PISA 2012 Technical report



The PISA 2012 Technical Report describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2012 survey, which tested 15-year-olds’ competencies in mathematics, reading and science and, in some countries, problem solving and financial literacy. It examines the design and implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to understand and replicate the resulting data and analyses. The reader will find a wealth of information on the test and sample design, modes of delivery (paper-based or computer-based), methodologies used to analyse the data, technical features of the project, and quality control mechanisms.

Download the full PDF (15 MB)





Reader's Guide


Chapter 1. Programme for International Student Assessment: An overview


Chapter 2. Test design and test development


Chapter 3. Context questionnaire development


Chapter 4. Sample design


Chapter 5. Translation and verification of the survey material


Chapter 6. Field operations


Chapter 7. PISA quality monitoring


Chapter 8. Survey weighting and the calculation of sampling variance


Chapter 9. Scaling PISA cognitive data


Chapter 10. Data management procedures


Chapter 11. Sampling outcomes


Chapter 12. Scaling outcomes


Chapter 13. Coding reliability studies


Chapter 14. Data adjudication


Chapter 15. Proficiency scale construction


Chapter 16. Scaling procedures and construct validation of context questionnaire data


Chapter 17. Questionnaire development issues


Chapter 18. Computer-based assessments


Chapter 19. International database


Annex A. Main survey item pool classification


Annex B. Contrast coding uded in conditioning


Annex C. Standard errors of means, sample sizes, school variance estimates


Annex D. Mapping of ISCED to years


Annex E. National household possession items


Annex F. PISA Technical Standards


Annex G. PISA Consortium, staff and consultants