils into consumer and commercial products. The manufacture of aroma chemicals and the formulation of fragrance oil are outside the scope of this scenario. However, these industrial operations are discussed in this section as an introduction to the fragrance industry as a whole. The following life-cycle diagram demonstrates the

2-September-2014

English

Chemicals Used in the Electronics Industry

This report constitutes an emission scenario document (ESD) for chemicals used in the
electronics industry. It provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during various processing techniques relevant to this varied industry sector, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. Therefore, it will assist in the development of exposure scenarios and risk characterisation and assessment,

2-September-2014

English

Transport and Storage of Chemicals

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during their transport and storage in a wide range of industries, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. This ESD covers the transport and storage of chemicals either as pure chemicals or as components of finished products. However, it does not consider the following: mixed waste streams,

2-September-2014

English

Pulp, Paper and Board Industry

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the pulp, paper and board industry, in order to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. This ESD covers the use of chemicals in the making of paper and board and the recycling of paper and board. The main processes considered are paper-making and paper recycling

2-September-2014

English

Coating Industry (Paints, Lacquers and Varnishes)

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the
sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the coatings industry (paints,
lacquers and varnishes), to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals into the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Formulation of Radiation Curable Coatings, Inks and Adhesives

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the radiation curable products industry, specifically during formulation of radiation curable coatings, inks, and adhesives. The document focuses primarily on ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) curable products and presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental

2-September-2014

English

Adhesive Formulation

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the adhesive formulation industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in adhesive formulations. These approaches are intended to provide conservative, screening-level

2-September-2014

English

Insecticides, Acaricides and Products to Control Other Arthropods for Household and Professional Uses

This Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information to be used for risk
assessment for active substances and products used as biocidal (i.e. non agricultural) insecticides, acaricides and products to control other arthropods (in the EU, product type 18 [PT18] c).

2-September-2014

English

Metal Finishing

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the finishing of metals, to assist in
the estimation of releases of chemicals into the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Automotive Spray Application

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the
sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in automotive refinishing industry. The information can be used to estimate releases of chemicals to the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Lubricants and Lubricant Additives

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in lubricants to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals into the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Photoresist Use in Semiconductor Manufacturing

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating environmental releases of and occupational exposures to additives and components used in photoresist formulations.
 

2-September-2014

English

Leather Processing

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, production processes, pathways and use patterns of chemicals used as additives in plastics to assist in the
estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Textile Finishing

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in textile finishing industry to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Rubber Additives

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used as additives in rubber industry to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Photographic Industry

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in photographic industry to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Water Treatment Chemicals

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD)  provides information on the
sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the treatment of water in a number of areas to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.
 

2-September-2014

English

Plastic Additives

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used as additives in plastics to assist in the estimation of releases of chemicals to the environment.

2-September-2014

English

Wood Preservatives

This Emission Scenario Document (ESD) presents an approach to estimate the emissions of
substances used in wood preservatives (EU Product Type 8) from two stages of their life cycle: 1) application (industrial applications / in situ applications by professionals and amateurs) and storage of treated wood prior to shipment, and 2) treated wood-in service.
 

2-September-2014

English

MRL Calculator: Users Guide and White Paper

This document incorporates two parts, an MRL Calculator User Guide and an MRL Calculator White Paper which discusses the methodology used in the User Guide.

2-September-2014

English

Report of the OECD Seminar on Risk Reduction through Prevention, Detection and Control of the Illegal International Trade in Agricultural Pesticides

This document is the report of the OECD Seminar on Risk Reduction through Prevention, Detection and Control of the Illegal International Trade in Agricultural Pesticides that took place on 19 May, 2010 at OECD, Paris, France, and was chaired by Dr. Wolfgang Zornbach of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection. After a series of presentations on governments‟ and other stakeholders‟ approaches and

2-September-2014

English

Report of the OECD workshop on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - Strategies for the adoption and Implementation of IPM in Agriculture Contributing to the Sustainable Use of Pesticides and to Pesticide Risk Reduction

This document is the report of the “OECD Workshop on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) -
Strategies for the adoption and implementation of IPM in agriculture contributing to the sustainable use of
pesticides and to pesticide risk reduction”, that took place on 16 19 October 2011, in Berlin, Germany, and
was chaired by Dr. Wolfgang Zornbach of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and
Consumer

2-September-2014

English

OECD Issue Paper on Microbial Contaminants Limits for Microbial Pest Control Products

This document examines the establishment of acceptable limits of microbiological contamination in microbial pest control products.

2-September-2014

English

OECD Guidance to the Environmental Safety Evaluation of Microbial Biocontrol Agents

This document dealing with biological pesticides provides guidance to both industry and regulatory authorities, in the context of applications for the approval of microbial biological control agents (mBCAs), and for the registration of microbial biological control products (mBCPs).

2-September-2014

English

OECD Guidance Document on Defining Minor Uses of Pesticides

Minor use is the use of chemical pesticides or non-chemical means of crop protection where the potential use is on a scale not sufficiently large to justify registration of that use from an applicant’s perspective alone. Typically minor uses involve crops grown on a small scale (minor crops) and often are high value specialty crops. Additionally minor uses can involve uses within major crops in terms of controlling minor pests and

2-September-2014

English

Guidance Document on Regulatory Incentives for the Registration of Pesticide Minor Uses

This document provides guidance to national regulatory authorities in providing greater incentives to encourage applicants (manufacturers/registrants) to register agricultural pesticides (including both synthetically and naturally derived products) for minor uses.

2-September-2014

English

Guidance on Developing Safety Performance Indicators For Public Authorities and Communities/Public

This Document was designed to serve as a tool to assist industrial enterprises, public authorities, and communities near hazardous installations world-wide develop and implement a means to assess the success of their chemical safety activities. The guidance does not define a precise methodology, but rather provides guidance on how to develop and use safety performance indicators including the general elements of Safety Performance

2-September-2014

English

Guidance on Developing Safety Performance Indicators For Industry

This Guidance on Developing Safety Performance Indicators (“Guidance on SPI”) was prepared to assist enterprises that wish to implement and/or review Safety Performance Indicator Programmes. The three chapters in this Guidance are designed to help enterprises better understand safety performance indicators, and how to implement SPI Programmes. Specifically, Chapter 1 provides important background information on the Guidance and on

2-September-2014

English

OECD Guidance on Pesticide Compliance and Enforcement Best Practices

This Best Practices Guidance addresses compliance and enforcement issues as they relate to pesticides and associated health and environmental risks. The objective of this document is to provide guidance for promoting and monitoring compliance and for assessing and mitigating risks of non-compliance. It is targeted primarily at pesticide regulators, but may also interest policy makers as well as regulated parties (i.e. pesticide

8-December-2014

English

Mortality Assumptions and Longevity Risk - Implications for pension funds and annuity providers

Pension funds and annuity providers need to effectively manage the longevity risk they are exposed to. Individuals receiving a lifetime income may live longer than expected or accounted for in the actuarial calculations to provision for these liabilities. Mismanaged longevity risk can deteriorate finances, cause bankruptcy and expose individuals to the risk of losing their retirement income.

26-September-2014

English

Test No. 473: In Vitro Mammalian Chromosomal Aberration Test

The purpose of the in vitro chromosome aberration test is to identify agents that cause structural chromosome aberrations in cultured mammalian somatic cells. Structural aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid.

The in vitro chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) both

26-September-2014

English

Test No. 474: Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test

The mammalian in vivo micronucleus test is used for the detection of damage induced by the test substance to the chromosomes or the mitotic apparatus of erythroblasts, by analysis of erythrocytes as sampled in bone marrow and/or peripheral blood cells of animals, usually rodents (mice or rats).

The purpose of the micronucleus test is to identify substances (liquid or solid) that cause cytogenetic damage which results in the

26-September-2014

English

Test No. 475: Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosomal Aberration Test

The mammalian in vivo chromosome aberration test is used for the detection of structural chromosome aberrations induced by test compounds in bone marrow cells of animals, usually rodents (rats, mice and Chinese hamsters). Structural chromosome aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid.

Animals are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) by an appropriate route of exposure (usually by gavage using a

26-September-2014

English

Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test

The in vitro micronucleus test is a genotoxicity test for the detection of micronuclei in the cytoplasm of interphase cells. Micronuclei may originate from acentric chromosome fragments (i.e. lacking a centromere), or whole chromosomes that are unable to migrate to the poles during the anaphase stage of cell division. The assay detects the activity of clastogenic and aneugenic test substances in cells that have undergone cell

26-September-2014

English

Test No. 310: Ready Biodegradability - CO2 in sealed vessels (Headspace Test)

This Test Guideline is a screening method for the evaluation of ready biodegradability of chemicals.

The test substance, normally at 20 mg C/L, as the sole source of carbon and energy, is incubated (during 28 days normally) in sealed bottles with aerobic condition containing a buffer-mineral salts medium, which has been inoculated with a mixed population of micro-organisms. In order to check the test procedure, a reference

21-August-2014

English

OECD Quarterly International Trade Statistics - Volume 2014 Issue 1

This reliable and up-to-date source of OECD quarterly balance of payments and international merchandise trade statistics provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Balance of Payment data are presented adjusted for seasonal variations. International trade data are broken down by country. The series shown cover data for the last ten quarters and two

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 226: Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil

This Test Guideline describes a method to assess the effects of chemical substances in soil on the reproductive output of the soil mite species Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer Canestrini (Acari: Laelapidae). It can be used for water soluble or insoluble substances, but not with volatile substances.

Adult females of similar age are exposed to a range of concentrations of the test substance mixed into 20 g dry mass

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 316: Phototransformation of Chemicals in Water – Direct Photolysis

This Test guideline describes studies on phototransformation in water to determine the potential effects of solar irradiation on chemicals in surface water, considering direct photolysis only.

It is designed as a tiered approach. The Tier 1 is based on a theoretical screen. The rate of decline of a test chemical in a direct photolysis study is generally assumed to follow pseudo first-order kinetics. If the maximum possible

27-July-2011

English

Test No. 201: Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test

The purpose of this test is to determine the effects of a substance on the growth of freshwater microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Exponentially growing test organisms are exposed to the test substance in batch cultures over a period of normally 72 hours.

The system response is the reduction of growth in a series of algal cultures exposed to, at least, five concentrations of a test substance. Three replicates at each test

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 209: Activated Sludge, Respiration Inhibition Test (Carbon and Ammonium Oxidation)

This Test Guideline is designed to assess the effects of a substance on micro-organisms from activated sludge of waste-water treatment plants by measuring their respiration rate (carbon and/or ammonium oxidation) as oxygen consumption. The test results may also serve as an indicator of suitable non-inhibitory concentrations of test substances to be used in biodegradability tests. The test allows the determination of ECx and/or NOEC

13-July-2014

English

Main Science and Technology Indicators - Volume 2014 Issue 1

This biannual publication provides a set of indicators that reflect the level and structure of the efforts undertaken by OECD member countries and seven non-member economies (Argentina, China, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Chinese Taipei) in the field of science and technology. These data include final or provisional results as well as forecasts established by government authorities. The indicators cover the

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 315: Bioaccumulation in Sediment-dwelling Benthic Oligochaetes

This Test Guideline describes a method to assess bioaccumulation of sediment-associated chemicals in endobenthic oligochaetes worms. It applies to stable, neutral organic chemicals having log Kow values between 3.0 and 6.0, superlipophilic substances that show a log Kow of more than 6.0, or stable metallo-organic compounds which tend to associate with sediments.

The test consists of two phases. During the uptake phase,

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 403: Acute Inhalation Toxicity

This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from short-term exposure to a test article (gas, vapour or aerosol/particulate test article) by inhalation.

The revised Test Guideline describes two studies: a traditional LC50 protocol and a Concentration x Time (C x t) protocol. It can be used to estimate a median lethal concentration (LC50), non-lethal threshold concentration (LC01) and slope, and to

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 407: Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents

This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to test substance via oral administration. The method is based on the repeated oral administration of the substance of interest during one limited period (one dose level daily during 28 days). This Guideline is intended primarily for use with rodents (rat preferably). At least 10 animals (5 female and 5 male) should be used for each dose level. Three

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 412: Subacute Inhalation Toxicity: 28-Day Study

This revised Test Guideline 412 (TG 412) has been designed to fully characterize test article toxicity
by the inhalation route following repeated exposure for a limited period of time (28 days), and to provide data for quantitative inhalation risk assessments.

Groups of at least 5 male and 5 female rodents are exposed 6 hours per day for 28 days to a) the test article at three or more concentration levels, b)

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 417: Toxicokinetics

This Test Guideline describes in vivo studies that provide information on mass balance, absorption, bioavailability, tissue distribution, metabolism, excretion, and basic toxicokinetic parameters [e.g. AUC], as well as supplemental approaches that may provide useful information on toxicokinetics. Information from toxicokinetic studies helps to relate concentration or dose to the observed toxicity and to understand its mechanism of

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and-Down Procedure

The method permits estimation of an LD50 with a confidence interval and the results allow a substance to be classified for acute toxicity according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of chemicals.

It is easiest to apply to materials that produce death within couple of days. This Test Guideline is intended for use with rodents (rat female preferably). There are a limit test and a main test. The

22-July-2010

English

Test No. 429: Skin Sensitisation - Local Lymph Node Assay

The basic principle underlying the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) in mouse is that sensitizers induce a primary proliferation of lymphocytes in the auricular lymph nodes draining the site of chemical application. This proliferation is proportional to the dose applied and provides a measurement of sensitisation. The method described is based on the use of radioactive labelling to measure cell proliferation. A minimum of four animals

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 451: Carcinogenicity Studies

The objective of a long-term carcinogenicity study is to observe test animals for a major portion of their life span for the development of neoplastic lesions during or after exposure to various doses of a test substance by an appropriate route of administration.

This Test Guideline is intended primarily for use with rats and mice, and for oral administration. Both sexes should be used. Each dose group and concurrent

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 452: Chronic Toxicity Studies

The objective of these chronic toxicity studies is to characterize the profile of a substance in a mammalian species (primarily rodents) following prolonged and repeated exposure.
The Test Guideline focuses on rodents and oral administration. Both sexes should be used. For rodents, at least 20 animals per sex per group should normally be used at each dose level, while for non-rodents a minimum of 4 per sex per group is

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 453: Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies

The objective of a combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study is to identify carcinogenic and the majority of chronic effects, and to determine dose-response relationships following prolonged and repeated exposure.

The rat is typically used for this study. For rodents, each dose group and concurrent control group intended for the carcinogenicity phase of the study should contain at least 50 animals of each sex,

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 436: Acute Inhalation Toxicity – Acute Toxic Class Method

The method described by this Test Guideline provides information that allows hazard assessment for short-term exposure to a test article by inhalation, and allows the substance to be classified according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The test method is based on a stepwise procedure, each step using 3 animals of each sex (the preferred species is rat). Animals are exposed in 

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 229: Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay

This Test Guideline describes an in vivo screening assay for fish reproduction where sexually mature male and spawning female fish are held together and exposed to a chemical during a limited part of their life-cycle (21 days). The short term reproduction assay was validated in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and this is the recommended species. The assay is run with three test chemical concentrations and the necessary

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 232: Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil

This Test Guideline is designed for assessing the effects of chemicals on the reproduction of collembolans in soil. The parthenogenetic Folsomia candida is the recommended species for use, but an alternative species such as sexually reproducing Folsomia fimetaria could also be used if they meet the validity criteria. This Guideline can be used for testing both water soluble and insoluble substances but it is not

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 437: Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability test method (BCOP) is an in vitro test method that can be used to classify substances as 'ocular corrosives and severe irritants'. The BCOP uses isolated corneas from the eyes of cattle slaughtered for commercial purposes, thus avoiding the use of laboratory animals. Each treatment group (test substance, negative/positive controls) consists of a minimum of three eyes where the

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 438: Isolated Chicken Eye Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

The Isolated Chicken Eye  (ICE) test method is an in vitro test method that can be used to classify substances as “ocular corrosives and severe irritants”. The ICE method uses eyes collected from chickens obtained from slaughterhouses where they are killed for human consumption, thus eliminating the need for laboratory animals. The eye is enucleated and mounted in an eye holder with the cornea positioned horizontally. The

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 441: Hershberger Bioassay in Rats - A Short-term Screening Assay for (Anti)Androgenic Properties

The Hershberger Bioassay is an in vivo short–term screening test. It evaluates the ability of a chemical to elicit biological activities consistent with androgen agonists, antagonists or 5 á-reductase inhibitors. The current bioassay is based on the changes in weight of five androgen-dependent tissues in the castrate-peripubertal male rat: the ventral prostate, seminal vesicle (plus fluids and coagulating glands), levator

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 455: The Stably Transfected Human Estrogen Receptor-alpha Transcriptional Activation Assay for Detection of Estrogenic Agonist-Activity of Chemicals

This Test Guideline describes an in vitro assay, which  provides mechanistical information, and can be used for screening and prioritization purposes. The test system utilises the hERalpha-HeLa-9903 cell line derived from a human cervical tumor and stably transfected. This cell line can measure the ability of a test chemical to induce hERalpha-mediated transactivation of luciferase gene expression. The cells are exposed to

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 509: Crop Field Trial

Crop field trials are conducted to determine the magnitude of the pesticide residue in or on raw agricultural commodities, including feed items, and should be designed to reflect pesticide use patterns that lead to the highest possible residues.

Objectives of crop field trials are to: (1) quantify the expected range of residue(s) in crop commodities following treatment according to the proposed or established good

2-September-2014

English

Guidance Document on the Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Brood test Under Semi-field Conditions

The method described in this guidance document assesses the effects of plant protection products (PPPs), and has been validated using the active Fenoxycarb, which is known to act as an insect growth regulator (IGR), to the honey bee brood (Apis mellifera L.) under semi-field conditions (tunnel conditions followed by field conditions). The method can be used to address concerns regarding the impact on the brood development in honey

8-December-2014

English

OECD Pensions Outlook 2014

This 2014 edition of the OECD Pensions Outlook examines the ever-changing pensions landscape. It looks at pension reform, the role of private pensions and retirement savings. Population ageing and longevity risk is examined as are the means of increasing coverage and providing automatic enrolment. The volume is rounded out by a chapter on default retirement strategies.

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 231: Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay

This Test Guideline describes an amphibian metamorphosis assay intended to screen substances which may interfere with the normal functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis. The assay was validated with the species Xenopus laevis, which is recommended for use in the Guideline. The assay uses three test chemical concentrations and the necessary controls, including a carrier control if necessary. The assay starts

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 228: Determination of Developmental Toxicity of a Test Chemical to Dipteran Dung Flies(Scathophaga stercoraria L. (Scathophagidae), Musca autumnalis De Geer (Muscidae))

This Test Guideline describes a method to estimate the developmental toxicity of a test chemical to the dung dwelling life stages of dung-dependent dipteran species. Two test species can be used. The test chemical is mixed with bovine faeces, to which either 10 eggs of Scathophaga stercoraria or 10 larvae of Musca autumnalis are added. The test will be terminated 5 days after emergence of the last adult in the

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 314: Simulation Tests to Assess the Biodegradability of Chemicals Discharged in Wastewater

This Test Guideline describes a method to assess the extent and kinetics of primary and ultimate biodegradation of organic chemicals whose route of entry into the environment begins with their discharge to wastewater. It consists of five simulation tests in a) sewer systems, b) activated sludge, c) anaerobic digester sludge, d) treated effluent in the mixing zone of surface water, and e) untreated wastewater that is directly

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 508: Magnitude of the Pesticide Residues in Processed Commodities

This Test Guideline describes how to plan and carry out processing studies, i.e. determine residue levels in primary processed commodities following pesticide application on raw agriculture commodities (RAC) under conditions likely to lead to maximum residues. It provides the distribution of residues (active ingredient, and/or metabolites, degradation products), and preferential accumulation in various processed products resulting

15-October-2008

English

Test No. 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test

The test method described in this Test Guideline assesses the effect of chemicals on the reproductive output of Daphnia magna Straus. To this end, young female Daphnia are exposed to the test substance added to water at a range of concentrations (at least five). For semi-static tests, at least 10 animals at each test concentration and for flow-through tests, 40 animals divided into four groups of 10 animals at each test

7-September-2009

English

Test No. 302C: Inherent Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (II)

This Test Guideline describes the modified MITI test (II). This test permits the measurement of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and the analysis of residual chemicals in order to evaluate the inherent biodegradability of chemical substances which have been found by the Standard MITI Method (I) to be low degradable.

An automated closed-system oxygen consumption measuring apparatus (BOD-meter) is used. Chemicals to be

9-March-2011

English

Corporate Governance in Asia 2011 - Progress and Challenges

In 2003, the Asian Roundtable on Corporate Governance produced recommendations to improve corporate governance in Asia, based on the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. This report summarises the results of a stocktaking exercise to determine progress made to date and the challenges remaining in the implementation of these recommendations. Included in this book are valuable insights into corporate governance rules and

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