Colombia has made major economic and social advances in recent years. The combination of strong economic growth and policies targeted at the most vulnerable groups improved considerably the living standards of the Colombian population. Today, the country enjoys higher employment and labour force participation rates than the average of OECD countries and unemployment is steadily declining. Nevertheless, despite these positive trends, deep structural problems remain. Labour informality is widespread, the rate of self-employment is high and many employees have non-regular contracts. Income inequality is higher than in any OECD country and redistribution through taxes and benefits is almost negligible. In addition, half a century of internal conflict and violence has displaced a significant part of the population, and many of them are living in extreme poverty. Despite considerable progress, violence continues to be a challenge and also affects trade union members and leaders. The Colombian Government has undertaken important reforms in recent years to address these labour market and social challenges, and the efforts are gradually paying off. However, further progress is needed to enhance the quality of jobs and well-being for all. The main trust of this report is to support the Colombian Government in tackling labour market duality, generate trust between the social partners, develop inclusive and active social policies, and get the most out of international migration.
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This edition of Migration Policy Debates scrutinises the factors that facilitate human trafficking, as well as the smuggling routes to OECD countries. It synthesises available evidence and reviews existing policy tools for tackling such crime.
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This edition of Migration Policy Debates provides an assessment of the possible economic impact of the refugee crisis. It stresses that while there will obviously be short-term costs arising from such large flows, there will also be sizeable economic and public-finance benefits provided refugees are integrated into the labour market.
This publication describes the size and characteristics of emigrant populations by origin countries with a special focus on educational attainment and labour force status. It offers origin countries a detailed picture of the size and composition of their diasporas, as well as their evolution since 2000. It contains an overview chapter and six regional chapters, covering: Asia and Oceania, Latin America and the Caribbean; OECD countries; Non-OECD European and Central Asian countries; Middle East and North Africa; and Sub-Saharan Africa. Regional chapters are followed by a regional note and country notes.
Corruption is one of the primary facilitators of refugee smuggling. In order to fight this crime, and help refugees safely realise their rights, the international community must understand the intricate connections between corruption and refugee smuggling.
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The current humanitarian crisis is unprecedented with an appalling and unacceptable human cost. This issue of Migration Policy Debates looks at the most recent developments in the humanitarian migration crisis and what makes this crisis different from previous ones.
OECD countries are facing an unprecedented refugee crisis and the situation requires a comprehensive and co-ordinated international response to address the immediate needs of asylum seekers and the longer-term challenge of helping them integrate. This is the main message of two new OECD documents, the 2015 International Migration Outlook and a Policy Brief on the Refugee Crisis.
OECD Secretary General Angel Gurría welcomes the initiative of President Francois Hollande and Chancellor Angela Merkel to put forward a structural and ambitious response to the current refugee crisis.
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This edition of the Migration Policy Debates looks at the capacity of the French educational system to integrate the most disadvantaged pupils and namely the foreign-born children or the offspring of foreign-born parents.
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It is often said that the United States is a nation of immigrants. Is the US still the best place to settle in?