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Reports


  • 17-December-2018

    English

    Social Protection System Review - A Toolkit

    The positive impacts of social protection on reducing poverty and inequality and contributing to development are well evidenced. Establishing an integrated system facilitates the provision of a social protection floor, whereby individuals are appropriately protected throughout the life cycle. This is achieved not only by making sure there is a sufficient range of programmes to cover a population’s risk profile but also by sharing information on different individuals to ensure they are linked to an appropriate programme.The Social Protection System Review is one of a small number of tools that serve to analyse how effective a country is in establishing a social protection system that responds to the needs of its people both today and in the future. The toolkit presents methodologies which can be implemented in any country, at any income level and by any institution. It is intended to generate policy recommendations that are actionable through national systems.
  • 9-December-2018

    English

    Settling In 2018 - Indicators of Immigrant Integration

    This joint OECD-European Commission publication presents a comprehensive international comparison across all EU and OECD countries - as well as selected G20 countries - of the integration outcomes of immigrants and their children, using 74 indicators based on three strands: labour market and skills; living conditions; and civic engagement and social integration. To place the comparison in its proper context, the publication also provides detailed data on the characteristics of immigrant populations and households. Three special-focus chapters are dedicated to examining gender issues, youth with a migrant background, and third-country nationals in the European Union.
  • 28-November-2018

    English

    Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Australia 2018

    Australia has always been a nation of immigrants. More than one quarter of its population in 2015 was born abroad. Immigrants make an important economic and demographic contribution and help address skill and labour shortages. Labour migration is managed through a complex, but well-functioning and effective system which sets and respects annual migration targets. In recent years, the labour migration system has shifted from a mainly supply-driven system to a system where demand-driven migration represents close to half of the permanent skilled migration programme and demand-driven temporary migration has also risen sharply. In addition, two-step migration has gained ground in recent years. The review examines the implications of these changes for the composition of immigrants and their labour market outcomes. Moreover, it discusses recent changes in the tools used to manage labour migration and provides a detailed analysis on the impact of the introduction of SkillSelect on the efficiency of the system. Finally, the review discusses the extent to which the current labour migration system responds to the labour market needs of Australia's States and Territories.
  • 26-November-2018

    English

    Health Workforce

    Health workers are crucial for ensuring access to high quality care for the whole population. The OECD advises countries on how to meet future demand for health professionals and how to manage the supply of health workers, by reviewing policies related to education and training, continuous professional development, geographic distribution and immigration.

    Related Documents
  • 29-October-2018

    English

    Skills on the Move - Migrants in the Survey of Adult Skills

    Migration has been at the centre of political debate across the OECD in recent years. Drawing on data from the OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), this report provides new evidence on differences in migrants’ characteristics and contexts and considers how these relate to the skills migrants possess. It also examines the relationship between migrants’ skills and their labour and non-labour market outcomes in host countries. Finally, it sheds new light on how migrants’ skills are developed, used and valued in host country labour markets and societies. Results and lessons gleaned from analysis highlight the way forward for future research on this topic.The report represents an invaluable resource for policy makers across different sectors as they design and implement strategies aimed at promoting the long-term integration of foreign-born populations in the economic and social life of their countries. The analyses presented allow us to identify the skill composition of foreign-born populations, the labour market and broader social outcomes associated with such skills, and the factors that can promote skill acquisition and skill use.
  • 24-October-2018

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Paris

    Of the requests for asylum in France made in 2016, more than 10 000 applications were made by people in Paris and were made in the context of a rising number of refugees and asylum seekers since 2015. This increase has stirred a debate in France around its 'universal' migrant integration model, which aspires to equal treatment for all and for which the main tool has been 'Integration Contract' for migrants. At all levels of government, measures are now being designed for 'reinforced' support for migrants, helping them to better integrate socially and to better access the  job market; these measures are tailored for all persons with a residency permit, in particular for refugees. This case study examines the City of Paris and its ambitions to successfully integrate its new inhabitants. The municipality sets aside dedicated resources for this and actively involves French citizens in implementing activities to foster social cohesion. The city is still attracting new migrants while socio-economic disparities and segregation remain marked in Paris and its region, in a context of limited emergency accommodation facilities for migrants and a tight housing market. More can be done to improve coherence across levels of government and among partners, in order to prevent fragmented service delivery and to improve how the impact of integration programmes is measured.
  • 6-September-2018

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Berlin

    Berlin has long been a diverse, multicultural city and today about 1 million – or 30% – of its inhabitants have a migration background, meaning that they – or at least one of their parents – were born without German nationality. Berlin’s authorities perceive diversity as generally accepted in Berlin’s society. This case study takes a close look at the city’s migrant integration programmes and services, examining how all levels of government participate in these programmes, as well as the growing role played by third-sector agencies. It considers how Berlin’s administration reacted to the sharp rise in asylum applications in 2015-16, rapidly updating existing integration measures as well as developing emergency ones. The integration of these newcomers needs to be monitored in order to demonstrate policy impact and to help establish whether such policies can be expanded to help other migrant groups that still experience wide socio-economic gaps compared to native population.
  • 5-September-2018

    English

    Working Together: Skills and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants and their Children in Finland

    While Finland’s foreign-born population remains small by international standards, growth has been amongst the fastest in the OECD. Finland’s foreign-born population have lower employment rates than native-born Finns, and women, in particular, are struggling to integrate and face incentives to stay in the home. Indeed, the employment gap among those arriving from outside the European Union is among the largest in the OECD. This risks long-term implications for the integration of their children, many of whom are struggling to thrive in the Finnish school system. Large inflows of asylum seekers in 2015 put integration squarely on the agenda, and Finland developed a number of innovative integration policies in response. Yet, numbers have since fallen dramatically, raising questions of how to respond to the needs of a large cohort without scaling up the integration system on a permanent basis. This review, the second in a series on the skills and labour market integration of immigrants and their children, provides an assessment of these and other challenges. It includes a holistic assessment of Finland’s integration services – such as the new modular integration training, and the Social Impact Bond – as well as challenges related to settlement, early labour market contact and workplace segregation. An earlier review in the series looked at integration policies in Sweden (2016).
  • 30-July-2018

    English

    How Immigrants Contribute to Costa Rica's Economy

    A better understanding of how immigrants shape the economy of Costa Rica can help policy makers formulate policies to boost positive effects and mitigate negative effects of immigration. This report finds that immigration has a limited, but varying, economic impact in Costa Rica. Immigration tends to reduce the employment rate of the native-born population, but does not affect labour income. The estimated share of value added generated by immigrants is above their share of the population. In 2013, immigrants’ contribution to the government budget was below that of the native-born population, while expenditures for both groups were similar. Policies aimed at immigrant integration, by increasing de facto access to public services and to the labour market, could enhance immigrants’ economic contribution.
     
    How Immigrants Contribute to Costa Rica's Economy is the result of a project carried out by the OECD Development Centre and the International Labour Organization, with support from the European Union. The project aimed to analyse several economic impacts – on the labour market, economic growth, and public finance – of immigration in ten partner countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, the Dominican Republic, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Rwanda, South Africa and Thailand. The empirical evidence stems from a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses of secondary and in some cases primary data sources.
  • 26-July-2018

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Athens

    Migrants, including native-born children with migrant parents, account for 23% of Athens’ population (664 046 people), while the number of refugees and asylum seekers has rapidly increased since 2015 and is currently estimated at 18 000. To respond to the refugee inflow, Athens developed bold and innovative initiatives, often beyond their direct responsibilities, and sought supra-national and non-state sources of funding (i.e. Stavros Niarchos Foundation, British American Tobacco, etc.). This emphasis on reception and integration of newcomers is the result of strong political will and cooperation with non-state actors, in line with the city's broader priorities since 2010 including anti-discrimination and improving equal access to social services. Integrating newcomers through jobs is particularly challenging given the high unemployment rate that Greece has experienced. In addition, newcomers often have the desire to continue their journey towards northern European countries, reducing their incentives to integrate and learn Greek.
    While identifying various innovative practices, the OECD case study of Athens highlights the need for more reliable sources of financing and dialogue among levels of government. Data on migrant integration at the local level would support more evidence-based national, regional and local policy making.
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