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Europe has been beset by an interrelated banking crisis and sovereign debt crisis. Bond spreads faced by Greece and Ireland, and to a lesser extent Portugal followed by Spain, have increased. This paper explores these issues from the perspective of financial markets, focusing mainly on the four countries in the frontline of these pressures: Greece and Portugal, on the one hand, where the problems are primarily fiscal in nature; and
The unique OECD peer review process has helped improve public policy. It assesses how countries manage the design, adoption and enforcement of regulations according to a conceptual framework. It ensures comparability while taking account of institutional and cultural differences across countries.
Portugal will need to triple development assistance over the coming five years if it is to meet an EU target of giving 0.7% of gross national income (GNI) to aid by 2015.
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A study of water (irrigation) pricing in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Mexico, a background report to the book Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture (OECD, 2010).
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This note is taken from Chapter 3 of Economic Policy Reforms: Going for Growth 2010.
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This report outlines Portugal's response to the recommendations and follow-up issues identified by the Working Group at the time of Portugal's Phase 2 examination in March 2007.
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The OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments has completed a review of the secondary school building modernisation programme in Portugal. The review was carried out during 2009 to provide an objective assessment of the programme to the Portuguese government.
The International Energy Agency's 2009 review of Portugal's energy policies and programmes. This edition finds that Portugal has made considerable efforts to strengthen its energy policy since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. A large number of IEA recommendations have been successfully implemented, including greater diversification of the energy mix and increased energy policy co-ordination. A new National Energy Strategy, published in October 2005, identified three principal means for meeting Portugal’s policy goals: the promotion of renewable energy, increased energy efficiency and competition in energy markets.
Over a short period of time, Portugal has become a leader in terms of renewable energy development. Well-designed incentive mechanisms and the adoption of ambitious targets ensure hydro, wind and other technologies will continue to grow. The National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency was enacted in 2008, and Portugal aims to implement energy efficiency measures equivalent to 9.8% of total final energy consumption by 2015. This plan complements a well developed and co-ordinated climate change policy. Further steps have been taken towards the liberalisation of energy markets, including the innovative creation of a single operator for the transport of natural gas and electricity, natural gas storage and operation of the Sines LNG terminal.
Still, a number of challenges remain. Energy markets are not as competitive as policy makers may have wished, and energy research and development policy coordination needs to be strengthened.
This review provides sectoral critiques of existing policy and recommendations for further improvements. It is intended to serve as an indispensable guide for Portuguese policy makers as they travel along the path to a more sustainable energy future.
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This article analyses the evolution of Portuguese public expenditure from 1990 to 2004, in order to assess the current position and the prospects for future developments in the absence of corrective measures and structural reforms.
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The EU 15 project is a partnership between the OECD and the EU Commission. It aims to assess regulatory management capacities in 15 member states of the EU, describes trends in their development, and identifies gaps in relation to good practice.