Institutional investors (investment funds, insurance companies and pension funds) are major collectors of savings and suppliers of funds to financial markets. Their role as financial intermediaries and their impact on investment strategies have grown significantly over recent years along with deregulation and globalisation of financial markets.
This publication provides a unique set of statistics that reflect the level and structure of the financial assets of institutional investors in the OECD countries, and in the Russian Federation. Concepts and definitions are predominantly based on the System of National Accounts. Data are derived from national sources.
Data include outstanding amounts of financial assets such as currency and deposits, securities, loans, and shares. When relevant, they are further broken down according to maturity and residency. The publication covers investment funds, of which open-end companies and closed-end companies, as well as insurance corporations and autonomous pension funds. Indicators are presented as percentages of GDP allowing for international comparisons, and at country level, both in national currency and as percentages of total financial assets of the investor. Time series display available data for the last eight years.
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The tax burden in Norway declined by 1.5 percentage points from 42.3% to 40.8%, the largest fall amongst member countries in 2013. The OECD average was an increase of 0.4 percentage points from 33.7% to 34.1%. The Norwegian standard VAT rate is 25%, which is considerably above the OECD average. The average VAT/GST standard rate in the OECD was 19.1% on 1 January 2014.
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Excellent population health status and good outcomes associated with acute care reflect a high-performing health system in Norway. Norway’s good health system comes at a cost – Norway’s per capita health expenditure is the highest in Europe.
Norway is characterised by very high levels of migration from within the European Economic Area (EEA) and growing but small scale labour migration from countries outside the EEA. In this context, the challenge for managing discretionary labour migration is to ensure it complements EEA flows. High-skilled workers who come to Norway often leave, even if their employer would like to keep them. Norway has many international students, but most appear to leave at graduation or in the years that follow. The spouses of skilled migrants – usually educated and talented themselves – face challenges in finding employment, and this may cause the whole family to leave. Key industries in smaller population centres wonder how they will source talent in the future. This review examines these aspects of the Norwegian labour migration system. It considers the efficiency of procedures and whether the system is capable of meeting demand. It looks at several policy measures that were implemented and withdrawn, and assesses how these and other mechanisms could be better applied. The characteristics and behaviour of past labour migrants is examined to suggest means of encouraging promising immigrants to remain, and how Norway might attract the specific labour migrants from which it can most benefit in the future.
Country notes outlining regional variations in health, jobs, safety, environment, access to services, civic engagement, housing, education, income, and employment. These notes are from the OECD publication "How's Life in Your Region?".
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Over the period 2008-2011, at the primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels of education, expenditure per student in Norway – combining private and public spending – increased slightly while the number of students remained stable.
Country notes with main key findings of the book and key fact tables: a customised snapshot of a country's educational environment, highlighting the most important issues in the educational landscape.
This report draws upon valuable insights provided by both governmental and non-governmental actors in Norway’s skills system to identify five key actions to maximise the skills of Norway's citizens.
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The ability to measure innovation is essential to an improvement strategy in education. This country note analyses how the practices are changing within classrooms and educational organisations and how teachers develop and use their pedagogical resources.
The average worker in Norway faced a tax burden on labour income (tax wedge) of 37.3% in 2013 compared with the OECD average of 35.9%. Norway was ranked 18 of the 34 OECD member countries in this respect.