The present report on Norway is part of the series on "Investing in Youth" which builds on the expertise of the OECD on youth employment, social support and skills. This series covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The report provides a detailed diagnosis of youth policies in the areas of education, training, social and employment policies. Its main focus is on young people who are not in employment, education or training (the "NEETs").
Earlier reviews in the same series have looked at youth policies in Brazil (2014), Latvia and Tunisia (2015), Australia, Lithuania and Sweden (2016), Japan (2017).
Many of Mexico’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD. These structural flaws adversely affect the ability of firms to effectively compete in the markets and hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Mexican legislation in the medicine (production, wholesale, retail) and meat sector (animal feed, growing of animals, slaughterhouses, wholesale and retail) along the vertical supply chain. Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the report reviews 228 pieces of legislation and identifies 107 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the legislation and of the Mexican sectors has been complemented by research into international experience and consultation with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD has developed recommendations to remove or modify the provisions in order to be less restrictive for suppliers and consumers, while still achieving Mexican policy makers’ initial objectives. This report identifies the potential benefits of the recommendations and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
The effects of immigration on the Thai economy are considerable, as the number of immigrants has increased rapidly since the turn of the century. Immigrant workers now contribute to all economic sectors, and are important for the workforce in industrial sectors such as construction and manufacturing and in some service sectors including private household services. Immigration is associated with an improvement of labour market outcomes of the native-born population, and in particular appears to increase paid employment opportunities. Immigration is also likely to raise income per capita in Thailand, due to the relatively high share of the immigrant population which is employed and therefore contributes to economic output. Policies aiming to further diversify employment opportunities for immigrant workers could also be beneficial for the economic contribution of immigration.
How Immigrants Contribute to Thailand’s Economy is the result of a project carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization, with support from the European Union. The project aimed to analyse several economic impacts – on the labour market, economic growth and public finance – of immigration in ten partner countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Rwanda, South Africa and Thailand. The empirical evidence stems from a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses of secondary and in some cases primary data sources.
The recent effects of immigration on the Kyrgyz economy appear to be limited. Many immigrants have been in the country for several decades, hence are overrepresented among the older cohorts, resulting in a lower labour force participation rate than among the native-born. Still, the estimated share of value added generated by immigrants exceeds their share of the labour force but also of the population. Overall, immigration is not associated with a deteriorating labour force situation for the native-born population. In contrast, the current contribution of immigrants to public finance appears to be negative. The high concentration among retirement-age individuals is a major reason for this outcome as the estimate disregards their prior contributions to public revenues. Kyrgyzstan's economy would benefit from changes in certain migration and non-migration sectoral policies.
How Immigrants Contribute to Kyrgyzstan’s Economy is the result of a project carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization, with support from the European Union. The project aimed to analyse several economic impacts – on the labour market, economic growth, and public finance – of immigration in ten partner countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Rwanda, South Africa and Thailand. The empirical evidence stems from a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses of secondary and in some cases primary data sources.
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Preliminary version of the reports "How immigrants contribute to Thailand's Economy".
Health workers are crucial for ensuring access to high quality care for the whole population. The OECD advises countries on how to meet future demand for health professionals and how to manage the supply of health workers, by reviewing policies related to education and training, continuous professional development, geographic distribution and immigration.
Despite the increasingly protracted nature of situations of forced displacement, development policy makers and practitioners have tended to overlook the longevity of displacement. Forced displacement has long been viewed primarily as an emergency humanitarian issue by providers of development co-operation and the focus of the international community has predominantly been on addressing the immediate protection and short-term humanitarian needs of forcibly displaced persons. However, with increasing levels of new and protracted displacement, and key commitments such as the 2030 Agenda, donors are looking at the role of development actors and financing in supporting sustainable and comprehensive solutions to forced displacement. This Guidance, therefore, provides a clear and practical introduction to the challenges faced in working in situations of forced displacement, and provides guidance to donor staff seeking to mainstream responses to forced displacement into development planning and co-operation. While recognising that donor policies and responses are constantly evolving, this guidance proposes that donors responding to these situations prioritise three broad areas of work, where they can best contribute to existing capacities at the national, regional and global levels. It also identifies twelve actions, grouped under four key principles, outlining what donors can do to reinforce the capacities of key actors to respond to refugees and Internally Displaced Persons at the national, regional and global levels, and to advance comprehensive solutions.
The OECD series Making Integration Work summarises, in a non-technical way, the main issues surrounding the integration of immigrants and their children into their host countries. Each book presents concrete policy lessons for its theme, along with supporting examples of good practices and comparisons of the migrant integration policy frameworks in different OECD countries. This third volume explores the integration of family migrants, a diverse and large category of immigrants to the OECD area.
In 2017, the Royal Government of Cambodia published a new Social Protection Policy Framework (SPPF), providing an ambitious vision for a social protection system in which a comprehensive set of policies and institutions operate in sync with each other to sustainably reduce poverty and vulnerability.The Social Protection System Review of Cambodia prompts and answers a series of questions that are crucial for the implementation ofthe framework : How will emerging trends affect the needs for social protection, now and into the future? To what extent are Cambodia’s social protection instruments able – or likely – to address current and future livelihood challenges? How does fiscal policy affect social protection objectives?
This review provides a contribution to the ongoing policy dialogue on social protection, sustainable growth and poverty reduction. It includes four chapters. Chapter 1 is a forward-looking assessment of Cambodia’s social protection needs. Chapter 2 maps the social protection sector and examines its adequacy. An investigation of the distributive impact of social protection and tax policy is undertaken in Chapter 3. The last chapter concludes with recommendations for policy strategies that could support the establishment of an inclusive social protection system in Cambodia, as envisaged by the SPPF.
This report shows how criminal economies and illicit financial flows through and within West Africa affect people’s lives. It goes beyond the traditional analysis of illicit financial flows, which focuses on the value of monetary flows. The report exposes the ways in which criminal and illicit activities and resulting illicit financial flows damage governance, the economy, development and security. It presents case studies based on concrete examples from West Africa of human trafficking, drug smuggling, counterfeit goods, gold mining and terrorism financing. It identifies networks and drivers – in the region or elsewhere – that allow these criminal economies to thrive, by feeding and facilitating these activities and the circulation of illicitly-obtained revenue. It also examines the impacts on local communities, such as changes in wealth distribution, power dynamics and the degree to which illicit money undermines social organisation.
This book proposes a policy framework for both source and destination countries of illicit flows that looks beyond the concerns of developed countries to enhance development prospects at the local level and respond to the needs of the most vulnerable stakeholders. Combating criminal economies and preventing illicit financial flows will require sustained partnerships between producing and consuming countries. West Africa cannot be expected to address these challenges alone.