The State continues to remain an important shareholder in listed companies worldwide, especially among emerging economies, which rely increasingly on mixed-ownership models. With the benefit of hindsight and more recent examples, this book provides fresh perspectives on the motivation to list state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and the process it entails. Drawing from the experiences of five economies (People's Republic of China, India, New Zealand, Poland and Turkey), the book concludes that broadened ownership generally has a positive impact on the governance and performance of these companies. However, country practices show that the act of listing cannot guarantee that these companies are completely averse to State interests; and deviations from sound corporate governance practices, as enshrined in the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of SOEs, can in some cases, raise concerns with regards to non-State shareholder rights, commercial orientation, board independence, conflicting State objectives, transparency, disclosure and more.
The 2015 edition introduces more detailed analysis of participation in early childhood and tertiary levels of education. The report also examines first generation tertiary-educated adults’ educational and social mobility, labour market outcomes for recent graduates, and participation in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education.
Nitrogen run-off from farming and other land uses was threatening to undermine the pristine waters of Lake Taupo – New Zealand’s largest and most iconic lake – and to damage a range of economic and cultural activities. In 2011, the regional government introduced a water quality policy package. This bold policy experiment is unique: it is the only trading programme or market where diffuse sources of pollution operate under a cap.
In 2014, New Zealand provided USD 502 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.27% of gross national income (GNI) and an increase of 6.8% in real terms from 2013, driven mainly by an increase in bilateral grants, primarily to least developed countries (LDCs).
New Zealand generally performs well in terms of economic and social inclusion. It has high employment rates, and education and health-care systems work well for most.
Bilateral Agreements that have been signed to establish exchange of information for tax purposes.
Ensuring that permanent spending or tax cuts are implemented in a sustainable manner would encourage the strong fiscal position that New Zealand needs to meet potentially large macroeconomic shocks and long-run ageing-related costs.
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At 75%, the employment rate in New Zealand is the third highest among OECD countries and has been only marginally affected by the recent economic crisis.
Specific country notes have been prepared using data from the database OECD Health Statistics 2015, July 2015 version. The notes are available in PDF format.
A dashboard of key government indicators by country, to help you analyse international comparisons of public sector performance.