English, PDF, 335kb
Japan has been ageing rapidly due to improvements in life expectancy and low fertility rates. This challenges the financial sustainability, solvency and adequacy of the pension system.
English, PDF, 349kb
Digital transformation offers countries a range of social and economic opportunities. Japan recognises this potential, as indicated by its championing of digital issues at the G20 and G7, and the commitment of the Japanese government to harness data for Society 5.0.
English, PDF, 358kb
Trends towards increasing non-standard employment may pose challenges for the Czech pension system, as some of these workers are at risk of low pension entitlements and the financial sustainability of public pensions is undermined.
English, PDF, 322kb
Female labour participation has grown enormously in the Netherlands, but gender gaps in labour market outcomes persist. The gender pay gap for full-time workers is 14%, close to the OECD average, and the gender gap in working hours is large, as most women work part-time.
English, PDF, 316kb
In the face of population ageing and related rapid social and economic changes, skills are increasingly crucial to support inclusive growth and social cohesion.
English, PDF, 322kb
Fully reaping the opportunities of digitalisation is essential to sustain productivity growth and improve living standards in Latvia.
English, PDF, 320kb
Better access to education and affordable housing would help strengthen the skills of the workforce, increase labour mobility and reduce skills matches.
English, PDF, 332kb
Educational attainment has improved, but educational outcomes still need to be enhanced.
English, PDF, 319kb
A lack of access to affordable housing has emerged in Germany. Especially in the largest cities, a mismatch between demand and supply contributes to rising house prices and rents, creating challenges for housing affordability and inclusive growth.
English, PDF, 317kb
Germany faces growing labour shortages both in high- and medium-skilled occupations and well-managed labour migration is a key policy lever to mitigate these shortages.