Health workers are crucial for ensuring access to high quality care for the whole population. The OECD advises countries on how to meet future demand for health professionals and how to manage the supply of health workers, by reviewing policies related to education and training, continuous professional development, geographic distribution and immigration.
Costa Rica has recorded many social and economic achievements and currently enjoys one of the highest levels of well-being in the OECD. But progress has come to a standstill in most recent years and challenges have emerged along several social and labour market dimensions. Existing policies are outdated and no longer effective in today’s dynamic, export oriented economy which requires greater flexibility and more high skilled workers. How can Costa Rica better respond to the challenges of technological change and globalisation whilst minimising the transition costs it endures as it moves to a higher and a more sustainable path to inclusive growth? This report provides comprehensive analysis of Costa Rica’s policies and practices compared with best practice in the field of labour, social and migration from across the OECD and other countries in the Latin American region. It contains several recommendations to tackle key challenges facing Costa Rica, including low labour utilisation, increasing inequality, high poverty and high-risk of economic exclusion especially of the low skilled and migrants. This report will be of interest in Costa Rica as well as other countries looking to promote a more dynamic and an inclusive economy.
Close to 3 million people who were born in Morocco lived in OECD countries in 2010/11. To assess the potential that this group represents for the Moroccan economy, this review looks at the distribution of Moroccan emigrants over OECD countries, as well as their age, sex, and educational attainment. It analyses the labour market outcomes of Moroccan emigrants and documents the characteristics of return migrants in Morocco. Moroccan emigrants primarily reside in France, followed by Spain and Italy, where their numbers grew strongly before flows were affected by the economic crisis. Moroccan emigrants have lower educational attainment and less favourable labour market outcomes than native-born persons in destination countries, and many work in low-skill occupations. Those who have returned to Morocco are often retired, but they are also especially likely to become entrepreneurs there.
English, PDF, 364kb
OECD-CEPII Call for paper 2017
The International Migration Outlook 2017, the 41st edition of this annual OECD publication, analyses recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and selected non-member countries. Where relevant, it examines the impact of the recent increase in humanitarian migration. It looks at the evolution of the labour market outcomes of immigrants in OECD countries, with a focus on the medium-term dynamic of employment outcomes and on the implications of structural changes in the labour market. It includes one special chapter on family migrants, looking at this important part of migration and the policies that govern it. A statistical annex completes the book.
English, PDF, 1,139kb
The report provides a brief overview of the characteristics of recently arrived asylum seekers and discusses current labour market conditions and the outlook for integration. In the preparation of this report, extensive consultations with employers were undertaken. Recent policy initiatives are assessed against good practices from other OECD countries.
English, PDF, 1,476kb
This document provides an overview of the key challenges for Canada’s labour migration system, along with recommendations for future policy making.
English, PDF, 591kb
This edition presents an overview of some “alternative pathways” that could help take the pressure off the main traditional pathways for refugees in general and assesses their potential application for Syrians in particular. Overall, these alternatives can help provide safe channels and good integration prospects to refugees who might otherwise be tempted to risk their fate with smugglers and illegal border crossing.
English, PDF, 744kb
This edition of Migration Policy Debates presents updated information on international migration in the Americas up to 2014 as well as on labour market outcomes of emigrants originating from the hemisphere. It also summarises available evidence on the emigration of doctors and nurses from the region.
The Dutch labour migration system has undergone substantive changes in recent years. To induce a transition to more high-skilled migration, a programme based on salary thresholds has grown in volume while a programme based on work permits after a labour market test has shrunk. New programmes target international graduates either of Dutch educational institutions or of selected institutions abroad. Changes to immigration procedures have shifted responsibility to migrants' employers and have greatly reduced processing times. This review first examines the composition of labour migration to the Netherlands, in the context of present and expected demand in the Dutch labour market. Following a discussion of various programmes and procedures, the review assesses how labour migration contributes to the strategic development of sectors and to employment in regions. It then explores the determinants for the retention of high-skilled migrants and for the integration of international graduates into the Dutch labour market.