Colombia has made major economic and social advances in recent years. The combination of strong economic growth and policies targeted at the most vulnerable groups improved considerably the living standards of the Colombian population. Today, the country enjoys higher employment and labour force participation rates than the average of OECD countries and unemployment is steadily declining. Nevertheless, despite these positive trends, deep structural problems remain. Labour informality is widespread, the rate of self-employment is high and many employees have non-regular contracts. Income inequality is higher than in any OECD country and redistribution through taxes and benefits is almost negligible. In addition, half a century of internal conflict and violence has displaced a significant part of the population, and many of them are living in extreme poverty. Despite considerable progress, violence continues to be a challenge and also affects trade union members and leaders. The Colombian Government has undertaken important reforms in recent years to address these labour market and social challenges, and the efforts are gradually paying off. However, further progress is needed to enhance the quality of jobs and well-being for all. The main trust of this report is to support the Colombian Government in tackling labour market duality, generate trust between the social partners, develop inclusive and active social policies, and get the most out of international migration.
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This document reveals some of the difficulties immigrant students encounter – and some of the contributions they offer – while settling into their new communities and new schools. It also presents some of the policies governments can implement to help immigrant students integrate into their host societies.
The OECD LEED Programme launches this "Call for Initiatives" to extract what local authorities and other actors know works, what the new scenario is demanding and how equipped they are to respond. We are interested in learning from the experiences of EU member countries, the wider OECD area as well as other countries.
Taking into account the severity of the crisis, a strong response of the international community is required to provide adequate support to the many refugees and asylum seekers and to better share the cost and strengthen international coordination.
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This edition of Migration Policy Debates provides an assessment of the possible economic impact of the refugee crisis. It stresses that while there will obviously be short-term costs arising from such large flows, there will also be sizeable economic and public-finance benefits provided refugees are integrated into the labour market.
Health workers are crucial for ensuring access to high quality and cost-effective care. Current projects analyse different aspects of health workforce policy, including how countries can improve their health workforce planning, what policymakers can do to ensure that doctors practice where they are most needed, and whether health workers put their skills to effective use in their jobs.
This publication describes the size and characteristics of emigrant populations by origin countries with a special focus on educational attainment and labour force status. It offers origin countries a detailed picture of the size and composition of their diasporas, as well as their evolution since 2000. It contains an overview chapter and six regional chapters, covering: Asia and Oceania, Latin America and the Caribbean; OECD countries; Non-OECD European and Central Asian countries; Middle East and North Africa; and Sub-Saharan Africa. Regional chapters are followed by a regional note and country notes.
Corruption is one of the primary facilitators of refugee smuggling. In order to fight this crime, and help refugees safely realise their rights, the international community must understand the intricate connections between corruption and refugee smuggling.
Asylum seekers today tend to be more educated than in the past. At the same time, we are recording a greater number of unaccompanied minors, which poses particular problems. Most importantly, asylum seekers are using new and diverse migration routes, which calls for immediate action and support from countries which have limited experience in dealing with such flows.
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The current humanitarian crisis is unprecedented with an appalling and unacceptable human cost. This issue of Migration Policy Debates looks at the most recent developments in the humanitarian migration crisis and what makes this crisis different from previous ones.